Solomon Spalding

See Mormons, vol. xi., p. 833.

Solomon Stoddard

Solomon Stoddard, an American clergyman, born in Boston in 1643, died in Northampton, Mass., Feb. 11, 1729. He graduated at Harvard college in 1662, was appointed "fellow of the house," and was the first librarian of the college from 1667 to 1674. In 1669 he became minister at Northampton, and was ordained Sept. 11, 1672. In February, 1727, Jonathan Edwards, his grandson, was elected as his colleague. In 1700 he published " The Doctrine of Instituted Churches," as an answer to the work of Increase Mather entitled "The Order of the Gospel," which occasioned an exciting controversy. He maintained that the Lord's supper is a converting ordinance, and that all baptized persons, not scandalous in life, though consciously unconverted, may lawfully partake of it. he also wrote "A Guide to Christ" (1714); "The Safety of appearing in the Day of Judgment in the Righteousness of Christ," which was reprinted at Edinburgh in 1792; and " The Trial of Assurance " (1796).


Solstice (Lat. sol, the sun, and stare, to stand), the period in the annual revolution of the earth round the sun when he is at that point in the ecliptic furthest north or south from the equator, or in other words reaches his greatest northern or southern declination. There are two solstices in the year: the summer solstice, June 22, when the sun seems to traverse the tropic of Cancer; and the winter solstice, Dec. 22, when he reaches his greatest southern declination, and appears to traverse the tropic of Capricorn. For several days before and after the solstice there is but a slight variation in the sun's apparent declination, and so far as his motion from and toward the ecliptic is concerned he may be said to stand still. The solstitial points are the two points of the sun's greatest elevation above or depression below the equator; and a circle through these points and the poles of the earth is called the solstitial colure.

Soluble Glass

See Glass, Soluble.

Soluble Silicates

See Glass, Soluble.

Solway Frith

Solway Frith, an arm of the Irish sea, which extends 40 m. N. E. between England and Scotland, with a breadth varying from 24 m., between St. Bees Head in Cumberland and Rayberry Head in Kirkcudbrightshire, to 2 m. It receives on the English side the rivers i Derwent, Ellen, Waver, Wampool, and Eden; and on the Scottish side, the Urr, Nith, and Annan. Whitehaven, Maryport, and Allonby | are on the English side, and Annan and Kirkcudbright on the Scottish. At ebb tide the broad sands which occupy a considerable portion of the frith are left dry.

Somers Islands

See Bermudas.


Somersetshire, a S. W. county of England, bordering on the counties of Gloucester, Wilts, Dorset, and Devon, and the Bristol channel: area, 1,636 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 463,412. The coast is indented by several bays, the chief of which is Bridge water bay. The principal rivers are the Avon, Frome, Yeo, Axe, Brue, and Parret. The Avon, Bridgewater, and other canals, and the Great Western railway intersect the county. The surface is hilly, but there is also a great extent of marshy land, and much of the soil is very fertile. Wheat and potatoes are the principal crops, and large numbers of cattle and sheep are reared. Coal, iron, and lead are largely produced. Woollen cloth, canvas, gloves, silk, lace, paper, glass, and various kinds of iron ware are manufactured. Somersetshire contains many remains of antiquity. Bristol is partly in this county, and the other principal towns are Bath, the capital,'Wells, Taunton, Bridgewater, and Frome.