I. A N. E. County Of Virginia, separated from Maryland by the Potomac; area, 460 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 20,929, of whom 5,691 were colored. The surface is hilly, having the Blue Ridge on the N. W. border. The Kittoctan mountain is in the middle. The soil varies, but a large portion is fertile. It is traversed by the Washington and Ohio railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 537,026 bushels of wheat, 842,128 of Indian corn, 120,811 of oats, 32,759 of potatoes, 34,519 lbs. of wool, 467,363 of butter, and 8,544 tons of hay. There were 5,572 horses, 5,749 milch cows, 11,475 other cattle, 8,934 sheep, and 14,594 swine; 6 manufactories of carriages, 2 of woollen goods, 17 flour mills, 7 tanneries, and 7 currying establishments. Capital, Leesburg.
II. An E. County Of Tennessee, intersected by the Tennessee river; area, about 300 sq. m. It has been formed since the census of 1870. Portions of it are elevated. The soil is generally fertile, and iron and other minerals are found. The East Tennessee, Virginia, and Georgia railroad traverses it. The assessed value of property in 1871 was $1,876,-541. Capital, Loudon.
I. John Claudius, a Scottish horticulturist, born at Cambuslang, Lanarkshire, April 8, 1783, died in London, Dec. 14, 1843. He was educated at Edinburgh, and in 1803 went to London, where he engaged in landscape gardening, and published several essays on that and kindred subjects. In 1806, with his father, he rented a farm in Middlesex, and subsequently a still larger one in Oxfordshire, where he gave instruction to agricultural pupils. In 1812 he retired with a competency, and made a journey of professional observation in Germany and Russia. In 1814, finding that the greater portion of his property had been lost through injudicious investments, he once more applied himself to landscape gardening, and undertook the compilation of a large work on horticulture. In order to perfect his knowledge of continental gardening, he visited France and Italy in 1819. In 1822 his " Encyclopaedia of Gardening" made its appearance; in 1825 his " Encyclopedia of Agriculture;" in 1829, his "Encyclopaedia of Plants " (of which, however, little more than the plan was his own); and in 1838 his " Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum, or an Account of all the Trees and Shrubs, whether Wild or Cultivated, of Great Britain." This work, the most laborious and expensive of all his literary undertakings, proved a source of great pecuniary embarrassment to its author, involving him in difficulties which preyed on his health and accelerated his death.
He produced various other works, among them an " Encyclopedia of Cottage, Farm, and Villa Architecture," which has become a handbook with all rural and suburban builders in England. In 1826 he established the "Gardener's Magazine," which he continued till his death; in 1828, the "Magazine of Natural History;" in 1834, the "Architectural Magazine," suspended in 1838; and in 1836, the "Suburban Gardener." All these he edited simultaneously with the progress of his Arboretum, notwithstanding that he had for years suffered under great bodily infirmities, and had lost by disease his right arm and the use of all but two lingers of his left hand, being thus obliged to employ an amanuensis. II Jane, an English authoress, wife of the preceding, born near Birmingham in 1808, died in London. July 13, 1858. Her father, Mr. Thomas Webb of Ritwell hall, having met with reverses of fortune in building speculations, she turned her attention to literature, and published in 1827 a novel entitled "The Mummy," containing a quasi-prophetic description of the steam plough, which, attracting the attention of Mr. Loudon, led to an acquaintance, which in 1831 resulted in their marriage.
Mrs. Loudon contributed to many of her husband's works, and after his death prepared new editions of some of the most important of them. She received a pension of £100 from the civil list for services rendered to science by her husband and by herself. Among the works which she wrote or compiled herself are: "Gardening for Ladies " (London, 1840; new ed., 1849); "Ladies' Companion to the Flower Garden " (1841; 5th ed., 1847); " Ladies' Flower Garden of Bulbous Plants" (4to, with numerous colored plates, 1844); " British Wild Flowers " (1846); and " Botany for Ladies" (1849).