Sir Francis, an English author, born in London in July, 1788, died at Hamp-stead, July 6, 1861. He belonged to a Jewish family named Cohen, which name he exchanged for that of Palgrave, the maiden name of his wife's mother. lie studied law, and was managing clerk in a law office till 1822, when he was employed by the commissioners of records. He had edited a collection of Anglo-Norman chansons in 1818, but first became known as the editor of the "Parliamentary Writs," published by the commissioners of public records (4 vols, fol., 1827-'34). He was admitted to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1827. In 1831 he published a pamphlet on " Conciliatory Reform," and a " History of England: the Anglo-Saxon Period," in Murray's " Family Library." About the same time he was elected fellow of the royal society and of the society of antiquaries. In 1832 he was knighted "for his general services and his attention to constitutional and parliamentary literature." His " Rise and Progress of the English Commonwealth" (2 vols. 4to, 1832) is devoted to the Anglo-Saxon polity and manners, and is especially valuable to the student of English jurisprudence.
In 1833 he was appointed by the king one of 20 commissioners to inquire into the existing state of the municipal corporations of England and "Wales; but dissenting from the report of the majority of the commission, he presented his own views in a "Protest" (1835). On the reconstruction of the record office in 1838 he was appointed deputy keeper of her majesty's public records, and continued in this office till his death. His other works are: Rotuli Curim Regis (2 vols., 1835); " Calendars and Inventories of the Treasury of the Exchequer" (3vols., 1836); "Documents illustrating the History of Scotland" (1837); " Truths and Fictions of the Middle Ages: the Merchant and the Friar" (1837); " Essay upon the Authority of the King's Council" (1844); and " History of Normandy and England" (4 vols., 1851-'64). He also wrote the first edition of Murray's "Handbook to North Italy," and was for many years a constant contributor to the " Quarterly Review."
Francis Tamer, an English poet, son of the preceding, born in London, Sept. 28, 1824. He completed his education at Oxford, and was successively vice principal of a normal college, assistant in the educational department of the privy council, and private secretary to Earl Granville. His principal works are: " Idyls and Songs " (London, 1854); " Essays on Art" (1866); "A Life of Sir Walter Scott" (1867); "Hymns" (1867; enlarged ed., 1868); and "Lyrical Poems" (1871).
William Gifford, brother of the preceding, born in Westminster, Jan. 24, 1826. He graduated at Oxford in 1846, and in 1847 was commissioned as second lieutenant in the 8th Bombay native infantry. He left India in 1853, resigned his commission, joined the Roman Catholic church, and became a member of the society of Jesus. After his novitiate he completed his theological studies in the Jesuit seminary at Laval, was ordained priest, and at his own request was sent to the Jesuit mission in Syria, where his intimate knowledge of Arabic gave promise of special usefulness. Wishing to extend the field of missionary enterprise into the unexplored countries of central Arabia, he submitted his project to the general of the society and the propaganda, who gave it their approbation, while the French government, as the protector of the Syrian missions, furnished the necessary funds. He set out from Maan on the western verge of the Sherarat desert June 16, 1862, travelled under the disguise of a physician through the territories subject to the Wa-habees, escaped from their capital, Riyad, with great risk to his life, Nov. 24, and arrived at Katif, in Hasa, Dec. 22. After having suffered shipwreck on the coast of Oman, he returned to Europe through Bagdad and Aleppo. He left the society of Jesus in 1864, and published "Personal Narrative of a Year's Journey through Central and Eastern Arabia" (2 vols., London, 1865), receiving for it the gold medal of the French geographical society.
In July, 1865, Palgrave was sent to the East on a special mission for the release of the English and other prisoners held by the Abyssinian monarch Theodore. He remained in Egypt till June, 1866, when he returned to England, and was appointed consul at Sukhum-Kale July 23, and at Trebizond May 20, 1867. He is at present (1875) consul at St. Thomas, West Indies. In 1872 he published " Essays on Eastern Questions " and " Hermann Agha," and in 1875 " Alkamah's Cave, a Story of Nejd".