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Elementary Principles Carpentry | by Thomas Tredgold



The theory of carpentry is founded on two distinct branches of mechanical science: one informs us how strains are transmitted through a system of framing, and is determined by that part which treats of the equality and distribution of forces; the other, how to proportion the parts, so that they may be sufficiently strong to resist the strains to which they are exposed, or that which treats of the strength or resistance of materials. Each of these will be considered in the most simple manner the subject will admit of, with the addition of rules and practical remarks.

TitleElementary Principles Carpentry
AuthorThomas Tredgold
PublisherE. & F. N. Spon
Year1875
Copyright1875, E. & F. N. Spon
AmazonElementary Principles Of Carpentry

Revised From The Original Edition And Partly Re-Written By John Thomas Hurst

Second Edition.

Elementary Principles Carpentry
-Preface
A considerable time having elapsed since the publication of the 2nd Edition of this work, which was the last that had been revised by the Author, his death occurring soon after, a new Edition that wou...
-Introduction
ART. 1. Carpentry is the art of combining pieces of timber to support weight or to resist pressure. The theory of carpentry is founded on two distinct branches of mechanical science: one informs us h...
-Section I. Of The Equality And Distribution Of Forces, Or Transmission Of Pressure Through Beams
4. It is through a knowledge of the composition and resolution of forces alone that the carpenter can expect to arrive at excellence in the art of designing frames of timber, as without this knowledge...
-Of The Composition And Resolution Of Forces
7. The resolution of forces consists in finding two or more forces which shall have the same effect as a single force. For the weight W (Fig. 1) might be sustained by a vertical force in the direction...
-Effect Of Position
15. If the position of the beam C B (Fig. 1) were changed to that shown by the dotted lines C E, the strain would be greatly increased on both beams. By drawing lines parallel to the beams in this pos...
-How To Measure The Strains In A Framed Truss
16. If, instead of placing the weight on the point where the beams meet, the beams were framed into a piece 'of timber, C E (Fig. 3), and the weight W suspended at E, the pressures would still be tran...
-Of Framed Levers
18. Let Fig. 4 be inverted, and supported at C, as represented in Fig. 6, and a weight hung at each end, so as to balance one another; then the proportion of the strains would remain precisely the sam...
-Effect Of Position Further Considered
19. To take another example: let Fig. 7 represent a frame fixed against a wall, and let the weight be suspended from the point C, where the beams C A and C B join. In this assemblage the beam A C will...
-How To Distinguish Ties From Struts
22. It is necessary, in estimating the strength of framing, that we should be able to distinguish the struts from the ties; that is, to ascertain what beams are compressed, and what are stretched. By ...
-How To Find The Resultant Of A System Of Forces
24. As the strain upon a piece of framing is often produced by two or more forces, acting in different directions, of which the crane is an instance, the means of finding a force and its direction tha...
-Of The Centre Of Gravity
30. In a beam there is a single point, by which it may be supported, and if so supported, it may be placed in any position, and remain at rest. Whereas, were it supported by any other point, it would ...
-Of The Pressure Of Inclined Beams
35. Let A B (Fig. 22) be a beam resting against the vertical wall B D, and C its centre of gravity; the lower end resting on an abutment cut in the beam A D. Through the centre of gravity C, draw the ...
-Of The Strain Upon Beams Laid Horizontally
44. As the principle of the composition and resolution of forces enables the carpenter to determine the direction of the strains on a beam or combination of beams according to position, the applicatio...
-Of The Equilibrium Op An Assemblage Of Beams
54. When an opening is too wide to be spanned with one or two pieces of timber, it may sometimes be effected by a combination of pieces which bear some resemblance to an arch in masonry; the principle...
-Of The Points Of Fracture In A System Of Framing
55. The balance of the parts in a system of framing is not so complicated a question as it is generally imagined to be; at least it is not so while our inquiries are confined to practical cases. A sys...
-How To Determine The Curve Of Equilibrium
63. Let AC represent a portion of a curve of equilibrium (Fig. 36), 0 being the vertex of the curve, and GE a vertical line passing through the centre of gravity of the load resting upon the part betw...
-General Observations On Designing, Framing, Etc
74. The principal questions relative to the action of forces on single beams, and on systems of framing, have now been considered; and it only remains to make a few remarks on the best method of apply...
-Section II. Of The Resistance Of Timber
75. To know the resistance which a piece of timber offers to any force tending to change its form, is one of the most important species of knowledge that a carpenter has to acquire: and to be able to ...
-Laws of Resistance. Definitions, And General Principles
76. The laws of the resistance of materials depend on the manner in which the pieces are strained, and may be divided into three kinds. First, When the force tends to pull the piece asunder in direct...
-On The Resistance To Tension
OF the Stiffness of Bodies when strained in the Direction of their Length. 79. When wood is strained in the direction of its length and within the so-called elastic limit of the material, the elongat...
-Table I. - Of The Modulus Of Elasticity From Various Sources
Value of E in lbs. per square inch. Box.................................................... 1,856,000 Chestnut, dry...................................... 1,147,50...
-Of the Strength of a Beam to resist a Strain in the Direction of the Length
81. The weight that will produce fracture is in proportion to the area of the section, multiplied by the weight that would fracture a unit of that area. The following Tables contain the results of th...
-Table IV. - Cohesive Force Of Different Wooes. (13. Bevan,' Phil. Mag.' 182(3.)
Description of Wood. Spec, grav. Cohesion of a sq. inch. lbs. Acacia............... .85 16,000 + Apple................. .71 19,50...
-83. Table V. - Cohesion Of A Square Inch Pulled Asunder In A Direction Perpendicular To The Length Of The Fibre
Kinds of Wood. Cohesion of a square inch perpendicular to Fibres, in lbs. Experimentalist Oak ...... 2316 Tredgold. Poplar.................. 1782 ...
-On The Resistance To Cross Strains. Of The Stiffness Of Beams To Resist Cross Strains
85. When a weight is laid upon the middle of a piece of timber that is supported only at the ends, it always causes some amount of deflection. When the piece bends in a very small degree, it is said t...
-Of the Stiffness of Beams supported at both Ends
86. When a beam is supported at the ends in a horizontal position, and a weight rests upon the middle, if the deflection be of small amount, the laws regulating it may be determined as follows: - The ...
-Tables Of Experiments On The Stiffness Of Wood
92. Duhamel made some experiments on oak where the scantlings were as large as they are generally used in buildings; and as the results of experiments on large pieces will be more highly valued by the...
-Rules For The Stiffness Of Beams
102. To find the scantling of a piece of timber that will sustain a given weight when supported at the ends in a horizontal position. Case I. - When The Breadth Is Given Rule V. - Multiply the squar...
-When A Beam Is Fixed At Both Ends And Loaded In The Middle
107. The strain upon a beam fixed at both ends has excited much attention, in consequence of a supposed difference between the results of theory and experiment. If it had been possible to fix a beam s...
-Of The Stiffness Of Cylinders Supported At Both Ends
108. When a solid cylinder is supported at both ends. Let D be the diameter of the cylinder; then WxL2x constant quantity = D4. [9] Now it is shown by Dr. Young that the stiffness of a cylinder is t...
-Of The Stiffness Of Beams Supported At One End
112. When a beam is fixed at one end and loaded at the other the deflection is sixteen times greater than when merely supported at both ends and loaded at the middle; but the deflection is much modifi...
-On The Strength Of Beams To Resist Cross Strains
117. The strength of a beam, or the weight that it would carry without fracture, is determined by the relation which exists between the moment of rupture and the moment of resistance to rupture, terme...
-Experiments On The Strength Of Beams Supported At Both Ends
125. On this kind of strength the experiments are most numerous, and some of the most important are collected in the following Table: - * This was first demonstrated by M. Parent in the ' Memoires de...
-Rules For The Strength Of Beams Supported At Both Ends
127. To find the weight that would break a rectangular beam when applied at the middle of its length, the beam being supported at the ends. Rule XI. Multiply the breadth in inches by the square of th...
-Strength Of Beams Fixed At One End
131. The rules for beams fixed at one end and loaded at the other are precisely the same as those for beams supported at both ends, except that a different constant number must be used; viz. the const...
-Resistance To Detrusion
133. Another kind of strain to which beams are liable, and which requires particular attention, as the strength of a piece of framing often depends upon it, is that tending to separate or shear the be...
-Resistance To Shearing Across The Grain
135. It would appear from experiments by Mr. Parsons, of Her Majesty's dockyard service, on treenails used in shipbuilding, that the force required to shear English oak across the grain was 4000 lbs. ...
-138. Table XVI. - Experiments On The Resistance Of French Oak (Seasoned), When Pressed In The Direction Of Its Length. Lamande.)
Length in feet. Breadth in inches. Thickness in inches. Deflection in inches. Weight producing the deflection in lbs. Duration of the experiments in hours. Weight t...
-140. Table XVIII. - Of The Resistance Of Square Pillars Of Dantzic Oak, From A Very Good Plank Which Had Been Cut Up About 9 Months. (Hodgkinson.)
Description. Length in inches. Side of square in inches. Deflection in inches. Corresponding weight in lbs. Breaking weight in lbs. Mean breaking weight. Remar...
-141. Table XIX. - Of The Resistance To Compression Of Uniform Rectangular Pillars Of Red Deal, Flat At The Ends, Cut Out Of The Same Plank, The Sectional Area Being In All Cases Nearly 4 Inches. (Hodgkinson.)
Length. Scantling. Deflection. Corresponding weight. Weight with which it sank down. Remarks. inches. in. in. inches. lbs. lbs. ...
-142. Table XX. - Of The Resistance To Compression Of Logs Of White Riga And Red Dantzic Fir, Each 20 Feet Long, The Ends Cut Square, And The Axis Horizontal
Scantling in inches: - Riga 135 x 13.0 at one end, 12.8 x 13.0 at other end, and 13.0 x 13.0 in the middle. ,, ...
-143. Table XXI. - Of The Resistance To Crushing In The Direction Of The Fibre Of Short Pillars Of Different Kinds Of Wood. (Hodgkinson.)
Description of Wood. Strength per square inch in lbs. Alder ...................... 6831 to 6960 Ash...... 86S3 9363 Bay wood.........
-Of the Resistance of Long Pillars
146. In long pillars, when the load tending to crush the material is small, the resistance to bending is nearly as the fourth power of the diameter directly; and as the square of the length inversely,...
-Rules For The Resistance Of Long Pillars To Flexure
156. To find the greatest weight that may be placed on a square pillar of 30 diameters and upwards. Rule XIV. - Multiply the fourth power of the side of the pillar in inches by the value of e (Table ...
-Of The Strength Of Pillars Of Medium Length
159. When the length of a pillar is less than 30 diameters, the resistance to direct crushing becomes a considerable portion of the strength, and must therefore be taken into account in all calculatio...
-Rules To Ascertain The Strength Of Plllars Of Medium Length
164. To find the weight that would break a square or rectangular pillar exceeding 5 diameters, but not exceeding 30 diameters in length. Rule XVI. - Multiply the area of the cross section of the pill...
-Of the Resistance of Short Pillars to Crushing in the Direction of the Fibres
167. In pillars of wood of less than about 5 diameters in length failure usually takes place by the separation and crippling of the fibres; it is the first appearance of this effect of the load that i...
-Of The Resistance To Crushing Across The Grain
171. It frequently happens in framework that one piece is pressed against the side of another, and should the resistance which the latter offers to the force be insufficient, a degree of compression m...
-Of The Pressure On Curved Ribs
174. Curved or arched ribs are adopted principally in the construction of bridges and roofs, where they are usually braced, so as not to depend too much on their own stiffness to resist cross strains....
-Formulae For The Strength Of Curved Rlbs
175. In estimating the proper stiffness to be given to the haunches of curved ribs we know that the sum of the bending moments on them should not exceed those on straight beams equal in length to the ...
-Circular Ribs
176. The most common form for an arched rib is a part of a circle. If its ver. sine docs not exceed 1/4 the length of its chord the point P may be taken at 3/11 of the length of the arc B P D A (Fig. ...
-Of The Resilience Of Beams
178. A bcdy in motion on being brought to a state of rest, exerts a greater force than the same body would if acting by its dead weight alone. 179. A beam resists the application of a moving force or...
-Synopsis Of The Formulae Most Useful For Estimating The Strength And Stiffness Of Timber
182. B = breadth in inches. C = cohesive strength in lbs. per square inch, as in Tables II., III., IV., and XXVIII., or the crushing force, as in Tables XXI., XXII., and XXVIII. D = depth in inches ...
-Beams fixed at One End
183. A solid rectangular beam of uniform depth fixed at one end and loaded at the other, should he on plan in the shape of a triangle, as Fig. 48. Fig. 48. Fig. 49. 184. If the beam he loaded ...
-Beams supported at Both Ends
187. When the depth of a solid rectangular beam is uniform, the breadth will vary in the form of two triangles with their vertices at the points of support and their bases at the point of ...
-Section III. Of The Construction Of Floors
191. The timbers which support the flooring boards and ceiling of a room underneath are called, in carpentry, the naked flooring. There are several kinds of naked flooring, but they may be all ...
-Of Single-joisted Floors
195. In order to make a strong floor with a small quantity of timber, the joists should be thin and deep; but a certain degree of thickness is necessary for the purpose of nailing the boards, and two ...
-Of Framed Floors. Girders
196. The girders are the chief support of a framed floor, but their depth is often limited by the size of the timber; therefore, the method of finding the scantling should be divided into two cases. ...
-Of Framed Floors. Girders. Part 2
201. A method of strengthening a timber girder without increasing the depth is shown in Fig. 63, where a plate of wrought iron is bolted on each side of a timber beam, or as shown in Fig. 64, where a ...
-Of Framed Floors. Girders. Part 3
207. In the construction of floors it would be an advantage to make each girder only half the breadth given by the rule, and to limit the distance apart to 5 feet; to bridge the upper or floor joists ...
-Binding Joists
209. The depth of a binding joist is generally determined by the depth of the floor, but not always. Rules must therefore be given for at least two cases. Case 1. - To find the depth of a binding ...
-Bridging Joists
213. The rule for bridging joists is the same as that for single joisting (see Art. 195). They seldom need be more than 2 inches in thickness, except for ground floors, where they are laid upon ...
-Ceiling Joists
214. Ceiling joists require to be no thicker than is necessary to nail the laths to; and 2 inches is quite sufficient for that purpose. To find the depth of a ceiling joist, when the length of ...
-General Observation Respecting Floors
216. Girders should never be laid over openings, such as doors or windows, if it can be avoided; but when it is absolutely necessary so to lay them, the wall-plates, or templets, must be made strong, ...
-Floors Constructed With Short Timbers
219. There are many curious methods of constructing floors with short timbers, which cannot be passed over without notice, and yet are scarcely worthy of it; because they are seldom applied, as long ...
-Section IV. Of The Construction Of Roofs
221. A roof is intended to cover and protect a building from the effects of the weather, and also to bind and give strength and firmness to the fabric. To effect these purposes it should neither be ...
-Of the Forms of Roofs for different Spans
228. The simplest form of roof is that shown in Fig. 75, which is adapted for spans under 20 feet. It consists of common rafters only, which meet against a ridge-piece at the top, and are held ...
-Of the Forms of Roofs for different Spans. Part 2
235. For spans that exceed 65 feet the truss adopted in the construction of the old Drury Lane Theatre, in 1793, is, in respect to form, perhaps one of the best of its kind that can be devised where ...
-Of the Forms of Roofs for different Spans. Part 3
237. Roofs of less span and rise might be constructed in a similar manner, at a comparatively small expense. But in these, instead of forming the rib of short pieces, it might be bent by a method ...
-Of the Forms of Roofs for different Spans. Part 4
240. The centre aisle of churches being often higher than the sides, the same effect as when the tie continues through may be produced by connecting the lower beams to the upper one by means of ...
-Of the Forms of Roofs for different Spans. Part 5
242. Plate XVI. shows a roof with a laminated arched rib, erected at Marac, near Bayonne, by Colonel Emy in 1826, and claimed by him as a new invention, which he had used in the design for the roof ...
-Of the Forms of Roofs for different Spans. Part 6
244. In modern roofs the use of wrought iron in combination with wood has been more extensive than formerly. Instead of being confined to straps and screw bolts, it is now used for king and queen ...
-On Proportioning the Parts of a Roof
249. The proportions to be given to the timbers of a roof depend so much on the design of the framing that it would be difficult to furnish rules to apply in all cases. Therefore those cases only are ...
-Of King Posts (sometimes called Crown Posts)
250. The king post is intended to support the ceiling, and also by means of the braces to support a part of the weight of the roof. It is marked K in the roof on Plates I., IV., and VI. The weight ...
-Of King Posts (sometimes called Crown Posts). Part 2
257. Tie-beams are often unnecessarily cut to pieces with mortises where the king or queen posts join them, it is much better to make the tenons to the lower end of these posts very short, and to ...
-Purlins
264. The stress upon purlins is proportional to their distance apart; and, the weight being uniformly diffused, the stiffness is reciprocally as the cube of the length. Rule. - Multiply the cube of ...
-Section V. Of The Construction Of Domes Or Cupolas
266. A dome or cupola is a roof, of which the base is a circle, an ellipse, or a polygon, and its vertical section a curve line, concave towards the interior. Hence domes are called circular, ...
-Section VI. Of The Construction Of Partitions
273. Partitions, in carpentry, are frames of timber used for dividing the internal parts of a house into rooms: they are usually lathed and plastered, and sometimes the spaces between the timbers are ...
-Section VII. Scaffolds, Staging, And Gantries
279. A scaffold as used in building is a temporary structure supporting a platform, by means of which the workmen and their materials are brought within reach of the work. 280. The most common form ...
-Scaffolds, Staging, And Gantries. Continued
285. In the foregoing description the staging is supposed to be in one tier only; but in buildings which have to be carried to a great height the staging will require to be raised accordingly. This ...
-Section VIII. Of The Construction Of Centres For Bridges
290. A centre is a timber frame, or set of frames, for supporting the arch-stones of a bridge during the construction of the arch. The qualities of a good centre consist in its being sufficient to ...
-Pressure Of The Arch-Stones Upon Centres
292. Before proceeding to investigate the mode of framing and stiffness of centres, the point must be determined at which the arch-stones first begin to press upon them, and also the pressure at ...
-Pressure Of The Arch-Stones Upon Centres. Continued
297. But though the error introduced, by considering all the arch-stones above the joint that makes an angle of 60 degrees with the horizon as pressing wholly on the centre, is not a very ...
-On Designing Centres
298. A centre should be designed so as to be capable of supporting either a portion or the whole of the weight of the arch without changing its form, and each of its parts should be proportioned ...
-On the Construction of Centres
302. The principal beams of a centre should always abut end to end when it is possible. A very good method, where timbers meet at an angle, is to let them abut into a socket of cast iron, as in the ...
-On Removing Centres
303. The frames or principal supports of a centre should be placed upon double wedges, or sometimes they may be placed upon blocks with wedge-formed steps cut in them; and when the centre is to be ...
-On Computing the Strength of Centres
304. It fortunately happens that simple designs are best calculated for centres; for it would be very difficult to form anything like an accurate estimate of the strength of a complicated one. We ...
-Section IX. Coffer-Dams, Shoring, And Strutting
Coffer-dams. 307. A coffer-dam is a watertight wall used to enclose the site of a work for the purpose of laying dry the foundation, as in the construction of sea-walls or the abutments and piers of ...
-Coffer-Dams, Shoring, And Strutting. Continued
310. Fig. 93 shows a form of dam which was used in 1849 for shutting off the sea from the southern end of the Sunderland Docks, with the view of permitting a further extension of the dock if required....
-Shoring And Strutting
316. Under this heading it is proposed to describe some of the methods in use for shoring up buildings and for strutting and timbering excavations. 317. Fig. 95 shows the usual method of shoring up ...
-Shoring And Strutting. Continued
320. Shafts for tunnels, mines, or other purposes, when sunk through soft or loose strata, require to be lined to prevent the soil from being disturbed or the sides from being forced in. A shaft is ...
-Section X. Wooden Bridges, Viaducts, Etc
324. The oldest wooden bridge that we have any account of is the Bridge of Sublicius, which existed at Rome in the reign of Ancus Martius, about 500 years before the Christian era, and which it is ...
-Wooden Bridges, Viaducts, Etc. Part 2
331. In a bridge constructed near Etringen, by Wiebe-king, of which the span was 139 feet and the rise 8 feet, the following method of providing against lateral motion was adopted. Two ribs were ...
-Wooden Bridges, Viaducts, Etc. Part 3
335. Passing from the bridges erected in Europe to those of America, we shall find some splendid examples well vorthy of the attention of the engineer about to practise in a new country. Among the ...
-Wooden Bridges, Viaducts, Etc. Part 4
There was another bridge on a similar principle erected near the same place in 1805, called the Market Street Bridge, which consisted of three arches, the centre one being 195 feet span, and the oth...
-Wooden Bridges, Viaducts, Etc. Part 5
341. The additional weight of the trains and other requirements of an increased traffic led to attempts at strengthening the earlier forms of the bridges used on railways. One of these resulted in ...
-345. - Table Of The Spans Of Some Of The Most Celebrated Wooden-Bridges Of Europe And America
Name Span of Widest Opening. Authority. feet. Bridge of Bassano, over the Brenta, by Palladio (truss) 36.8 Rondelet. Cismone, nea...
-Observations On The Construction Of Bridges
346. If A B (Fig. 1, Plate XLVII.) be a solid beam resting upon the supports A and B, so as to form one of the girders of a bridge, it will have to carry not only its own weight, but that of the ...
-Observations On The Construction Of Bridges. Continued
347. Fig. 7, Plate XLVII., shows a method similar to that adopted for the timber arches of a bridge of 49 feet span over the Thames near Kingston, erected in 1570. Combinations of this kind naturally ...
-On The Degree Of Curvature To Which Beams May Be Bent
355. In designing bridges with curved ribs, it is important to ascertain the degree of curvature that may be given to the beams without impairing their elastic force, as the depth of each piece ...
-Proportion Of Rise To Span In Bridges With Curved Bids
356. In a bridge formed of curved ribs, when the rise is limited, whether by the height of the roadway or other local circumstance, the span is also limited; for if the rise does not bear a certain ...
-Practical Rules For The Strength Of Bridges
357. The greatest load likely to meet on a bridge at one time is that produced by a loaded railway train or a dense crowd of people. The former, including the weight of the bridge itself, may be ...
-359. Bridges With Curved Ribs
When the load on a bridge is uniformly distributed, the curve of equilibrium is a parabola, and if the form of the rib be made to approximate to that curve, the load will have no tendency to produce d...
-362. Lattice And Frame Bridges
These bridges are subject to a compressive strain along the top string or chord, and to a tensile strain along the bottom string. The strains are equal when the strings are parallel: they are greates...
-367. To Find The Strains On The Braces Or Lattice-Bars. Rule
Fur the end braces, multiply that portion of the weight in lbs. supported by the pier ( = one-half the gross weight in a uniformly loaded girder) by the length of the brace in feet. The product divide...
-371. To Find The Strains On The Counter-Braces
As the use of counter-braces is to counteract the effects of a variable load, the greatest strain upon them is equivalent to the greatest strain produced by the same load on a brace, and will be equal...
-374. To Find The Strain On The Auxiliary Arches Of A Bridge Truss
When arches are used to strengthen bridge trusses, such as the lattice and other forms on the American principle, the pressure on the arch and size of the timber can be calculated in the same manner a...
-Choice Of Site For A Bridge
375. The principal matters to be attended to in the design of a wooden bridge are - 1st, the situation; 2ndly, the waterway that ought to be left for the river; 3rdly, the number and span of the ...
-Water-Way
376. The water-way of a bridge should be sufficient to give free passage to the highest floods, and particular regard must be had to this circumstance in fixing the height and width between the piers....
-Water-Way. Continued
380. The following Table, showing the velocities of some of the principal rivers, may assist in giving more accurate ideas on this interesting subject; and we have only to regret that it is not so ...
-Construction Of The Abutments And Piers
382. The abutments and piers of wooden bridges are frequently executed in stone, in which case their construction falls within the mason's province; nevertheless, as they should be capable of ...
-Roadway
392. The roadway of the bridge should he kept as low as may be consistent with the requirements of the navigation and water-way. The ascent on each side should be as easy as the circumstances will ...
-Section XI. Joints, Straps, And Other Fastenings
395. The joints in a framing of timber having to resist the strains to which the pieces are exposed, should be formed in such a manner that the bearing parts may have the greatest possible amount of ...
-Lengthening Ties
397. The simplest and perhaps the best method of lengthening a beam is to abut the ends together, and place a piece on each side; these, when firmly bolted together, form a strong and simple ...
-Lengthening Beams To Resist Cross Strains
408. Beams to resist cross strains require to be lengthened more frequently than any others, and, from the nature of the strain, a different form must be adopted for the scarf from that which is best ...
-Building Beams
411. The method of building beams has already been considered in Section III., Arts. 203 to 206. It may not however be superfluous here to remark, that the position of the indents is not a matter of ...
-Lengthening Beams To Resist Compression
412. When a post or strut is required to be longer than timber can be procured, which sometimes may occur, the same form of joint or scarf is applicable as when the piece is pulled in the direction ...
-Joints Of Bearing Timbers And Framing
413. Joints Of Searing Timbers The connection of a binding joist to a girder is an example of this kind of joint. The greatest strains upon the fibres of a girder are at the upper and lower surfaces,...
-415. Joints Of Framing
The object to be obtained by a system of framing is to reduce all the pressures into the directions of the lengths of the pieces composing the frame; therefore the form of the joint should be made so ...
-Joints Of Framing. Continued
418. Fig. 145 is a form that is approved by some writers, but by others it is considered inferior to the one already described. The dotted line shows the form of the tenon; but it would be better put ...
-Joints For Ties And Braces
424. There is no part of carpentry where defective joints are attended with such serious consequences as in ties, nor are there any other joints so often ill constructed. It is not easy to make a ...
-Straps, Bolts, And Other Fastenings
426. The iron used in straps and bolts should be of a quality tough and fibrous, so as not to be liable to snap with any sudden application of a strain which would otherwise be within its strength. ...
-431. Strap At The Foot Of A Principal Rafter
A strap at the foot of a principal rafter is intended to form an abutment for it, in case the end of the tie-beam should fail. If the strap be put too upright it will become quite loose when the roof ...
-432. Bolts, Nuts, And Washers
The following proportions will be found suitable for the bolts, nuts, and washers used in carpentry: - Diameter of Bolt......................... = 1 Diameter of Head and Nut ...
-435. Iron Shoes And Sockets
In the practice of modern carpentry, iron is extensively employed for securing the ends of pieces of timber, and in various ways to strengthen the joints. When placed at the lower end of a post or st...
-436. Preservation Of Iron
It must bo remembered that thin plates and small pieces of iron decay very rapidly, particularly in damp situations; therefore they should be well secured against rust by being painted as soon as they...
-437. Adhesion Of Glue
Although glue is much used by the joiner it is seldom so by the carpenter, but as some knowledge of its strength and mode of application may be useful, the following information is given. To ascertai...
-Section XII. Timber
438. Wood is that substance which forms the principal part of the roots, trunks, and branches of trees and shrubs; and its usefulness in the art of construction is well known. The woods of different ...
-Felling Timber
443. It should be, says the venerable Evelyn, in the vigour and perfection of trees that a felling should be celebrated. * When a tree is felled too soon, the greater part of it is sap-wood, and ...
-446. Natural Seasoning
When timber is felled, the sooner it is removed from the forest the better; it should be removed to a dry situation, and placed so that the air may circulate freely around each piece, but it should no...
-Natural Seasoning. Continued
447. In order to compare the times required to season and to dry timber when the sizes of the pieces remain the same, it will be necessary to consider the progress of evaporation from the same ...
-451. Water Seasoning
On account of the time required to season timber in the natural way, various methods have been tried to effect the same purpose in a shorter time. One of the best of these is to immerse the timber in ...
-452. Steaming And Boiling Timber
Though steaming or boiling impairs the strength and elasticity of timber, it gives another property, which for some purposes is still more desirable than strength; for boiled or steamed timber shrinks...
-453. Smoke-Drying, Scorching, And Charring Timber
It is an old and a well-founded observation, that smoke-drying contributes much to the hardness and durability of wood. Virgil seems to have been aware of its utility when he wrote the passage which i...
-454. Seasoning By The Extraction Of Sap
In 1825 a method of separating the sap from the tree without injury to the woody fibre was patented by Mr. Langton. He placed the wood in vertical cylinders of iron, from which he exhausted the air by...
-455. Seasoning By Hot Air
One of the best methods of artificial seasoning is that known as the Desiccating Process, introduced by Davison, which consists in exposing the timber to a current of air in a kind of oven. The air is...
-456. Weight Of A Cubic Foot Of Timber, When Green And When Seasoned
From Duhamel's experiments;* reduced to English weights and measures. Kind of Wood. Weight of a Cubic Foot Green. Weight of a Cubic Foot One Year afterwards. lbs. ...
-Weight Of A Cubic Foot Of Timber, When Green And When Seasoned. Part 2
460. The durability of the framed timbers of buildings is also very considerable. The trusses of the old part of the roof of the Basilica of St. Paul, at Rome, were framed in 816, and were sound and ...
-Weight Of A Cubic Foot Of Timber, When Green And When Seasoned. Part 3
463. An experiment to determine the comparative durability of different woods is related in Young's ' Annals of Agriculture,' which will be more satisfactory than any speculative opinion; and it is ...
-On The Causes Of Decay In Timber
464. Timber, when properly seasoned, is strong, tough, and elastic; but it does not long retain those properties. It is generally employed in situations where it is either continually dry, constantly ...
-468. Effect Of Continued Moisture With Heat
Wood, in common with other vegetable products, when exposed to a certain degree of moisture, and at a temperature not much under 45, nor too high to evaporate suddenly all the moisture, gradually...
-Effect Of Continued Moisture With Heat. Part 2
469. When the decay is owing to dry rot the timber at first swells, changes colour, and emits a musty smell. Soon a quantity of white cottony fibres will be found to have penetrated the tissues of ...
-Effect Of Continued Moisture With Heat. Part 3
474. Building timber into new walls is often a cause of decay, as the lime and damp brickwork are active agents in producing putrefaction, particularly where the scrapings of roads are used instead ...
-476. Destruction Of Timber By Marine Animals
The bottoms of ships, piles, and other timbers exposed to the action of the sea, are liable to be destroyed by marine animals, which attack them in every vulnerable part within their reach. * ' Trans...
-478. The Limnoria Terebrans
This animal is much smaller than the Teredo navalis, and differs from it in shape, being about one-sixth of an inch in length and very much like a woodlouse, whereas the teredo has more the shape of a...
-Table Of The Relative Durability Of Different Kinds Of Timber When Exposed To The Attacks Of The Limnoria Terebrans
Kind of Timber. Decay first observed from time of exposure. Unsound and quite decayed. Quite Sound for Remarks. Yrs. Mon. Yrs. Mon. Yrs. ...
-484. Destruction Of Timber By Ants
Of the ant proper, or that belonging to the order Hyrnenoptera, called the carpenter ant, there are three species in particular which attack timber, viz. the Formica fuliginosa, or black carpenter ant...
-The Preservation Of Timber
486. The presence of moisture being one of the conditions which appear to be necessary for the decomposition of organic substances, it is desirable that the neighbourhood of buildings where timber is ...
-The Preservation Of Timber. Part 2
492. Coal-tar, when deprived of a portion of its naphtha by boiling, is a valuable protection to timber exposed to the weather; but in order to give it body, dry chalk powdered fine is frequently ...
-The Preservation Of Timber. Part 3
496. Quicklime, when present in small quantities and aided by moisture, assists putrefaction; but where present in large quantities, so as to preserve the wood in a perfectly dry state, by absorbing ...
-503. To Cure The Dry Rot
When once this disease has set in, the cure is very difficult, as the whole place where the timber is situated becomes infected. Measures should be immediately taken to provide proper ventilation, and...
-Classification And Structure Of Wood
506. On examining the transverse section of a tree a number of layers or rings will be seen, as stated in Art. 439, regularly disposed around the pith which is generally near the centre of the ...
-Native And Foreign Timber Used In England Class I
14. This class comprises all the cone-bearing trees, the annual rings of which are very distinct, and the pores filled with resin or turpentine. It includes some of the most durable and useful kinds o...
-Northern Pine. Pinus Sylvestris
515. This timber, which has sometimes been called red fir, yellow fir,* and Scotch fir, is one of the most durable of the pines. It grows in Norway, Sweden, Russia, and in other parts of Northern ...
-Northern Pine. Pinus Sylvestris. Continued
To become familiar with different kinds and qualities of timber requires considerable practice and close observation. Pine should have a fine close grain, the annual rings should seldom exceed one-ten...
-Red Pine
(Pinus rubra.) 516. This timber, which is sometimes called by botanists Pinus re8ino8a, is grown on dry gravelly, sandy, or rocky soils in the northern parts of North America, where the tree attains a...
-White Pine (Weymouth Pine). (Pinus Strobus.)
517. This timber, like the preceding, is a native of Canada and the northern districts of the United States. It is said to have been first introduced into this country by the Earl of Weymouth, hence ...
-Yellow Pine. (Pinus Variabilis.)
518. Yellow pine is a native of the pine forests from New England to Georgia. The wood is much used in America for many purposes of the carpenter. Mr. Fincham considered it of great value for the ...
-Pitch Pink. (Pinus Resinosa.)
519. This tree, which is the Pinus rigida of botanists, is a native of Canada, and is common throughout the United States of North America; but is most abundant along the Atlantic coast. It is ...
-Cluster Pine. (Pinus Pinaster.)
520. The Cluster pine, or Pinaster as it is also called, is a native of the rocky mountainous parts of Europe, where it grows to a height of 50 to 60 feet, and sometimes 70 feet; it is also ...
-White Fir Or Norway Spruce. (Abies Excelsa.)
521. The Norway spruce (A. e. communis), which is better known in this country as White Deal, is a native of the mountainous districts in various parts of Europe and the north of Asia. It is the ...
-American White Spruce Fir. (Abies Alba.)
522. The white spruce fir, named from the colour of its bark, and called in Canada Epinette, or rather Sapinette blanche, is a native of high mountainous tracts in the colder parts of North America, ...
-American Black Spruce Fir. (Abies Nigra.)
523. The black spruce fir, also named from the colour of its bark, is a native of the northern states of America and Canada, and is very abundant on cold-bottomed lands in the province of Lower ...
-Red Spruce Fir. (Abies Rubra.)
524. This wood, which is also called Newfoundland Red Pine, is from a large tree which grows in Nova Scotia and about Hudson's Bay, where it attains a height of 70 to 80 feet. The timber of the red ...
-The Silver Fir. (Picea Pectinata.)
525. The silver fir differs from the pines and firs previously described in having its cones erect, which has induced botanists to class it as another genus (Picea), but in other respects the general ...
-Larchi. (Genus Larix.)
526. Of the larch-tree there are three species: one European and two American. The European larch (Larix Europaea) is a native of the Alps of Switzerland, Italy, Germany, and Siberia, but does not ...
-527. American Black Larch, Or Hackmatack (Larix Pendula)
This wood, which is also called Tamarak, is found in North America, from Newfoundland to Virginia, where it attains a height of nearly 100 feet. Michaux describes the American larch as a tall slender ...
-Cedar Of Lebanon. (Cedrus Libani.)
529. The cedar of Lebanon is a cone-bearing tree, and an evergreen; it is a native of Mount Libanus, whence it has its name. The finest cedars in the time of Vitruvius grew in Candia and Africa; and ...
-Juniper. (Genus Juniperus.)
530. It is the wood of this tree with which we are so familiar under the name of Cedar, though belonging to a different genus. The juniper is common as a shrub in all the northern parts of Europe. On ...
-532. Virginian Red Cedar (Juniperus Virginiana)
This species is found in the United States of America and Canada, on dry, rocky hill-sides, but it is not now plentiful in any particular district of these countries. It is also found in the West Indi...
-533. Bermuda Cedar (Juniperus Bermudiana)
This wood grows extensively in Bermuda and the Bahama Islands, of which it is a native. It was formerly much used in shipbuilding, and many of the timbers of the Spanish ships taken in the war with Sp...
-Yew. (Taxas Baccata.)
534. The Common Yew is a native of Europe, North America, and Japan. It used to be very plentiful in England and Ireland, and probably also in Scotland. Caesar mentions it as having been abundant in ...
-Cypress. (Cupressas Sempervirens.)
535. This tree, which is the species known as the Upright Cypress, derives its name from the Island of Cyprus, where it grows in great abundance; it is also a native of Asia Minor, Persia, and the ...
-Cowrie. (Dammara Australis.)
536. The Cowrie, or Kauri, called also the Pitch-tree, is a native of New Zealand, and one of the most magnificent of the Coniferae. It is said to grow to a height of 80 to 140 feet, with a straight ...
-Oak. (Genus Quercus.)
538. Of the Oak there are upwards of sixty distinct species known to botanists, chiefly natives of Europe and America, several of which produce valuable timber. Five kinds of oak are enumerated by ...
-Oak. (Genus Quercus.). Part 2
As regards the durability of the two species of oak, Mr. * Ray's 'Synopsis, etc.,' p. 440. ' Flora Brit.,' vol. iii., 1026-7. These trees were first pointed out to the author by his brother ...
-Oak. (Genus Quercus.). Part 3
543. The Austrian oak is another variety of the European species, but of which the author has not been able to determine. The tree is taller than the English oak, and the wood is whiter, softer, and ...
-Beech. (Fagus Sylvatica.)
552. This is the common beech of our country, which is also a native of most of the temperate parts of Europe from Norway to the Mediterranean, and is said to be plentiful in the southern parts of ...
-Alder. (Alnus Glulinosa.)
554. The alder-tree is a native of Europe and Asia, growing in wet grounds and by the banks of rivers. The tree seldom exceeds 40 feet in height, and 24 inches diameter, except in very favourable ...
-Plane-Tree. (Genus Platanus.)
555. Of the plane-tree there are several species. The most common are the Oriental Plane and the Occidental Plane. 556. The Oriental Plane (Platanus orientalis) is a native of the Levant, and other ...
-Sycamore. (Acer Pseudo-Platanus.)
558. The Sycamore, or Great Maple, generally called the Plane-tree in the north of England, is a native of the mountains of Germany, and is very common in Britain. It is a large tree, and of quick ...
-Division II. 559. No Distinct Largo Medullary Rays. Sub-Div. I. - Annual Rings Distinct, One Side Porous, The Other Compact. Chestnut. (Castanca Vesca.)
560. This species, which is commonly called the Sweet or Spanish Chestnut, is supposed to be a native of Greece and Western Asia, but grows wild in Italy, France, and Spain. It is also to be found ...
-Ash. (Fiaxinus Excelsior.)
561. The common ash is a native of Europe, the north of Asia, and is to be found in Great Britain, from the north of Scotland to the south of England, and almost in all cases on good deep soil. It is ...
-Elm. (Genus Ulmus.)
562. Of the Elm-tree there are five species now common in Britain; viz. the common rough-leaved elm, the cork-barked elm, the broad-leaved elm or wych hazel, the smooth-leaved or wych elm, and the ...
-Common Acacia. (Robinia Pseudo-Acacia.)
571. The common Acacia, or American locust-tree, is a native of the mountains of America from Canada to Carolina. It is a beautiful tree, attains a considerable size, and is of very quick growth. ...
-Division II. (Continued). 572. Sub-Div. II. Annual Rings Not Distinct; Texture Nearly Uniform. Mahogany. (Swietenia Mahogani.)
573. The mahogany tree is a native of the West Indies and the country around the Bay of Honduras in Central America. It is stated to be of comparatively rapid growth, arriving at maturity in about ...
-Walnut. (Juglans Regia.)
577. The Royal or Common Walnut-tree is a native of Persia and the northern parts of China. It is found in most parts of Europe as far as 55 north latitude. The walnut-tree was formerly much ...
-Poplar. (Genus Populus.)
580. Of the poplar-tree there are several species, five of which are common in England, viz. the White Poplar (P. alba), the Black Poplar (P. nigra), the Grey Poplar (P. canescens), the Aspen or ...
-Teak. (Tedona Grandis.)
581. The Teak-tree is a native of the dry and elevated districts of the south of India; chiefly those situated along the Malabar and Coromandel coasts, as well as of Burmah, Pegu, Java, Geylon, and ...
-Turtosa, Or African Oak. (Oldfieldia Africana.)
582. This timber, which has been imported in considerable quantities from Sierra Leone, is used for the same purposes as oak, but chiefly for ship-building. The colour of the wood is a moderately ...
-Colonial Timber, India. 583. Saul (Shorea Robusta)
This is one of the most useful woods in India for the purposes of the carpenter, and is to he found chiefly along the foot of the Himalaya mountains, and on the Vindhyan hills near Gaya, the best bein...
-585. Deodar (Cedrus Deodara)
This very nearly resembles the cedar of Lebanon. It is found on the Himalaya mountains, at elevations of from 5000 to 12,000 feet. It is also found on all the higher mountains from Nepal up to Cashme...
-586. Sissoo, Or Seesum (Dalbergia Sissoo)
This wood is found in several parts of India. In Rohilkund it grows to a height of about 30 feet, and from 1 to 3 feet in diameter. At Chandah it is said to attain a greater size than elsewhere. Siss...
-587. Poon (Calophyllum Burmanni)
This wood is abundant in the Burman forests, in Southern India, and the Eastern Islands. It is a tall, straight tree, usually attaining about 6 feet in girth, and resembles a dull-coloured and greyish...
-588. Toon (Cedrela Toona)
This wood, which is a kind of cedar, is one of the most esteemed in India, where it is in common use for joinery, and the manufacture of chairs, tables, and other kinds of furniture. The tree sometim...
-589. Mango (Mangifera Indica)
This is the well-known fruit-tree which is common throughout Asia, and is to be found in South America. The wood is cut up into planks, and used for a variety of purposes in India. It varies in qualit...
-590. Nim (Melia Azadarach)
This is one of the commonest and hardiest trees in India, as well as the quickest in growth. In the northern parts of the Gwalior territory it grows spontaneously, and attains a height of 40 to 50 fe...
-591. Anjilli (Artorarpus Hirsuta)
This is a species of the bread-fruit tree, also called the Jungle Jack, which is remarkable for the size of the stem. It is found in the forests of Bengal and Malabar. The wood is strong, close-grai...
-592. Iron Bark (Eucalyptus)
This is a rugged-looking tree, which frequently attains the height of 100 or 150 feet, with a diameter of from 3 to 6 feet. The wood is very dense and heavy; the colour a dark red; it is very strong a...
-593. Blue Gum (Eucalyptus Globulus)
This tree is frequently found growing to a height of 100 or 160 feet, with an average diameter of 3 to 6 feet. It is used in Australia for carpenters' work generally, and also for the spokes of wheels...
-594. White Gum (Eucalyptus Obliqua)
This tree is chiefly to be found in Tasmania, where it attains the height frequently of 150 feet, with a diameter of nearly 8 feet at about 3 feet from the ground. The bark of the tree is perfectly wh...
-595. Stringy Bark (Eucalyptus Gigantea)
This is considered one of the best timber trees in Australia for building purposes. The wood does not differ much from that of either the blue or white gum trees, except in being somewhat cleaner and ...
-596. Jarrah, Or Australian Mahogany (Eucalyptus)
This is also one of the gum-trees which is chiefly to bo found in Western Australia, where it grows to a height often exceeding 200 feet. The colour is much darker than the blue gum, and very much res...
-597. Oak (Genus Casuarina)
This is another hard wood tree. It does not grow so tall as the gum-trees, being seldom found more than from 40 to 60 feet in height, with a diameter of from 12 to 30 inches. The two species most used...
-598. Cedar (Cedrela Australis)
The Australian Red Cedar is supposed to be the same species as the Cedrela toona of India. It somewhat resembles the Havannah cedar, but is of a coarser grain and of a darker colour, not unlike Hondur...
-602. The Following Table Shows The Most Important Kinds Of Wood Used In The South African Colonies For Building And Other Purposes: -
Dutch and English Common and Botanical Names. Native Names. Weight of a cubic foot Cost of working Fir being = 1. Remarks. lbs. Assegai wo...
-British Guiana
604. Greenheart (Nectandra rodii), called by the natives Sipiru, is very abundant within 100 miles of coast Balks of the timber, squaring from 18 to 24 inches, may be had from 60 to 70 feet ...
-605. Mora (Mora Excelsa)
This is one of the most majestic trees of the forests of Guiana, where it attains a height of from 100 to 150 feet, and is frequently found 60 feet in height without a branch. When of that length it w...
-West India Islands. 606. Cedar (Cedrela Odorata)
This tree is to bo found chiefly in Cuba, Jamaica, and Honduras, growing with a stem of 70 or 80 feet in height, and with a diameter of 3 to 5 feet. It is known to cabinet-makers as the Havannah or We...
-607. Lignum Vitae (Guaiacam Officinale)
It is from this tree, which grows chiefly on the south side of the island of Jamaica, that the well-known wood used in the sheaves of blocks and pulleys is obtained, and also the medicinal gum resin k...
-608. Broadleaf (Terminalia Lalifolia)
This tree, which is sometimes called the Almond-tree, from the shape of its fruit, grows in Jamaica to a considerable height, often to 60 feet before reaching the main branches, and with a diameter...
-609. The Bullet-Tree (Achras Sideroxylon)
The wood of this tree is very hard and durable, and fitted for most kinds of outside work. It is used principally for posts and sills of framing, and also for rafters. It warps a good deal in seasonin...
-610. Locust (HymenaeEa Courbaril)
This tree, though growing plentifully on the plains and mountains in parts of Jamaica, is said not to be a native of that island. It is, however, a useful timber for house-building, being hard and tou...
-Books Referred To In Compiling The Foregoing Articles On Timber
'Vitruvius;' Evelyn's 'Silva;' Duhamel, 'Transport des Bois;' Pursh's 'N. American Flora;' Miller's 'Gardener's Dictionary;' Ellis's 'Timber Tree Improved;' Rees's 'Cyclopaedia;' Lambert's 'Travels in...
-Tables. No.1. Table Of The Scantlings Of Girders Of Baltic Tine, For Different Bearings, From 10 To 36 Feet; Girders 10 Feet Apart From Middle To Middle. See Sect. III.. Arts. 196 To 208
Length of bearing in feet. Depth 10 in. Depth 11 in. Depth 12 in. Depth 13 in. Depth 14 in. Depth 15 in. Depth 16 in. Depth 17 in. Depth 18 in. ...
-No. III. Table Of The Scantlings For Single Joisting, Or Bridging Joists, Of Baltic Pine, For Different Bearings, From 5 To 25 Feet; The Distance Middle To Middle, 12 Inches. See Sect. III., Arts. 195 And 213
Length of bearing in feet. Breadth, 1 1/4 in. Brendth, 1 3/4 in. Breadth, 2 in. Breadth, 2 1/2 in. Breadth, 2 1/4 in. Breadth, 2 3/4 in. Breadth. 3 in. ...
-No. IV. Table Of The Scantlings Of Ceiling Joists, Of Baltic Pine, For Different Bearings, From 4 To 15 Feet; Distance From Middle To Middle, 12 Inches. See Sect. III., Art. 214
Length of Waring in feet. Breadth. 1 1/4 in. Breadth, 1 3/4 in. Breadth, 2 in. Breadth, 2 1/4 in. Breadth, 2 1/2 in. Breadth, 2 3/4 in. Breadth, 3 in. ...
-No. V. Table Of Scantlings Of Timber For Different Spans, From 20 To 30 Feet, For The Roof Shown In Plate I. See Sect. 1y., Art. 229
Span. Tie-beam A. King-post K. Principal rafters P. Braces B. Purlins C. Small rafters r. feet. inches. inches. inches. indies. in...
-No. VI. Table Of Scantlings For Roofs, From 30 To 46 Feet Span, Design, Plate II.; Trusses 10 Feet Apart. See Sect. IV Art. 230
Span. Tie-beam A. Queen- posts Q. Principal rafters P. Straining beam S. Braces B. Purlins C. Small rafters r. feet. inches. inches, in...
-No. XIII. Table Of The Scantlings Of Binding Joists, Of Baltic Pike, That Have To Carry A Ceiling Only, For Different Bearings, From 5 To 12 Feet; Distance Apart Not More Than 6 Feet. See Sect. III., Art. 212
Length of bearing in feet. Breadth, 2 in. Breadth, 2 1/2 in. Breadth, 3 in. Breadth, 3 1/2 in. Breadth, 4 in. Breadth, 4 1/2 in. Breadth, 6 in. Breadth,...
-No. XVI. Table Of The Crushing Weight Per Superficial Inch Of Square Or Rectangular Pillars, Of Which The Length Does Not Exceed 30 Times The Least Thickness. See Art. 160
Kind of Wood. Number of Times Length exceeds least Thickness. 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 ...
-No. XVIII. Table Of The Properties Of The Different Kinds Of Timber Used In England
Kind of Wood. Specific Gruv. Modulus of Elasticity in lbs. per square inch. Cohesive Force in lbs. per square inch. Comparative. Oak being = 100. Stiffness. S...
-No. XIX. Table Of The Specific Gravity, Relative Strength, Flexibility And Resilience Of The Different Kinds Of Timber Used In Mast-Making - (Fincham)
Species of Timber. Specific Gravity. Relative Green. Dry. Strength. Deflection. Resilience or Toughness. Riga pine .. top .682 .576...
-No. XX. Table Of The Specific Gravity And Weight Of Different Kinds Of Wood
Kind of Wood. Specific Gravity. Weight of a cub. ft. in lbs. Abele, dry........................ .511 T. 32.00 Acacia (false) green .. .. .820 E. 5...
-No. XXI. Table Of The Specific Gravity And Weight Of Various Substances
Name of Substance. Specific Gravity. Weight of a cub. ft. in lbs. Air (atmospheric) ............ .0012 Alabaster. See Gypsum... Asphalte (gr...
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Ninth Edition, 32mo, roan, 5s. HURST'S ARCHITECT'S HANDBOOK. A Handbook of Formulae, Rules, and Memoranda, for Architectural Surveyors and others engaged in Building. By J. T. HURST, C.E. CONTAINI...
-Books Relating To Practical Science
PUBLISHED AND SOLD BY E. & F. N. SPON. LONDON: 46, CHARING CROSS. NEW YORK: 446, BROOME STREET. Algebra. Algebra Self-Taught, by Dr. Paget Higgs, crown 8vo, cloth 2 6 Ancient Alphabets. Handboo...
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Compensations. Compensations, a Text-book for Surveyors, in tabulated form, by Banister Fletcher, crown 8vo, cloth 5 0 Contents: The varieties of damage for which claims may arise - various classes ...
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E. & F. N. SPON: LONDON AND NEW YORK. Electrical Testing. A Handbook of Electrical Testing, by H. R Kempe, Assoc, of the Society of Telegraph Engineers, fcap. 8vo, cloth 5 0 Electricity. Electrici...
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Comparison of English and Foreign Measures This work is printed in a pearl type, and is so small, measuring only 2 1/2 in. by 1 3/4 in., by 1/4 in. thick, that it may be easily carried in the waistco...
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E, & F. N. SPON: LONDON AND NEW YORK. A curious and intesesting work. Mr. Dircks' chief purpose was to collect together all the materials requisite to form a record of what has been done, or attempt...
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E. & F. N. SPON: LONDON AND NEW YORK. Screw Cutting. Tables for Engineers and Mechanics, giving the values of the different trains of Wheels required to produce Screws of any pitch, calculated by Lo...
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Steam Engine. A Pocket-Book of Practical Rules for the Proportions of Modern Engines and Boilers for Land and Marine purposes, by N. P. Burgh, sixth edition, revised, with Appendix, royal 321110, roa...







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