I. A S. W. province of the Argentine Republic, bounded N. by San Juan, E. by San Luis, S. by the unsettled districts W. of Buenos Ayres, and W. by Chili, from which it is separated by the Andes; area, 65,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1869, including inhabitants of foreign birth, 65,413. The entire western portion of the province is mountainous, being covered by the main chain and detached spurs of the Andes; while to the east is a ridge extending southward from the province of San Juan and forming the dividing line with San Luis, being a continuation of the Famatina mountains of La Rioja. In the vicinity of the capital rises the Paramillos chain, whose maximum elevation is about 10,000 ft., and near these lies the lofty valley of Uspallata, with a mean elevation of 6,000 ft. Among the peaks skirting this part of the republic are some of the highest in the Andes, including Aconcagua, the culminating point of America; and at the extreme south are the Nevada and Payen systems, the former attaining to a height of 15,000 ft, Nearly all the mountains here referred to are volcanoes, some of which are in continual eruption. The principal rivers are the Mendoza and the Tunuyan, the first descending from Aconcagua, and each forming several lagoons from which extend natural canals very useful for irrigation.
Agates, amethysts, carnelians, and sapphires are found. Several gold mines were formerly worked; in the Uspallata valley are mines of argentiferous lead; copper, iron, lime, chalk, pumice stone, coal, pitch, petroleum, and beautiful marbles are very abundant. Mineral springs are common in the west; and there are thermal springs celebrated for their medicinal properties, and for a copious yield of boraeic acid. The climate is salubrious, and the soil is generally fertile, save in the south, where it is naturally sterile, but improved by irrigation and manuring. The chief products of the forests are white and black poplar; cereals of all kinds are abundant, as are also the grape and a great variety of other fruits; and cotton, tobacco, and hemp grow well. Cotton and woollen stuffs are manufactured, and several sorts of fruit are preserved; but there is great lack of means of transport to the sea. Most of the products are sent across the Andes by the paso del Portillo into Chili. There are numerous schools; but of 17,216 children between 6 and 14 years in 1809, only 2,132 attended school; and 55,395 persons out of the whole population could neither read nor write. Mendoza is divided into twelve departments.
A City, capital of the province, 610 in. W. N. W. of Buenos Ayres; pop. in 1869, 8,124. It is surrounded by several canals, one of which traverses the town, and the banks of all of which are fringed with poplars. Every available spot of land in the vicinity is highly cultivated. The chief occupations are agriculture, wine making, and fruit preserving. It was almost totally destroyed by an earthquake in 1861, but is in rapid course of reconstruction. In 1770 Mendoza was made the seat of government of the viceroyalty of La Plata.
Mendoza, a family of Spain, several of whose members have been distinguished.
Inigo Lopez De, marquis de Santillana, born at Carrion de los Condes in 1398, died in Guadalajara, March 26, 1458. He inherited vast estates from his lather, the grand admiral of Castile. He was successful against the Aragonese in the battle of Araviana and the defence of Alcala, and as commander of the army sent against the Moors whom he repeatedly overthrew; for all which exploits he obtained the titles of count and marquis. He afterward went to court, and took part in the internecine struggles of the kingdom. He cultivated letters, and was the friend and protector of the learned of his time. The peculiarly Italian form of the sonnet was introduced by him into Spain. His chief production is the Comedieta de Ponza, founded on the story of a naval combat near the island of Ponza in 1435; his most popular is the Refranes, "Proverbs," sometimes called the Centiloquio, as it comprises 100 rhymed sentences. His other productions embrace sonnets, a Canto funebre on the death of Enrique de Villena, critical and historical dissertations, and poems.
Pedro Gonzales De, son of the preceding, born in Castile in May, 1428, died in Guadalajara, Jan. 11, 1495. Before 1473 he was archbishop of Seville, and in that year he became cardinal of Spain. He distinguished himself in the battle of Toro, March 1, 1476, and shortly afterward accompanied Queen Isabella to put down the rebellion at Segovia. In 1479 he showed much favor to the persecuted Jews. He was translated to the archbishopric of Toledo in 1482, and appointed grand guardian of the Alhambra in 1492. From his great influence at the court of Ferdinand and. Isabella, he was usually called rex tertivs, "the third king." 151. Diego Hnrtado de, son of the count Tendilla, and grandnephew of the marquis de Santillana, born in Granada about 1503, died in Madrid in April, 1575. He was educated at the university of Salamanca, and learned Arabic at Granada, where he wrote his Lazarillo de Tormes (Antwerp and Burgos, 1554). This is a satirical romance, and became the foundation for the whole class of Spanish fictions in the genero picaresco, which the Gil Bias of Le Sage subsequently made famous throughout Europe. The Lazarillo was attributed by a conscientious authority to Jose de Sigiienza. (See Mcolas Antonio's Bibliotheca Nova, vol. i., p. 291.) A Paris edition was published in 1020, and a French translation (including a second part from another pen, very inferior to Men-doza's) in the same year.
The first part was prohibited by the inquisition. After leaving the university he served in the Spanish armies in Italy, where he profited by the teaching of the professors at Bologna, Padua, and Rome. Charles V. sent him as ambassador to the republic of Venice in 1538, and there he exerted himself for the collection of Greek manuscripts. He was charged with the imperial interests in the council of Trent, whence he was withdrawn in 1547, to command the Spanish garrison at Siena. Having been expelled from Siena by the inhabitants, he set out immediately as special plenipotentiary to Rome. For six years he was regarded as the head of the imperial party throughout Italy. He returned to Spain when the emperor changed his policy before abdication. Philip II. banished him from court in 1507, and he retired to Granada. Toward the end of 1574 he was permitted to return to Madrid; but he soon died. His poems display the old Castilian national tono of sentiment and reflection, modified by his familiarity with the classical and Italian poets. His epistle to Boscan and hymn to Espinosa attest at once great genius and vast classical erudition. There is but one edition of his poems (4to, Madrid, 1610). His principal historical work is the Guerra contra los Moriscos, a record of the Moorish insurrection.
The author is so impartial with respect to the enemies of his faith and people that the book could not be published till long after his death (Valencia, 1776). His life by Antonio is contained in the Bibliotheca Nova, IV. Antonio de, brother of the preceding, born in Granada about 1495, died in Lima, July 21, 1552. On April 17, 1535, he was appointed viceroy of New Spain, where he arrived in October, invested with full power to act in opposition to previous royal orders. His administration was distinguished by many wise reforms, especially in matters concerning the Indians, whose sufferings were materially alleviated by his efforts. In 1536 he introduced into the city of Mexico the printing press, the first brought to the new world, and the first coining, in the same year, was done by his orders; he also founded the first college there (1537). In 1551 he was transferred to the viceroyalty of Peru. He was the first of a series of 64 viceroys in New Spain, and his administration was the longest and most illustrious of them all.