Lima, the capital of Peru and of the department and province of its own name, on the Rimac river, 7 m. from Callao, its port on the Pacific; lat, 12° 2' S., Ion. 77° 7' W.; pop. in 1863, 121,362, of whom 38,761 were foreigners. The city, which is triangular, stands on a plain in a valley sloping gradually to the sea; it is 500 ft. above Callao, but so gentle is the slope that the road appears absolutely level. To the west and south no eminence intercepts the view or breaks the winds; but 60 m. to the east rises the Cordillera in regular stages, while spurs trending shoreward from the Andes sweep close by the town N. and E., and afford it a complete shelter. The city is 2 m. long and 1 1/4 m. wide, and is divided by the Rio Rimac. The lower or southern and by far larger portion is surrounded by strong walls built in 1683. The streets average 34 ft. in width, cross at right angles, are for the most part paved with cobblestone, and nearly all have sidewalks 5 ft. wide of flags imported from Europe. Open gutters run down many of the streets parallel to the river. The city is well lighted with gas.

The walled portion has 12 gates, the most beautiful of which are those of Callao and Maravillas; the other portion, encircled by mountains, has two entrances, La Guia and La Piedra Liza. The river is crossed by a stone bridge of six arches, built in 1610, 500 ft. long and 190 ft. high. The houses, owing to the infrequency of rain, are flat-roofed, and often unsubstantially covered; most of them have only two stories, as earthquakes are common. The entrance is usually through a large gateway leading to a courtyard, which is generally embellished with fountains, statues, flowers, shrubs, and rare trees. The wooden lattices on the balconies have of late years given place to glazed windows; and the exterior of the houses is now painted in colors at once more gay and less fantastic than formerly, while stone has superseded adobe in their construction. The Plaza Mayor, the most spacious of the 33 public squares of Lima, embraces an area of nine acres in the centre of the city. Marble seats and vases are placed here and there; there is a fountain in each of the four corners, and one in the centre surrounded by a gorgeous garden.

This fountain is of bronze, 40 ft. high, with a stone basement ornamented with eight lions and as many griffins, and surmounted by a statue of Fame. The N. W. and S. TV. sides are lined with stone columns and arcades dating from 1693, under the latter of which are brilliant shops, the chief dry-goods and fashion marts of the place, the upper part of the structures being occupied as dwellings. There are numerous beautiful public edifices, the most remarkable of which are the cathedral, the archbishop's and the government palaces, and the town hall, all constructed by Francisco Pizarro, whose ashes repose beneath the grand altar of the first. The cathedral is of stone, 320 ft. long, and surmounted by two towers 133 ft. high. The interior is sumptuously ornamented, the decorations including a magnificent portrait of St. Veronica by Murillo. The edifice, which cost in the first place $594,000, was greatly damaged by the earthquake of 1746, and was rebuilt by the viceroy Count Superunda. There are 50 other ecclesiastical edifices, of which 15 are public chapels, five are parish churches, and the remainder are attached to convents and monasteries.

San Pedro, one of the most splendid churches, founded in 1598, is of immense size, has 17 altars, and is decorated in good taste; while some others have services and ornaments in gold, silver, and diamonds and other gems of incalculable value. The total number of persons engaged in religious services in Lima is 1,800. Many monasteries and convents have recently been suppressed. The government palace, once the property and residence of Pizarro, is large but unsightly; it contains the president's dwelling, with the several government offices, and the national printing office. The mint, which dates from 1565, is provided with modern machinery. The Lima university, founded in 1551, is the oldest in America; the present building was erected in 1576, but for some years past no lectures have been given in its halls, and the university no longer holds the exclusive privilege of conferring degrees. The eight national colleges are: the colleges of law, theology, medicine, and obstetrics, the school of arts and trades, the naval and military, intermediate, and normal schools. There are also about 70 public and private schools, and an orphan school. The first establishment founded by the independent government, in 1822. was the public library, now containing about 40,000 volumes.

There are numerous charitable institutions, many being sustained by foreigners. The two military establishments are St. Catharine's barracks and the powder manufactory, the latter with machinery brought from Europe. The general cemetery, outside the gate of Maravillas, is one of the finest on the continent. Chief among the public promenades is the Paseo de los Descalzos, laid out in delightful avenues and alleys, with a road for carriages and equestrians. The centre is occupied by an enclosed garden with gorgeous flowers, and set off with 100 iron urns on pedestals 6 ft. high, and 12 colossal marble statues, symbolizing the signs of the zodiac, resting on plinths of beautiful stone. The Alameda Nueva or del Acho, with three parallel alleys, one of which is for equestrians, has a fine marble statue of Columbus unveiling an Indian woman. Few American cities have a larger number of handsome statues than Lima. That of Bolivar in the Plaza de la Constitucion is a magnificent bronze equestrian statue, weighing 11 tons, mounted on a marble pedestal, with bassi-rilievi of the battles of Ayacucho and Junin. The principal places of amusement are the theatre, built in 1614; the circus of the Plaza de Acho, the largest arena for bull fights in the world, having accommodations for 9,000 spectators; and the Coliseo or cockpit.

Bull fights are still in high favor in Lima, and the weekly performances are attended by vast crowds comprising all classes. Cock fights, despite frequent prohibitions, are still passionately persisted in; and, although those interested in the game are mostly of the lower orders, many amateurs from the better classes attend the fights each afternoon. The abattoir, outside the gate of Monserrate, a place for slaughtering sheep and cattle, was purchased by the government for $320,000 in 1855, and the proceeds are paid into the national treasury. The only public market of importance occupies a portion of the Con-cepcion convent. - The manufactures are very limited. In the environs are several potteries in which common ware is made. About 1860 a factory was established for the manufacture of paper by machinery from the pulp of the yuca plant, which abounds in Peru. There are also manufactories of aerated waters and of tallow and sperm candles; and an indifferent kind of glue is made in small quantity. The high price of all kinds of labor renders the competition of native with foreign manufactures impossible; hence, although the various trades are represented by some skilful artisans, these find little encouragement save from the poorer classes.

Photography has attained rare perfection here as elsewhere in the tropics, the chief elements of success being the pure sky and bright sun. Printing has also made considerable progress within a few years; there are now (1874) in Lima, besides the national printing office, several other establishments where work is executed in the best modern style, in three of which, with steam presses, are printed daily papers having a comparatively large circulation. Four lines of railway lead from Lima to Callao, to Chancay, to Chorrillos, and to Oroya, the distances being 7, 60, 8, and 130 m. respectively; three others, to Huacho, Piura, and Pisco, are to be completed in 1876; and each has telegraph wires open to public service. Lima is the chief centre of the Peruvian commerce, which is carried on through the port of Callao. - The original elements of the population were Indians, whites, and Africans, the intermixture of which has produced a great variety of hybrids. Since the importation of Africans ceased (1793), the number of negroes has greatly decreased, and the race is now represented by a few aged individuals of unmixed blood.

Since the abolition of slavery in 1855 large numbers of Chinese have been imported, most of whom, after recovering their liberty, either keep gaming houses or eating houses, or become money lenders. The Indians are for the most part muleteers and domestics; the mestizos and other half-breeds are public vendors and mechanics. The Spanish natives are courteous, affable, and generous, though for the most part improvident. The men are often well educated, but intellectual culture is little attended to among the women, whose chief acquirements beyond reading and writing are needlework, music, dancing, and painting. The saya and manto, formerly so common, are now things of the past; the dress is mostly of black silk, and the only head cover is a long veil; but French fashions are now common, and among men universal. - Lima was founded on Jan. 6, 1535, by Francisco Pizarro, who, from the date (the festival of Epiphany, when the worship of Christ by the wise men or kings of the East is celebrated), named it Ciudad de los Reyes (City of Kings); but that name soon gave place to Lima, probably a Spanish corruption of Rimac. Pizarro was assassinated here on June 26, 1541. The city was elevated to a bishopric in the course of the same century, and live provincial councils were held there, the first of which was that of 1583. It has frequently been visited by earthquakes, the most disastrous being those of 1582, 1586, 1630, 1678, 1697, 1746, 1828, and 1868; that of 1746 proved fatal to the port. (See Cal-lao.) On July 12, 1821, it was entered by the Chilian army under San Martin, who on the 28th was proclaimed protector of independent Peru; and on July 29, 1838, the inhabitants revolted against Gen. Santa Cruz. The yellow fever committed frightful ravages in Lima in 1854, the only disastrous epidemic recorded in its annals.

Calles de la Coca and de Bodegones, Lima.

Calles de la Coca and de Bodegones, Lima.