Saint Tammany

Saint Tammany, a S. E. parish of Louisiana, lying on Lake Pontchartrain, bounded E. by Pearl river and drained by its tributaries; area, about 1,200 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 5,586, of whom 2,175 were colored. The surface is uneven, partly pine barrens, and the soil not very fertile. The New Orleans, Mobile, and Texas railroad touches the S. E. corner. The chief productions in 1870 were 8,795 bushels of Indian corn, 13,266 of sweet potatoes, 26,225 lbs. of rice, 3,186 of wool, 34 bales of cotton, 36 hogsheads of sugar, and 660 gallons of molasses. There were 192 horses, 918 milch cows, 2,109 other cattle, 1,499 sheep, and 2,289 swine; 10 manufactories of brick, 8 ship yards, and 6 saw mills. Capital, Covington.


See Leroy de Saint-Arnaud.


Saint-Brieuc, a town of Brittany, France, capital of the department of Côtes-du-Nord, on the Gouet, 2 1/2 m. from its mouth in the bay of St. Brieuc, 233 m. W. by S. of Paris; pop. in 1872, 15,253. It has a school of hydrography, a cathedral of the 13th century, and a statue of Du Guesclin. It is largely engaged in the whale and cod fisheries, and has an active trade in butter and cider. The port, called Légué, is 2 m. down the stream.


Saint-Cloud, a town of France, in the department of Seine-et-Oise, on the left bank of the Seine, 2 m. W. of the enceinte of Paris; pop. about 5,000. It received its name from a monastery built by Clodoald, a grandson of Clovis. In the royal palace here, which was originally a country house, Henry III. was assassinated in 1589. The duke of Orleans, brother of Louis XIV., added a magnificent park and gardens, and the place became celebrated for sumptuous entertainments and historical associations. Marie Antoinette, Napoleon I., Louis XVIII., Charles X., Louis Philippe, and Napoleon III. successively resided at St. Cloud. The overthrow of the first republic was initiated here by Bonaparte on the 18th Brumaire (1799). The capitulation of Paris in 1815 and the ordinances of Charles X. were signed here. The palace was almost entirely burned during the siege of Paris in October, 1870, though many works of art were saved.


Saint-Cyr, a village in the park of Versailles, 9 m. S. W. of Paris, celebrated for the female seminary (maison de St. Cyr) built here in 1686, after the designs of Mansard, by Louis XIV., under the auspices of Mme. de Mainte-non, for the education of 250 daughters of the nobility. For this school, at the request of Mme. de Maintenon, Racine wrote Athalie; and she made it her home after the death of Louis XIV. The school was converted in 1793 into a military hospital, and in 1806 the military academy of Fontainebleau was transferred to it by Napoleon. This academy became known as l'école spéciale militaire de St. Cyr, and is still the principal institution for training officers for the army and navy.


Saint-Denis, a town of France, in the department of the Seine, 2 m. N. of the enceinte of Paris; pop. in 1872, 31,993. Dagobert I. built here, over the grave of St. Denis, an abbey which soon became the richest in France. One of its manors was held in fief by some of the early Capetians, who adopted as their standard the oriflamme, originally the banner of the convent, and chose the crypt of the church as their burial place. In 1793, by order of the convention, the tombs of the kings were destroyed and their remains removed. The church, restored by Napoleon and subsequent governments, ranks among the best specimens of Gothic art. The convent is occupied by a school for female orphans of members of the legion of honor.