Peter John Gabriel, an American general, son of Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, the founder of the German Lutheran church in America, born at Trappe, Montgomery co., Pa., Oct. 1, 1746, died near Philadelphia, Oct. 1, 1807. He was ordained to the ministry in England, and preached at Woodstock, Va. His last sermon was upon the duties men owe. to their country; and saying, "There is a time for all things, a time to preach and a time to fight, and now is the time to fight,11 he stripped off his gown after the service, put on a uniform, read his commission as colonel, and formed a regiment among his parishioners. He was made brigadier general in 1777, and major general at the close of the revolution. After the war he removed to Pennsylvania, where he was elected a member of the supreme executive council, and in 1785 became vice president of the commonwealth. He was a member of congress in 1789-'91, 1793-'5, and 1799-1801. In 1801 he was elected United States senator, but resigned the next year, and was appointed supervisor of the revenue for the district of Pennsylvania. From 1803 till his death he was collector of the port of Philadelphia. His life has been written by H. A. Muhlenberg (Philadelphia, 1849).
Gotthilf Henry Ernst, an American clergyman and botanist, brother of the preceding, born in New Providence, Montgomery co., Pa., Nov. 17, 1753, died in Lancaster, May 23, 1815. At the age of 10 he was sent to the university of Halle. In 1770 he returned to America, and in 1774 became assistant to his father, then pastor of the Lutheran congregation in Philadelphia. In 1780 he became pastor of the church at Lancaster. He was a member of the American philosophical society, of the Gesellschaft naturforschen-der Freunde in Berlin, of the philosophical and physical societies of Göttingen, and of various other associations in Germany and Sweden. His chief works are: Catalogus Plantarum Americoe Sejjtentrionalis (Lancaster, 1813), and Descriptio Uberior Graminum, etc. (1817)1 III. William Augustus, an American clergyman, great-grandson of Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, born in Philadelphia, Sept. 16, 1796. He graduated at the university of Pennsylvania in 1814, was ordained for the ministry of the Protestant Episcopal church in 1817, and became assistant in Christ's church, of which Bishop White was rector.
In 1821 he accepted the rectorship of St. James's church, Lancaster, where he was instrumental in establishing the first public school in the state out of Philadelphia. He founded in 1828 a school at Flushing, L. L, which was afterward known as St. Paul's college, and for nearly 20 years was its principal, in 184G he became rector of the church of the Holy Communion, New York, which was erected by his sister, and was the earliest free Episcopal church. Not long afterward he began his efforts to secure the founding of St. Luke's hospital, which was erected in Fifth avenue and 54th street, and opened in 1858, Dr. Muhlenberg becoming its first pastor and superintendent, winch post he still holds (1875). In 1845 he organized the first Protestant sisterhood in the United States, and the ladies of this association are in charge of St. Luke's hospital. He has also, within the past few years, made an effective beginning toward establishing an industrial Christian settlement at St. Johnland, Long Island, about 45 m. from New York. He is the author of the well known hymn, "I would not live alway," and of other poems, has published " Church Poetry, being Portions of the Psalms in Verse and Hymns suited to the Festivals and Fasts, from various authors'1 (1823); in conjunction with Bishop Wain-wright, " Music of the Church " (1852); and " The People's Psalter " (1858). He originated the famous memorial movement in the Episcopal church, and has written much on evangelical catholic union.