I. Theodor

Theodor, a German author, born in Potsdam, Sept. 19, 1808, died in Berlin, May 30, 1861. He was educated in Berlin and Leipsic, and became prominent among the young Germany school of writers and politicians. His liberalism giving umbrage to the government, he travelled in various parts of Europe, and was permitted to teach at the university of Berlin after his return in 1839. In 1848 he was appointed professor of general literature and history at Breslau, and in 1850 he became director of the library of the Berlin university. Among his earliest writings was Madonna, oder Unterhaltungen mit einer Hei-ligen (Leipsic, 1834); its morbid though poetical views of life are said to have prompted Charlotte Stieglitz to commit suicide from devotion to her husband, whom she hoped to divert from his varied troubles by the greater sorrow caused by her death. (See Stieglitz, Heinrich.) Mundt edited her writings under the title Charlotte Stieglitz, ein Denkmal (Berlin, 1835). Among his subsequent works are a series of novels, including Thomas Münzer (Altona, 1841), and Carmola, oder die Wieder-taufe (Hanover, 1844); Mendoza, oder der Va-ter der Schelme (Berlin, 1847); and Die Mata-dore (Leipsic, 1850). He also published Spa-ziergange und Weltfahrten (Altona, 1838-'40), Volkerschau auf Reisen (Stuttgart, 1840), and other sketches of travels, and a delineation of the character of Knebel in the edition of that author's posthumous works which he prepared in concert with Varnhagen von Ense. Among his other productions are Kunst der deutschen Prosa; Allgemeine Literaturgeschichte, in continuation of that of Schlegel; Dramaturgic; Geschichte der Literatur der Gegenwart, etc.

His Geschichte der Gesellschaft (1844) was followed by a Geschichte der deutschen Stdnde (1854); and he published in 1851 a work on Machiavelli. In 1844 he began the publication of an edition of Luther's political works. His last work, Rom und Neapel, appeared in 1860.

II. Kara (Muller)

Kara (Muller), best known by her pseudonyme of Luise Muhlbach, a German novelist, wife of the preceding, born in Neu-Brandcnburg, Jan. 2, 1814, died in Berlin, Sept. 27, 1873. She was married in 1839, and in the same year published her first novel. The long series of romances which followed gained great popularity, and brought her a large fortune, enabling her to support her husband during the long illness which preceded his death, and to build a handsome residence in Berlin, where she was a prominent figure in literary society. Mme. Mundt was an advocate of female suffrage and of great changes in the social position of women, an extreme liberal in her political views, and a frequent" participant in reform movements in these and similar directions. She wrote many essays on social questions. Her historical romances have been translated into English, and are as well known in Great Britain and America as in Germany. The facts of history are very freely treated in them, and the imagination of the writer is allowed full liberty; but the narratives are spirited, and the social features of the periods of which they treat are often fairly represented.

The best known of these works are "Frederick the Great and his Court," "Joseph II.-and his Court," " The Merchant of Berlin," "Frederick the Great and his Family," "Berlin and Sans-Souci," " Henry VIII. and Catharine Parr," "Louisa of Prussia and her Times," " Marie Antoinette and her Son," "The Daughter of an Empress," "Napoleon and the Queen of Prussia," "The Empress Josephine," "Napoleon and Blucher," "Queen Hortense," "Goethe and Schiller," "Andreas Hofer," "Prince Eugene and his Times," and "Mohammed Ali and his House." Among her latest works were "The Thirty Years' War," "Emperor William," and "From Koniggratz to Chiselhurst," all published in 1873. She wrote in all more than 50 separate novels, comprising nearly 100 volumes.