Nantes (Nongt), eighth largest city of France, capital of Loire-Inferieure, lies on the right bank of the tidal Loire, 35 miles from the sea, and 248 by rail SW. of Paris. The old town having been demolished between 1865 and 1870, Nantes is one of the handsomest cities in all France, with its noble river, quays, bridges, shady boulevards, squares, and statues. The unfinished cathedral (1434-1852) contains Colomb's splendid monument (1507) to the last Duke and Duchess of Brittany, and another (1879) to General Lamori-ciere. The ducal castle, founded in 938, and rebuilt in 1466, was the occasional residence of Charles VIII. and most of his successors, and the place where, on 15th April 1598, Henry IV. signed the famous Edict of Nantes. Other noteworthy buildings are the splendid church of St Nicholas (1854), the palais-de-justice (1853), the theatre (1787), and the post-office (1884), besides a museum, a picture-gallery, and a library of 50,000 volumes. Between 1831 and 1887 180,000 was expended on harbour-works, but the rise since 1845 of the port of St Nazaire, near the mouth of the Loire, and the increasing difficulty in the navigation of the river, have reduced the commercial importance of Nantes ; to restore which is the object of the ship-canal (1891) between the two places. The chief exports are hardware, cereals, and preserved provisions, the chief imports sugar, iron, cocoa, and wines. Industries are shipbuilding (decayed), sardine-preparing, and the manufacture of sugar, leather, iron, nets, soap, machinery, etc. ; whilst 10 miles below Nantes is the vast government steam-engine factory of Indret, employing from 2000 to 3000 hands, and familiar to readers of Daudet's Jack. Pop. of Nantes (1872) 112,947; (1886) 120,106; (1901) 123,242. The Portus Namnetum of the Romans, and the former capital of Brittany, Nantes witnessed the ' noyades' of the execrable Carrier and the fall of the Vendean leader Cathelineau. (1793). Fouche and Jules Verne were natives.