Heinrich Eberhard Gottlob Paelus, a German theologian, born at Leonberg, Wurtemberg, Sept. 1,1761, died in Heidelberg, Aug. 10,1851. He studied the oriental languages and divinity at Tubingen and Gottingen, and went to England to examine the manuscripts in the libraries of London and Oxford. In 1789 he became professor of oriental languages at Jena, and in 1793 of theology; in 1803 professor of theology at Wurzburg; and from 1811 to 1844 he taught exegesis and philosophy at Heidelberg. Among his numerous works are: Philologisch-Icritischer und historischer Commentar uber das Neue Testament (4 vols. 1800-'4); Das Leben Jesu (1828); and Exegetisches Handluch iiber die drei ersten Evangelien (1830-33).
Heinrich Ernst Ferdinand Guericke, a German theologian, born at Wettin, Prussia, Feb. 23, 1803. He graduated at the university of Halle, and was appointed professor there in 1829. He was an opponent of the union between the Protestant churches in Prussia, and was dismissed from the university in 1835, but resumed his academical functions in 1840. He afterward edited the Zeitschrift far lutherischc Theologie, in concert with Rudelbach. His principal works are : Historisch-kritische Ein-leitung in das Neue Testament (1843), the second part of which appeared in Leipsic in 1854 under the title of Gesammtgeschichte des Neuen Testaments, oder Neutestamentliche Isa-gogik (3d ed., 1868); Allgemeine christliche Symbolik (3d ed., 1861); Lehrbuch der christ-liclien Archaologie (1847; 2d ed., 1859); and Handbuch der Kirchengeschichte (9th ed., 3 vols., 1867). The last named work has been translated by Prof. Shedd (Andover, 1857).
Heinrich Friedrich Theodor Kohlrausch, a German author, born near Gottingen, Nov. 15, 1780, died in Hanover, Jan. 31, 1867. He was from 1830 a teacher in Hanover. His most popular books were Die deutsche Ge-schichte (Elberfeld, 1816; 15th ed., Hanover, 1866; abridged, 10th ed., Gutersloh, 1867; translated into English, 1847), and Chronolo-gischer Abriss der Weltgeschichte (15th ed., Leipsic, 1861). In 1863 appeared his autobiography (Erinnerungen aus meinem Leben).
Heinrich Gottlieb Ludwig Reichenbach, a German naturalist, born in Leipsic, June 8, 1793. He studied at Leipsic, took the degree of M. D., and in 1820 became professor of natural history in the medical and surgical school of Dresden. His most important work is his Flora Germanica, accompanied by an Iconographia Botanica (21 vols., Leipsic, 1823-'67). He has also published Regnum Animate (1834-'6, incomplete), Vollständigste Natur-geschichte, devoted to mammalia and birds (1845 et seq.), and other works. - His brother Anton Benedict, born in 1807, professor of natural history at Leipsic till 1866, and his son Heinrich Gustav, born in 1822, professor of botany there, have also published works on zoology and botany.
Heinrich Gottlieb Tzschirner, a German theologian, born at Mittweida, Saxony, Nov. 14, 1778, died Feb. 17,1828. He studied theology at Leipsic, entered holy orders in 1801, and became professor of theology at Wittenberg in 1805, and at Leipsic in 1809, superintendent at Leipsic in 1815, and prebendary of Meissen in 1818. He was one of the most effective opponents of the Catholic reaction in Germany. His works include a continuation of the church history of Schrokh (2 vols., Leipsic, 1810); Brotestantismus und Katholicismw aus dem Standpunlcte der Bolitih betrachtet (1822; translated into English, French, and Dutch); Das Beactionssystem (1824); Briefe eines Deutschen an die Herren Chateaubriand, De Lamennais, etc. (edited by Krug, 1828); Vorlesungen uber die christliche Olaubenslelire (edited by Hase, 1829); and Der Fall des Heidenthums (unfinished; edited by Niedner, 1829).