1. Adeps. Lard.

2. Pancreatinum. Pancreatin.

3. Pepsinum. Pepsin.

Sus scrofa var. domesticus. Gray.

1. The purified internal fat of the abdomen of the hog. 2. A mixture of enzymes (principally amylopsin, trypsin, steapsin - unorganized ferments found in the pancreas of warm-blooded animals) obtained from fresh pancreas of the hog, or ox. 3. A mixture containing a proteolytic enzyme (ferment) obtained from glandular layer of the fresh stomach of the hog.

Habitat. Domesticated from the wild boar and closely related forms; universal.

Syn. 1. Br. Adeps Prseparatus, Axungia, Axungia Porci (Porcina), Prepared (Hog's) Lard; Fr. Axonge, Graisse de Porc, Saindoux; Ger. Adeps suillus, Schweine-schmalz. 2. Pancreat.; Fr. Pancreatine (medicinale); Ger. Pancreatin. 3. Fr. Pepsine; Ger. Pepsin.

Sus. L. fr. Gr. vs, a hog, pig - i. e., the Linnean name of the genus.

Scrof a. L. a breeding sow - i. e., its classic name.

Do-mes'ti-cus. - L. domesticated, belonging to the household, fr. domus, house.

Animal. - About .6-1.3 M. (2-4°) long, .3-1 M. (1-3°) high, weighing from 15-800 pounds (7-365 Kg.), sometimes with side tusks (long canines); color iron-gray, white, or black, with long, drooping ears and more or less elongated snout. It is very important to man for its meat, fat, and entrails.

I. Lard: This fat is from the mesentery, omentum, and kidneys of winter-killed hogs; it is deprived of blood, external membranes, cut into small pieces, and heated on water-bath until melted, then strained through flannel. . To make inodorous, may add to each pound (.5 Kg.) of melted lard, alum 15 gr. (1 Gm.) and sodium chloride 30 gr. (2 Gm.), boil until scum rises, remove this, strain, cool, work on slab with a stream of water to remove salts, remelt, and heat until all water is dissipated, It is a soft, white, unctious solid, faint odor; non-rancid, bland taste; soluble in ether, chloroform, carbon disulphide, petroleum benzin, slightly in alcohol, insoluble in water; melts at 40° C. (104° F.) to clear liquid, from which no aqueous layer separates. Tests: 1. Boil with distilled water - latter not alkaline (abs. of alkalies). 2. Boil 1 Gm. with alcohol (20), cool, filter, + few drops of saturated alcoholic solution of silver nitrate - slight turbidity (abs. of chlorides). Impurities: Alkalies (Na2CO3), chlorides (NaCl), free fatty acids, cottonseed oil (fats), tallow, etc. Should be kept cool in well-closed containers impervious to fat.

Constituents. - Olein (Oleum Adipis, U. S. P. 1900) 50-60 p. c, palmitin, stearin.

Preparations. - 1. Adeps Benzoinatus. Benzoinated Lard: lard 100 Gm., Siam benzoin 1 Gm. See page 459.

Preps.: 1. Ceratum. Cerate. (Syn., Cerat., Simple Cerate, Ceratum Simplex (Adipis); Fr. Cerat simple; Ger. Unguentum cereum, Wachssalbe, Einfaches-cerat.) Manufacture: Melt on water-bath white wax 30 Gm., add benzoinated lard 70 Gm., heat until liquefied, strain, stir constantly until congealed. When for hot-weather use, may replace 5-10 p. c. of benzoinated lard by white wax. 2. Unguentum. Ointment. (Syn., Ung., Simple Ointment, Unguentum Simplex (Adipis); Fr. Pommade simple; Ger. Unguentum cereum, Wachssalbe.) Manufacture: Melt white wax 20 Gm., add benzoinated lard 80 Gm., heat gently until liquefied, stir until congealed. When for hot-weather use, may replace 5-10 p. c. of benzoinated lard by white wax.

Preps.: 1. Unguentum Acidi Tannici, 60 p. c. 2. Unguentum Gallae, 80 p. c. 3. Unguentum Phenolis, 97.75 p. c. 3. Ceratum Cantharidis, 20 p. c. 4. Unguentum Belladonnae, 55 p. c. 5. Unguentum Chrysarobini, 94 p. c. 6. Unguentum Hydrargyri, 25 p. c. 7. Unguentum Iodi, 80 p. c. 8. Unguentum Iodoformi, 90 p. c. 9. Unguentum Stramonii, 65 p. c. 10. Unguentum Sulphuris, 85 p. c. 11. Unguentum Zinci Oxidi, 80 p. c. Unoff. Preps.: Ceratum Camphorae, 40 p. c. Unguentum Plumbi Iodidi, 90 p. c. Unguentum Potassii Iodidi, 80 p. c. Unguentum Sulphuris Alkalinum, 65 p. c. Unguentum Veratrinae, 90 p. c. 2. Ceratum Resinae, 50 p. c. 3. Unguentum Hydrargyri Nitratis, 76 p. c. 4. Unguentum Picis Liquidoe, 35 p. c.

Unoff. Preps.: Unguentum Camphorae, 67 p. c. Unguentum Picis Compositum, 32 p. c. Unguentum Sulphuris Compositum, 30 p. c.

Properties and Uses. - Lard is emollient. Employed mostly externally as a basis for ointments, cerates, and to preserve softness of poultices. The benzo(in)ated lard does not become rancid quickly by exposure, consequently this property and its odor particularly commend it.

II. Pancreatin (Zymine): This may be extracted similarly to pepsin by macerating the finely minced fresh pancreas (sweet-breads) in acidulated (HCl) water, and separating with sodium chloride, or may be mixed with cold water, kneaded for an hour, filtered through flannel, and equal volume of alcohol added; the precipitate is drained, dried on trays at 40° C. (104° F.), then powdered. If instead of the water we use water saturated with chloroform, decomposition will be retarded greatly; may also rub up the product with sugar of milk without heat, which will keep it dry and prevent decomposition. It is a cream-colored, amorphous powder, faint, characteristic, but not offensive odor, slowly and incompletely soluble in water, insoluble in alcohol; acts best in neutral or faintly alkaline media; more than traces of mineral acids or large amounts of alkali hydroxides render it inert, while excess of alkali carbonates and pepsin solutions are inhibitory. It consists principally of amylopsin, myopsin, trypsin, steapsin, rennin, and is capable of converting at least 25 times its weight of starch into soluble carbohydrates - dextrins and sugars that are soluble in water; the myopsin and trypsin - changes proteins (albuminoids) into proteoses (peptones), the amylopsin - starch into dextrins and sugars, the steapsin - emulsifies fat, and the rennin (renfer) - coagulates milk. Test: 1. 5 gr. (.3 Gm.) should emulsify cod liver oil (4 Ml. (Cc.)). Impurities: Fat, etc. When of a higher digestive power it may be reduced to the standard with sugar of milk. It should be kept in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.).

Properties and Uses. - It was used first in medicine for its emulsifying properties, hence of service as a ferment in dyspepsia and in the pre-digestion of food. Useful to assist the digestion of infants, invalids, old persons, and those prostrated by fever or exhaustion. Thus to peptonize or pre-digest, take pancreatin gr. 5 (.3 Gm.), sodium bicarbonate gr. 20 (1.3 Gm.), warm water ℥j (30 Ml. (Cc.)); when dissolved put into warm milk Oj (.5 L.), and keep temperature at 43° C. (110° F.) for an hour.

III. Pepsin: This may be made by several processes (yielding two kinds - precipitated and scale or soluble), each producing pepsin of different digestive strength. The original method consisted in chopping up finely the inside mucous membrane of the pig's stomach and macerating it in acidulated (HC1) water for several days, the liquid portion is strained off, and to it sodium chloride is added; this precipitates the pepsin, which, rising to the surface, is skimmed off, pressed, and dried. A more modern method employs sodium sulphate (instead of sodium chloride), which, together with peptone, is removed by dialysis, then residual solution concentrated and dried on glass plates. It is in lustrous, white, pale yellow, yellowish, transparent, translucent scales, grains, spongy masses, or a fine, white, cream-colored, amorphous powder, free from offensive odor, slightly acid or saline taste, slightly hygroscopic; soluble in water (50), solution acid and opalescent, nearly insoluble in alcohol, chloroform, ether; solutions incompatible with alkalies, alkali earths, alkali carbonates, and the presence of hydrochloric acid beyond .5 p. c. inhibits its proteolytic activity, as do alcohol, and heat (70° C; 158° F.); precipitated from solutions by tannic or gallic acid, and by salts of many heavy metals, incompatible with pancreatin, this in neutral or alkaline solution destroying pepsin, while in acid media being destroyed by the pepsin. It digests at least 3,000 times its own weight of freshly coagulated and disintegrated egg albumen - converts nitrogenous food (proteids - albumen, casein, fibrin, muscle) into albumoses and finally into soluble peptones; acts only in acid media, but when acid solutions are heated to 100° C. (212° F.) they lose all proteolytic power, becoming milky or with light flocculent precipitate; if in dry state not injured by above heat. When of a higher digestive power it may be reduced to the standard with pepsin of a lower digestive strength or sugar of milk. Should be kept in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.).

Preparations. - (Unoff.): Pulvis Pancreatini Compositus, 20 p. c, + sodium bicarbonate 80. Liquor Prancreatini, 1.75 p. c, + sodium bicarbonate 5, glycerin 25, comp. spirit of cardamom .35, alcohol 6.5, magnesium carbonate .8, sodium chloride .5, chloroform .2, dist. water q. s. 100. Pepsinum Saccharatum, official 1880-1900, 10 p. c, + sugar of milk 90, dose, gr. 5-60 (.3-4 Gm.). Elixir Pepsini, 1.75 p. c. (glycerite 20, glycerin 10, hydrochloric acid .4, aromatic elixir q. s. 100. Elixir Pepsini, Bismuthi et Strychninoe, strychnine .0175 p. c, + tartaric acid .0175, elixir of pepsin and bismuth q. s. 100. Elixir Pepsini et Bismuthi .85 p. c, + glycerite of bismuth 12.5, glycerin 12.5, + Elixir Pepsini et Ferri - tinct. ferric citro-chloride 75 p. c, elixir of pepsin q. s. 100. Elixir Pepsini et Rennini Compositum,

2.25 p. c, + rennin 1.65, lactic acid .2, +. Liquor Pepsini - glycerite of pepsin 5, hydrochloric acid 1, glycerin 31.5, dist. water q. s. 100. Liquor Pepsini Aromaticus, 1.75 p. c, + hydrochloric acid 1, + . Liquor Pepsini Antieepticiu, 5 p. c, + dil. hydrochloric acid 2, +. Vinum Pepsini - glycerite of pepsin 20 p. c, alcohol 10, sherry wine 70* Dose, each 3j-4 (4-15 Ml. (Cc.)). Glyceritum, 8.5 p. c, + hydrochloric acid 1, glycerin 50, +.

Properties and Uses. - As a ferment to assist gastric digestion in persons having deficient secretion of gastric juice, in old persons during convalescence from lung illness, cancer of stomach, diarrhoea, diabetes; does not aid digestion of fats or carbohydrates. Should be given after meals, and followed half-hour afterward by dose of hydrochloric acid.

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