REVISED EDITION,

1873.

Editors-In-Chief

George Ripley. CHARLES A. DANA.

Associate Editors

Robert Carter.. M. HEILPRIN.

Alfred It. GUERNSEY. FRANCIS A. TEALL.

STAFF OF REVISERS.

WILLARD BARTLETT.

JULIUS BING.

William T. BRIGHAM, Esq., Boston.

Edward L. BURLINGAME, PH. D.

John D. CHAMPLIN, Jr.

Professor EDWARD II. CLARKE, M. D.,

Harvard University.

Hon. T. M. COOLEY, LL,D,

Michigan University, Ann Arbor. Professor JOHN C. DALTON, M. D. EATON S. DRONE. W. M. FERRISS. B. A. FINKELSTEIN. AMOS K. FISKE. Professor AUSTIN FLINT, M. D. CHARLES S. GAGE. JOHN R. G. HASSARD. JAMES W. HAWES. CHARLES L. HOGEBOOM, M. D.

Professor T. STERRY HUNT, LL. D., Mass. Tech. Inst., Boston.

Professor CHARLES A. JOY, PH. D.,

Columbia College, New York.

Professor SAMUEL KNEELAND, M. D., Mass. Tech. Inst., Boston.

James F. LYMAN.

Rev. FRANKLIN NOBLE.

Rev. BERNARD O'REILLY. D. D.

Richard A. PROCTOR, A. M.,

London, Eng.

Professor ROBERT II. RICHARDS,

Mass. Tech. Inst., Boston.

Professor ALEXANDER J. SCHEM. JOHN G. SHEA, LL.D.

Professor J. A. SPENCER, D. D.,

College of the City of New York.

P. II. VANDER WEYDE, M. D. Professor G. A. F. VAN RHYN, PH. D. I. DE VEITELLE.

Wood Engraver

JOHN FILMER.

Secretary And Librarian

JOHN MILNER,

Corps Of Contributors

Henry Carey Baird, Philadelphia.

Hon. Henry Barnard, LL. D., Hartford, Conn.

WlLLARD BaRTLETT.

Prof. C. W. Bennett, D. D., Syracuse University.

Julius Bing.

Delavan Bloodgood, M. D., U. S. N.

Francis C. Bowman.

T. S. Bradford, U. S. Coast Survey.

Rev. Charles II. Brigham, Ann Arbor, Mich.

William T. Brigiiam, Esq., Boston.

Edward L. Burlingame, Ph. D.

J. C. Carpenter, Baltimore.

Robert Carter.

John R. Chamberlin, Cincinnati.

John D. Champlin, Jr.

Prof. E. II. Clarke, M. D., Harvard University.

Elias Colbert, Chicago.

Hon. T. M. Cooley, LL. D., Ann Arbor, Mich.

Edward Cooper.

Prof. S. S. Cutting, D. D.

S. II. Daddow, St. Clair, Pa.

Prof. J. C. DALTON, M. D.

Eaton S. Drone.

Col. II. A. Du Pont, U. S. A.

Isaac W. England.

W. M. Ferriss.

B. A. Finkelsteln.

Prof. Austin Flint, M. D.

Alfred II. Guernsey.

James W. Hawes.

Hon. George S. Hillard, Boston.

Charles L. Hogeboom, M. D.

Prof T. Sterry Hunt, LL. D., Mass. Tech. Inst., Boston.

George Hussmann, Bluftron, Mo.

B. F. ISHERWOOD, late Chief Engineer U. S. Navy.

Prof. C. A. Joy, Ph. D., Columbia College.

Prof. S. Kneeland, M. D., Mass. Tech. Inst., Boston.

J. N. Larned, Buffalo, N. Y.

Charles Lindsey, Toronto.

E. T. Magauram.

Prof. F. A. March, D. D., Lafayette College.

Easton, Pa. W. Matthews. John Mitchel. Lady Blanche Murphy. Rev. Franklin Noble. A. T. Norton.

Rev. Bernard O'Reilly, D. D. Prof. J. Orton, Vassar College. J. C. Peters, M. D. Count L. F. de Pourtales, U. S. Coast

Survey. V. Precht.

R. A. Proctor, A. M., London. Prof. R. H. Richards, Mass. Tech. Inst., Boston. Bernard Roelker, Ph. D. Prof. T. T. Sabine, M. D. Prof. A. J. Schem.

G. F. Seward, U. S. Consul General in China. John G. Shea, LL. D. G. W. Soren, Esq. Prof. J. A. Spencer, D.D., College of the City of New York. Hon. E. G. Squier. Emerich Szabad G. M. Towle, Boston. P. II. Vander Weyde, M. D. Prof. A. Van Name, Yale College. Prof. G. A. F. Van Rhyn, Ph. D. I. de Veitelle. W. S. Ward. Charles S. Weyman.

Prof. W. D. Whitney, LL. D., Yale College. Gen. James Grant Wilson. Gen. James Harrison Wilson. Prof. Elizur Wright, Boston. A. Wylie, D. D., Shanghai, China. Prof. E. L. Youmans.

Among The Contributors Of New Articles To The First Volume Of The Revised Edition Are The Following

Willard Bartlett.

Abyssinia.

Africa.

Alaska.

Prof. C. W. Bennett, D. D., Syracuse University.

Ames, Edward R., D. D. Andrew, James Osgood, D. D. Asbury, Francis.

Julius Bing.

Alexander II. of Russia, and other articles in history and geography.

Delavan Bloodgood, M. D., U. S. N.

Admiral.

Francis C. Bowman.

Amati Family, and other musical articles.

Rev. Charles H. Beigham, Ann Arbor, Mich.

Adrian, Mich. Ann Arbor, Mich.

W. T. Beigham, Esq., Boston.

Apple, and other botanical articles.

Edward L. Buriingame, Ph.D.

Anglo-Saxons, and articles in modern history and geography. Antony, Mark, and articles in Greek and Roman history.

Prof. E. H. Clarke, M. D., Harvard University.

Aconite,

Antiseptics,

Antispasmodics, and other articles of materia medica.

Hon. T. M. Cooley, LL. D., Ann Arbor, Mich. Anglo-Saxon Jurisprudence.

S. H. Daddow, St. Clair, Pa. Anthracite.

Prof. J. C. Dalton, M. D.

Acclimation,

Aliment and Alimentary Canal,

Animal Heat, and other medical and physiological articles.

Eaton S. Drone.

Alabama, Andersonville, Arizona, Arkansas, and other articles in American geography.

Col. H. A. Du Pont, U. S. A.

Artillery.

B. A. Finkelstein.

Arabia.

Alfred II. Guernsey.

America.

J. W. Hawes.

Alexandria, La. and Va. Allegheny. Pa. Amherst. Mass.

and other articles in American geography.

Hon. Geo. S. Hillard, Boston.

Adams, Charles Francis.

Adams, Henry.

Adams, John Quincy, Jr.

George Hussmann, Bluffton, Mo.

American Wines.

Prof. C. A. Joy, Ph.D., Columbia College. New York.

Alizarine, Alum, Alumina, Aluminum, and other chemical articles.

Prof. S. Kneeland, M. D., Mass. Tech. Inst., Boston.

Archaeology, and articles in natural history.

Charles Lindsey, Toronto.