James, a British philosopher, born in Logie Pert, near Montrose, Forfarshire, April 6, 1773, died in Kensington, June 23, 1836. He was educated at the grammar school of Montrose and the university of Edinburgh, where he excelled in Greek and metaphysics. He was licensed to preach in 1798, but abandoned the profession, removed to London in 1800, became editor of the " Literary Journal," which was soon discontinued, and was an occasional contributor to the principal British reviews. He soon attracted the notice of Jeremy Bentham, was for several years domesticated in his house, and was the chief expositor of his opinions in England. On the establishment of the "Westminster Review" in 1824 by Bentham, Mill became one of its principal contributors, writing for it important articles on the "Formation of Opinions," the "Ballot," "Aristocracy," .and other subjects. For ten years much of his time was occupied in writing his " History of British India" (3 vols. 4to, 1817-'18; continued to 1835 by Prof. II. IT. Wilson, 9 vols. 8vo, 1840-'46). It was without a rival as a source of information; and though he censured the conduct of the East India company, his ability and familiarity with its affairs caused the directors in 1819 to introduce him into their home establishment, where he managed their correspondence with India in the revenue branch of the administration; and he became in time head of the department of .Indian correspondence.
His official duties did not preclude the continuance of his labors as an author, and he contributed to the supplement to the earlier editions of the " Encyclopaedia Britannica." His articles on colonies, education, government, jurisprudence, law of nations, liberty of the press, and prison discipline were reprinted in a volume (1828), and are among his most effective writings. His "Elements of Political Economy" (1821-'2) presented the views of Ricardo in a precise and clear style. His most elaborate work is his "Analysis of the Phenomena of the Hu-' man Mind " (2 vols. 8vo, 1829), an ingenious exposition of the sensational philosophy. His last publication was a fragment containing a severe criticism on Sir James Mackintosh's dissertation on the progress of ethical philosophy (1835).
John Stuart, an English philosopher, son of the preceding, born in London, May 20, 1806, died in Avignon, France, May 9, 1873. He was educated by his father in a singularly pedantic manner, and for many years subjected himself to the severest intellectual training, while pursuing a wide range of studies. In 1823 he became a clerk in the India house, in which after a series of promotions he received in 1856 the appointment of examiner of Indian correspondence, a post which had been held by his father, and which he retained till the extinction of the East India company in 1858. He was selected to edit Bentham's "Rationale of Judicial Evidence" (1827), to which he added notes and supplementary chapters. He was a frequent contributor to the journals in favor of advanced liberal views during the agitation of the reform bill. In the "London and Westminster Review," which he conducted from 1834 to 1840, appeared his masterly articles on Bentham and Coleridge, in which his aim was to interpret between their respective admirers, criticising his own party and reporting truths which it might learn from its opponents. He also wrote for the "Edinburgh Review " and other leading periodicals.
He first became widely known by the publication of his " System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive" (2 vols., 1843), in which the whole character of his philosophy appears. The predominance which he gives to sensation in psychology involves the predominance of induction in logic. He denies the existence of a 'priori truths, affirms that knowledge is limited to phenomena, and ignores causation beyond phenomenal conditions. His " Essays on some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy " (1844) was preliminary to his second great work, entitled "Principles of Political Economy, with some of their Applications to Social Philosophy" (1848), a subject peculiarly fitted to his adroitness in the treatment of positive problems and palpable interests. He aimed, like Adam Smith, to associate the exposition of general principles with their practical applications, and also to introduce the new ideas, especially respecting currency, foreign trade, and colonization, which had been elicited by discussions subsequent to the publication of the " Wealth of Nations;" to maintain a course of strict scientific reasoning while exhibiting the economical phenomena of society in their relation to the best social ideas of the present time.
His " Dissertations and Discussions, Political, Philosophical, and Historical," collected chiefly from the " Edinburgh " and " Westminster " reviews (2 vols., 1859; vol. iii., 1867; vol. iv. in preparation, 1874), embrace his views on the most important topics. He maintains that scientific certainty is only relative, and that theology can have no firmer basis than an inference from the analogies of experience; that morality is but a means to an end, which is happiness, that approximation to an ideal standard of inward harmony is the method of attaining that end, that the realization of this harmony is not a moral but an assthetical achievement, and that the utilitarian is entirely different from the selfish view of life; that poetry, music, painting, and sculpture have great social value and educative power; that political questions should be decided by the deliberately formed opinions of a select few, specially educated for the task, whose rectitude of purpose should be secured by rendering them responsible to the many; that the ideal of a rational democracy is not that the people themselves govern, but that they have security for good government; that there is no essential difference between the powers of woman and man, and that she should be his partner in all actual and intellectual enterprises, and in all social and political privileges and responsibilities; and that all history is a progressive chain of causes and effects, the complex facts of each generation being caused by that which preceded it, and moulding that which follows it.
He published also in 1859 a work "On Liberty," the object of which is to show that our age manifests an increasing despotism of social and political masses over the moral and intellectual freedom of individuals, that the supremacy of public opinion discourages the strength or intensity of any well marked type of character, that energetic characters on any large scale are becoming merely traditional, and that the only guarantee against the decline of our civilization is to erect by common consent every individual human mind into an impregnable and independent fortress, within which no social authority shall have any jurisdiction. In his "Thoughts on Parliamentary Reform" (1859) he recommends the extension of the electoral suffrage to all householders without distinction of sex, on condition of proving their ability to read, write, and calculate, and a considerable extension to persons of certain educational qualifications; advocates cumulative voting; and opposes the use of the ballot. His later works are: " Considerations on Representative Government" (1861); "Utilitarianism " (1862); " Auguste Comte and Positivism" (1865); "Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy" (1865); "England and Ireland " (1868); "The Subjection of Women" (1869); " Chapters and Speeches on the Irish Land Question" (1870); and "Autobiography" (posthumous, 1873; German translation tv Karl Kolb, Stuttgart, 1874). In 1865 Mr. Mill was elected to parliament from Westmin and acted with the advanced liberals.
In 1866 he presented a petition for woman suffrage, and moved an amendment to the reform bill striking out the words limiting the electoral franchise to males. In 1868 he lost his seat. He was chosen rector of the university of St. Andrews in 1867, and his inaugural address was published in the same year. His posthumous "Three Essays on Religion: Nature, the Utility of Religion, Theism," appeared in 1874. - See " John Stuart Mill: His Life and Works " (1873). 12 sketches by J. R. Fox Bourne, W. T. Thornton, Herbert Spencer, and others.
A S. W. County Of Iowa, bordering on Nebraska, from which it is separated by the Missouri river, and drained by the Nish-nabatona river and branches; area, about 400 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 8,718. It is intersected by the Burlington and Missouri Eiver, and the Kansas City, St. Joseph, and Council Bluffs railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 162,901 bushels of wheat, 1,380,-055 of Indian corn, 191,569 of oats, 80,-074 of potatoes, 11,652 lbs. of wool, 182,755 of butter, and 16,471 tons of hay. There were 4,122 horses, 3,638 milch cows, 6,816 other cattle, 3,354 sheep, and 13,985 swine; 3 manufactories of brick, 2 of brick and stone, 4 saw mills, and 5 flour mills. Capital, Glenwood. H. A S. E. central county of Dakota, recently formed, and not included in the census of 1870; area, about 1,000 sq. m. It is intersected by the Dakota river and several of its affluents. The surface is rolling, and consists mostly of prairies.