Berberine, C20H17NO4. - This colored alkaloid is obtained by the preceding process for separating hydrastine; occurs in bitter yellow needles, crystalline powder, soluble in hot water or alcohol; the hot alcoholic solution with iodine gives dark green lustrous scales; forms several yellow salts, carbonate, hydrochloride, phosphate, sulphate, etc., which dissolve in water with difficulty; found also in berberis, calumba, coptis, menispermum, xanthorrhiza, etc. Dose, gr. 1/2-1 (.03-.06 Gm.).

Canadine, C20H21NO4. - This forms white needles; in alcoholic solution, with iodine get yellow crystals; it is called sometimes tetrahydro-berberine, and differs from hydrastine in being more soluble in acetic ether and alcohol; only the hydrochloride and sulphate are easily soluble in alcohol or hot water; the name xanthopuccine once assigned to it, but as such it was very likely impure berberine.

Preparations. - 1. Extractum Hydrastis. Extract of Hydrastis. (Syn., Ext. Hydrast., Extract of Golden Seal, Powdered Extract of Hydrastis; Fr. Extrait de Hydrastis; Ger. Hydrastisextrakt.)

Manufacture: Moisten 100 Gm. with alcohol 100 Ml. (Cc.) + tartaric acid .5 Gm., + alcohol to cover; macerate, percolate until exhausted, reclaim alcohol, evaporate residue at 70° C. (158° F.) to soft extract, frequently stirring, add 5 Gm. of a mixture (magnesium oxide 1 + dried starch 3), mix thoroughly, spread thinly on glass or tinned-metal plates, or in porcelain dish, dry in air-bath at 70° C.

(158° F.), pulverize; after assay add enough mixture (magnesium oxide + dried starch) for extract to contain 10 p. c. of ether-soluble alkaloids, mix thoroughly, pass through fine sieve; contains 9-11 - 10 p. c. of ether-soluble alkaloids; 1 Gm. represents about 4 Gm. of the drug. Should be kept in small, wide-mouthed, tightly-stoppered bottles. Dose, gr. 1-10 (.06-6 Gm.).

2. Fluidextractum Hydrastis. Fluidextract of Hydrastis. (Syn., Fldext. Hydrast., Fluid Extract of Hydrastis, Fluidextract of Golden Seal; Br. Extractum Hydrastis Liquidum; Fr. Extrait fluide d'Hydras-tis; Ger. Hydrastisfluidextrakt.)

Manufacture: Similar to Fluidextractum Ergotae, page 60: 1st menstruum: alcohol 60 Ml. (Cc.), water 20, glycerin 10; 2nd menstruum: 67 p. c. alcohol; reserve first 75 Ml. (Cc.), in which dissolve soft extract, assay and add enough 2nd menstruum for the 100 Ml. (Cc.) to contain 1.8-2.2 - 2 Gm. of ether-soluble alkaloids. Dose, v-30 (.3-2 Ml. (Cc.)).

3. Glyceritum Hydrastis. Glycerite of Hydrastis. (Syn., Glycer. Hydrast., Glycerite of Golden Seal; Fr. Glycere d'Hydrastis du Canada; Ger. Gilbwurzelglycerit.)

Manufacture: 100 p. c. Macerate, percolate 100 Gm. with alcohol until exhausted, remove nearly all the alcohol by distillation or evaporation, pour thick concentrated liquid into ice-cold water 45 Ml. (Cc.), set aside for 24 hours, filter out resin, pass through filter cold water q. s. 50 Ml. (Cc.); after assay add enough glycerin (50 Ml. (Cc.)) for product to contain 1.12-1.37 - 1.25 Gm. of ether-soluble alkaloids, mix thoroughly. This is used in injections, sprays, etc., instead of the colorless proprietary preparations on the market. Dose, v-30 (.3-2 Ml. (Cc.)).

4. Tinctura Hydrastis. Tincture of Hydrastis. (Syn., Tr. Hydrast., Tincture of Golden Seal; Fr. Teinture d'Hydrastis Canadensis; Ger. Hydrastistinktur.)

Manufacture: 20 p. c. Similar to Tinctura Veratri Viridis, page 101; menstruum: 67 p. c. alcohol - percolate 95 Ml. (Cc.), assay, and add enough menstruum for the 100 Ml. (Cc.) to contain .36-44 - .4 Gm. of ether-soluble alkaloids. Dose, 3ss-l (2-4 Ml. (Cc.)).

Unoff. Preps.: Decoction, 5 p. c, dose, ℥j-2 (30-60 Ml. (Cc.)). Liquor Hydrastinae Compositus, hydrastine hydrochloride .3 p. c, + . Hydrastin of "Eclectics" is a resinoid, prepared by exhausting the drug with alcohol, evaporating, and precipitating with acidulated (HC1) water; it is chiefly berberine muriate, which often occasions for it the substitution of the pure hydrochloride of that alkaloid, dose, gr. 2-6 (.13-.4 Gm.).

Properties. - Upon digestion, circulation, respiration, and nervous system analogous to, but much milder than, strychnine. Bitter tonic, increases appetite, digestion, gastric secretions (berberine), and the flow of bile; antiperiodic, protoplasmic poison, interfering with the white blood-corpuscle movement, alterative to the mucous membranes, deob-struent to the glandular system, antiseptic, cholagogue, diuretic. Hydrastine acts on the nervous system like quinine, but it is non-toxic, as large doses only produce warmth in the stomach and ringing in the ears.

Uses. - Chronic dyspepsia and cystitis, catarrhs of the stomach, duodenum, gall-ducts, bladder, uterus and vagina, constipation, bronchitis, malaria, intermittent fever, jaundice. Locally in gonorrhoea, leucorrhoea, otorrhoea, gleet, chronic nasal catarrh and pharyngitis, syphilitic sores in the mouth, nares, and throat, unhealthy intractable ulcers and sores, cancers, fistulas, hemorrhoids, fissured nipples, conjunctivitis, tonsillitis, hemorrhage. Hydrastine for chronic malaria is much weaker, but next in value to quinine; hydrastinine (hypodermic-ally) for menorrhagia and metrorrhagia. The yellowish liquids are objectionable owing to their staining qualities, for which, however,

Fig. 117.   Helleborus viridis: 1, receptacle, tricarpelled ovary, and stamens; 2, a stamen;

Fig. 117. - Helleborus viridis: 1, receptacle, tricarpelled ovary, and stamens; 2, a stamen;

3, the three resulting ripened fruits; 4. a seed.

the Indians valued them in dyeing fabrics yellow; with indigo they impart a fine green to wool, silk, and cotton.

Poisoning: Same as for nux vomica and strychnine.

Incompatibles: Alkalies, mineral acids, tannic and other vegetable acids, hydrated chloral, potassium bromide, motor depressants.

Synergists: Quinine and the vegetable tonics upon the stomach, ergot upon the uterus, and strychnine upon the spinal cord.

Allied Plants: