Brown Spar

Brown Spar, a name given to dolomite, the magnesian carbonate of lime, when this is of a brown or reddish-brown color, from a small percentage of oxide of iron or oxide of manganese. Crystals of spathic iron and the mineral magnesite are sometimes called by the same name.


Bruce, a N. W. county of Ontario, Canada, bounded W. by Lake Huron and N. and N. E. by Georgian bay, having a coast line of about 130 m.; area, about 1,600 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 68,515. The chief river is the Saugeen, flowing N. W. into Lake Huron. The northern part is a rocky peninsula nearly cut off from the rest by Colpoy's bay on the west. The southern portion has a level surface and a good soil. Immense salt beds underlie part of the W. coast, and salt is exported to the United States. Capital, Walkerton.


Bruchsal, a town of Baden, in the circle and 11 m. N. N. E. of Carlsruhe, on the Seilbach, and on the Mannheim and Carlsruhe Railroad; pop. in 1871, 9,786. It has a castle which was formerly the residence of the bishop of Spire, a gymnasium, and a hospital of the Brothers of Mercy, with an anatomical museum and an educational institution. The old castle is now used as a prison, conducted on the Pennsylvania plan.


Brucia, a bitter alkaline body, associated with the similar bodies, strychnia and igasuria, in the nux vomica and bean of St. Ignatius. It is crystallizable, soluble in hot and cold water and alcohol, and possesses similar medicinal properties to those of strychnia. As it has only about 1/12 the strength of strychnia, this is used in preference. It was originally discovered by Pelletier and Caventou in the false Angostura bark.


Bruck, the name of two towns of Austria. I. Bruck-on-the-Leitha, in Lower Austria, on the Vienna and Buda railway, 20 m. S. E. of Vienna; pop. in 1869, 4,203. It has a castle of Count Harrach and manufactories of machinery. Near it is a permanent camp of the Austrian army. II. Bruck-on-the-Mnr, in Styria, on the Vienna and Trieste railway, 25 m. N. by W. of Gratz; pop. about 4,000. Near it is a celebrated cave.


Bruckenau, a town of Bavaria, at the foot of the Rhon, in the valley of the Sinn, 36 m. N. of Wurzburg; pop. in 1867, 1,571. It is situated in the midst of beech forests and beautiful mountain scenery, and contains a royal castle. Near the town is a Franciscan convent; and about two miles distant are the chalybeate baths and springs of Bruckenau. There are three springs and a few lodging houses, belonging to the king, and under the charge of an inspector.


Bruhns; Karl Christian, a German astronomer, born at Plon, Holstein, Nov. 22, 1830. He was at first a mechanic, but became assistant to the astronomer Encke in Berlin in 1852, graduated at the university in 1856, and in 1860 became professor of astronomy at Leipsic, where he established an observatory. He is the discoverer of a number of comets. Besides many contributions to the Astronomische Nachrichten, he has published Die astronomische Strahlenbrechung in ihrer historischen Entwickelung (1861), an account of his observations from 1860 to 1865 (1866), and a biography of Encke (1869).