A dairy ought to be so situated, that the windows, or lattices, may never front the south, south-east, or south-west; and it should at all times be kept in the neatest order. Lattices are also far preferable to glazed lights, as they admit a free circulation of the air. It has, however, been objected, that the former afford access to the cold air of winter, and to the sun in summer ; but either may be easily remedied, by making the frame somewhat larger than the lattice, and constructing it so as to slide backward and forward at pleasure. Across this frame, packthread may be stretched, and oiled paper pasted on it, which will thus admit the light, and effectually keep out the sun and wind.
During the summer, dairy-houses cannot be kept too cool: they ought therefore to be erected, if possible, near a cold spring, or running water ; and, where it is practicable to conduct a small stream through the premises, it will much contribute to the convenience and utility of the place. - Dr. Ander-son observes, in his practical essay on the management of the dairy (published in the 3d and 4th vols, of his ingenions "Recreations in Agriculture" etc.) that, if the water can be introduced by means of a pipe, so as to fall from some height on the floor, it will be productive of many advantages, particularly by preserving a continual freshness, and purity of the air. Dairy-houses should therefore be neatly paved, either with redbrick, or smooth hard stone, and laid with a proper descent, so that no water may stagnate. This pavement should be well washed, every day during the summer; and all the Utensils, here employed, be kept with unremitting attention to cleanliness. Nor should the churns be at anytime scalded in the dairy; as the steam arising from hot water, tends greatly to injure the milk. For similar reasons, neither the cheese and rennet, nor the cheese-press, must be suffered to taint the atmosphere ; as the whey and curd will diffuse their acidity over the whole building.
All the utensils of the dairy should be made of wood, in preference either to lead, copper, or cast-iron ; for these metals are easily soluble in acids; the solutions of the two first are in a high degree poisonous ; and, though the Latter is in itself harmless, the taste of it renders the productions of the dairy very disagreeable. The cream-dishes, when perfectly clean and cool, ought to be filled with the milk, as soon as it is drawn from the cow, and has been carefully strained through a cloth, or cloth-sieve made of hair or silver-wire ; the latter of which, as Dr. Anderson justly remarks, is more wholesome than those of other metals. These dishes should never exceed three inches in depth, but may be so wide as to contain a gallon, or a gallon and a half of milk: - when filled, they ought to be placed on shelves, to remain there till the cream be completely separated. Now it is to be taken off with nicety, by a skimming-dish •(without lifting or removing the milk, or shedding any of it on the floor, winch would soon corrupt the air of the room), and then deposited in a separate vessel, till a proper quantity be collected for churning. A firm, neat wooden barrel, which is open at one end.
and has a lid closely fitted to it, ape pears to be well calculated for this purpose; a cock or spigot, ought also to be fixed near the bottom, to draw off the thin, or serous part, that may drain from the cream; and the inner side of the opening should be covered with a piece of fine silver wire-gauze, in order to prevent the latter from escaping, while the former is allowed to pass. But, if notwithstanding the fatal consequences arising from the use of metallic utensils, or of earthen vessels glazed with lead, farmers. still persist in employing them, it ought to be a constant and indispensable rule, to scald and scour them properly with salt and water, every day, and to dry them thoroughly, before the milk is deposited in them. Lastly, it is sincerely to be wished, that all the utensils employed in the dairy, of whatever materials they may consist, should be cleaned with similar care, previously to their being used; and, as long as the least acid smell is perceptible, they ought to undergo repeated scour-ings, till they are completely. sweetened. - See Milk-House.