Jean Victor Moreau, a French general, born at Morlaix, Aug. 11, 1763, died at Laun, Bohemia, Sept. 2, 1813. He studied law at Rennes, and in 1787 was made provost of the school. He supported the parliament of Brittany in its opposition to the crown, but afterward exerted his influence against it, and became the leader of the revolutionary party at Rennes. In 1792, at the head of a battalion of volunteers, he joined the army of the north, was made a brigadier general in 1793, and general of division in 1794. Commanding the right wing of the army under Pichegru, he had an important share in the conquest of Holland. In the campaign of 1796 he was commander-in-chief of the army of the Rhine and Moselle, defeated the Austrians under the archduke Charles at Neresheim, Aug. 11, and penetrated to the centre of Bavaria; but hearing of Jourdan's defeat at Wurzburg, and being aware that the archduke with all the Austrian forces in Germany was falling upon him, he made a masterly retreat in the face of two powerful armies, so that on arriving in Alsace after an orderly march of 26 days, his own force was unimpaired, and he had 18 guns and 2 standards taken from the enemy, and nearly 7,000 prisoners.
In the following year he recrossed the Rhine and took the fortress of Kehl, but was stopped by the news of the preliminaries of Leoben. He was suspected on account of his friendship for Pichegru, find for 18 months remained out of service. The directorial government recalled him in the day of danger. Sent to northern Italy under Seherer, who left him in command of the French troops when everything seemed to be lost, he was defeated bv Suvaroff at Cassano, April 27, 1709, and executed a retreat from the banks of the Adda first to Turin, and then to Genoa, which, though loss famous, is perhaps more admirable than that of 1796. He and Macdonald were superseded by Joubert, under whom Mo-reau consented to serve. Joubert having been killed at Novi, Moreau saved the remnant of the French army. He had in the mean while been appointed commander of the army on the Rhine. Passing through Paris, he became acquainted with Bonaparte, and assisted him on the 18th Brumaire by watching over the two reluctant directors who were kept prisoners in the Luxembourg palace.
While Bonaparte was executing the campaign which ended with the victory of Marengo, Moreau, who had crossed the Rhine, April 25, 1800, had several successful contests with the Aus-trians, drove Gen. Kray across the Danube, won the decisive battle of Hochstadt, advanced as far as Munich, and on July 15 signed the armistice of Parsdorf. Austria showing a disinclination to a definite arrangement, a winter campaign was required. Moreau, with 100,000 men, received orders to cross the Inn and march on Vienna, On Dec. 3 he met the Austrians under the archduke John at Hohen-linden, where he won a brilliant victory. He then rapidly crossed the Inn, the Salza, and the Traun, defeated the archduke Charles at Lam-bach, occupied Linz on the Danube and Steyer on the Enns, and was within two days' march of Vienna when the emperor consented to the terms, proposed by the first consul, and signed the treaty of Luneville, Feb. 9, 1801. After his return to Paris Moreau married; and yielding to the influence of his wife and mother-in-law, who persuaded him that he was not treated as he deserved to he, he gave free expression to his discontent, and was privy to, if not deeply concerned in. the conspiracy of Georges Ca-doudal and Pichegru in 1804. For this he was senteenced by a court martial to two years' imprisonment, which Bonaparte commuted to exile.
Moreau came to the United States, bought an estate at Morrisville, Pa., on the Delaware river, opposite Trenton, N. J., and engaged in agricultural pursuits. At the end of nine years Alexander I. of Russia invited him to return to Europe, and gave him a flattering welcome, He was induced bv the czar to device a plan for the invasion of France.
He became a bosom companion of Alexander was near him at the battle of Dresden, Aug. 27, 1813, aid was advising upon a certain manu-uvre on a hill near Racknitz, when a cannon hall from Napoleon's guard broke both his legs.He was carried on the retreat to Bohemia, and died five days later His re-mains were interred in St. Petersburg A monument was dedicated to him in Paris in 1819 - See Viv politique, militaire et prime du general Moreau, by A. de Beauchamp (8vo Paris, 1814l4). rhe best account of his career is found in Thiers's Histoire de la revolution fran-gaise and Histoire du consulat et de Vempire.