Barrow, the name given to ancient artificial mounds, constructed for purposes which it is sometimes impossible to discover, but which generally appear to have been commemorative of famous persons or events in the history of ancient peoples. They are formed either of earth or of stones, are mentioned in Joshua and Homer, and are found among the relics of Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Scythian domination. There are also in England and Scotland numerous barrows of Druid origin. Barrows are also found in large numbers in America, the memorials of an unknown history.
A. Long Barrow, b, c. Druid Barrows, d. Bell Barrow. e. Cone Barrow. f. Twin Barrows.
Barrow, a river of Ireland, next in size and importance to the Shannon, rises in the N. part of Queen's county, flows E. to the border of Kildare county, then turns to the south, forming the boundary between the counties of Queen's, Kilkenny, and Waterford on the W., and Kildare, Carlow, and Wexford on the E., passing the towns of Athy, Carlow, and New Ross, and after a course of about 100 m., with a descent of 227 feet, falls into the estuary which forms Waterford harbor. Near its mouth, 8 m. E. of Waterford, it is joined by the Suir, and near New Ross by the Nore. These three rivers are called the three sisters, from their rising in the same mountain ridge, and, alter flowing through different counties, uniting near the se;i. The Harrow is navigable for vessels of 300 tons as far as New Ross, 25 m., and for barges to Athy, 40 m. further, whence by means of the Grand canal it communicates with Dublin.
Barrow. I. Sir John, an English traveller and author, born at Draleybeck, near Ulverstone, Lancashire, June 19, 1764, died in London, Nov. 23, 1848. He early wrote on land surveying, spent some time in a Liverpool iron foundery, visited Greenland, was professor of mathematics at Greenwich, and, on Sir George Staunton's recommendation, accompanied Lord Macartney as secretary to China, making himself conversant with the Chinese language, and subsequently was with him at Cape Town, as secretary and auditor of public accounts. The services which he rendered in the settlement of the newly acquired Cape Colony led to his being appointed in 1804 second secretary to the admiralty, which office he held till 1845, except for a short time in 1806. He was created a baronet in 1835. He promoted arctic expeditions and geographical science, and originated the plan of the geographical society, of which he was vice president. He wrote nearly 200 essays, chiefly geographical, for the "Quarterly Review," contributed to the "Encyclopaedia Britannica," and published "Travels in Southern Africa" (2 vols., London, 1801-'3); "Travels in China" (1804); "A Voyage to Cochin-China" (1806); lives of Macartney (1807), Lord Howe (1838), Lord Anson (1839), and Sir Francis Drake; "A Chronological History of Voyages into the Arctic Regions" (1818); "Voyages in the Arctic Regions since 1818" (1846); and other works, including his "Autobiographical Memoir" (1847), and "Sketches of the Royal Society" (1849). II. John, second son of the preceding, born June 28, 1808, has written "Visit to Iceland" (London, 1835), "Summer Tours in Central Europe" (1857), and other books of travel, and miscellaneous works; and prepared a new edition of Cook's "Voyages of Discovery" (Edinburgh, 1860).