Leghorn (It. Livorno).
II. A City, capital of the province, on the W. coast, in lat. 43° 33' N., Ion. 10° 18' E., 12 m. S. by W. of Pisa and 50 m. W. by S. of Florence; pop. in 1872, 97,096, including about 10,000 Jews, who are the richest class of the inhabitants; also Greeks and Armenians, Turks, Moors, Germans, English, etc. The town is of comparatively modern origin, and possesses few remarkable buildings or objects of art. The cathedral is interesting in consequence of the facade having been designed by Inigo Jones. There are seven other Catholic churches, and places of worship for members of the church of England, Scotch Presbyterians, Greeks, and Armenians. The Jews have a richly ornamented synagogue, and the Mohammedans a private mosque. The modern palazzo Lardarel, built by the count of that name, contains a gallery of pictures and statues. There is another palace, formerly the residence of the grand dukes of Tuscany. In the piazza del Due Principi, a large new square, is a statue of the grand duke Ferdinand III., and near the quay is one dedicated to Ferdinand I. There are two monti di pieta (public pawn offices), a free library, an observatory, and a citadel. The English cemetery contains the tombs of Smollett and Francis Horner. The monastery of Monte Nero is upon a hill near the town.
The three lazarettos of San Rocco, San Jacopo, and San Leo-poldo, the first for those who arrive with a clean bill of health (patente netta), the second for those with a doubtful (patente tocca), and the third for those with a foul bill (pa-tente brutta), are well managed establishments. The town possesses a lyceum, a gymnasium, a nautical and a technical school, a scientific academy with a library of 20,000 volumes, and various other educational, scientific, and charitable institutions. It is the seat of a bishop (since 180G), and of a prefect and other provincial authorities. Many of the private houses are elegant, and the vicinity is covered with villas of the wealthy citizens. The town has been greatly enlarged of late years by throwing down many of the old fortifications and including two large suburbs within the walls. It resembles an English town more than any other in Italy, and its commercial and manufacturing importance is constantly increasing. As a Mediterranean seaport it ranks after Marseilles, Genoa, Trieste, and Smyrna. The accommodation for shipping having become insufficient for large vessels, which were obliged to discharge their cargoes in the roads, the government undertook the enlargement of the port.
The work is now completed, and ships of large tonnage can enter and remain in safety. There is also a fine dry dock capable of accommodating vessels of the largest size. Being a free port, Leghorn is perhaps better supplied with French and English manufactures than any other town on the continent. The general imports for the year ending September, 1872, were valued at $14,-800,000, the exports at $15,400,000; the imports from the United States at $1,180,000, the exports to the United States at $1,592,000. The number of vessels entered during the same year was 6,401 (American 29), tonnage, 1,079,-455; of vessels cleared, 6,232 (American 7), tonnage 1,048,237. The vessels built in Leghorn are mostly for the coasting trade. The chief manufactures are corals, silk, wool, cotton, straw and felt hats, alabaster, porcelain, pottery, leather, and tobacco. There are salt works and many dyeing establishments, and admirably organized distilleries of oil and ro-soglio (a kind of liqueur). There were in 1873 22 foreign consuls resident here, and the great concourse of sailors and strangers of all nations imparts to the town a very interesting and animated appearance. The natural insalubrity of the site has been remedied by effective draining.
Good water is brought to the town by means of a fine aqueduct, which was erected in 1792. In the summer season Leghorn is a favorite resort of the fashionable world of Florence, Rome, Bologna, Siena, and other cities, the influx of visitors frequently amounting to 20,000. - Leghorn is first mentioned as a village in the 11th century, but became important only after the destruction of the port of Pisa, and particularly in the 15th and 16th centuries under the rule of the Medici. The grand duke Cosmo I. made it a free port and granted many privileges to the town, which continued to improve under his successor Ferdinand I. In 1808 Napoleon annexed it to his empire, and it became the capital of the French department of the Mediterranean. It was taken by the Austrians under Gen. Aspre in 1849, and for a long time subsequently was occupied by an Austrian garrison. In March, 1860, it was annexed with the whole of Tuscany to the dominions of Victor Emanuel.
The Port of Leghorn.