Most frequently occurring in hotels are burns, scalds and cuts. Handles come off boilers of hot water or hot fat; frying vessels full of boiling lard tip over, steam rushes out from under a lid, or out of faucets instead of the water which has boiled away; red hot iron range lids and griddles are taken hold off by mistake, vats and tubs of boiling water are stumbled into or overturned. Wounds are received in cutting and chopping meat and in the breakage of crockery and glass. In the treatment of burns or scalds, the first object is to protect the injured part from the air. Pieces of lint or cotton, dipped in carron oil, will serve for this purpose. Carron oil (so called from being much used for burns at the Carron Iron Works, Scotland,) is a mixture of equal parts of linseed oil and lime water. When carron oil is not at hand, the burned or scalded part may be covered thickly with flour, olive oil, or vaseline. If some of the clothing sticks to the body, do not try to tear it away; leave it alone and cut around the spot. In severe burns or scalds, the services of a surgeon should be secured as soon as possible. When the injury is slight, baking soda, applied either dry or wet, gives instant relief.

For scalds from steam or water or for slight burns, dip the part in cold water and apply fine salt as much as will adhere. This will usually prevent a blister.


In case of a ruptured artery, the flow of blod may be checked by tying a twisted handkerchief, a cord, or strap, between the wound and the body. If the hand is cut, raise the arm above the head and bind it tightly. In wounds of the throat, armpit, or groin, caused by cuts, and in case of any deep wound, thrust the thumb and finger into the bottom of the wound and pinch up the part from which the blood comes, directing the pressure against the flow. If the cut is slight, let the blood flow for half a minute, then dip in cold water or apply ice. Draw the cut edges closely together with adhesive plaster, or by stitches and a bandage, and keep the part quiet. Slight cuts will usually heal quickly. In severe cuts, check the flow of blood and secure the attendance of a physician as soon as possible. In cases of asphyxiation by foul air, charcoal fumes, blowing out the gas, drowning, etc., artifical respiration should be induced. Loosen the clothing, or, better, remove it; rub the body with warm cloths; grasp the tongue with a towel and draw it forward; hold it there for a moment, then turn the patient on his face, with his forehead resting on one of his arms, and apply hartshorn or snuff to the nostrils; then turn the patient on his back, and dash first warm, then cold water in the face.

If this fails, grasp the arms at the elbow and draw them slowly upwards above the head, keeping them there for two seconds; then turn down the arms and press them firmly against the ribs for two seconds, repeating these movements, carefully and perseveringly, about fifteen times in a minute, until respiration becomes natural; after this, apply cloths wet with hot water to the limbs and body, and cover with blankets. As soon as practicable give hot drinks. (F'orpoisoning see antidotes).