Buenos Ayres (Bwaynos I'rez; Eng. pron. usu. Bonos Ai'rez), the largest province of the Argentine Republic, extending along the Atlantic, from the mouth of the Plata to that of the Rio Negro; on the NE. it is washed by the Plata and the Parana. In administration the province is independent of the central government. Its area is about 118,000 sq. m. (close on that of Great Britain and Ireland), with a pop. (excluding the city, a province by itself) of 1,210,000. - The city of Buenos Ayres, the federal capital of the Argentine Republic, stands on the right bank of the Plata, which here, at a distance of 150 miles from the open sea, is 28 miles across, but so shallow that ships drawing 15 feet of water are obliged to anchor 7 or 8 miles from the shore. Monte Video, on the opposite shore, possesses a better harbour; but Buenos Ayres has greater facilities in carrying on an inland trade, and undertook, moreover, in 1887, a system of harbour works to connect two channels of the Plata, and so bring the largest vessels up to the wharfs. The city is partitioned into blocks of about 150 yards square, with muddy, uneven roads; still, new houses, generally of brick faced with marble or stucco, are everywhere taking the place of the old comfortless Spanish-American erections, and the value of property has enormously increased. The principal buildings are the cathedral, second in South America to that of Lima alone, the chapel of Santa Felicitas, with elaborate frescoes, Anglican, Lutheran, Methodist, and Presbyterian churches, the university, a military college, the new post-office, the mint and government offices, and some of the palatial railway depots. There are also printing establishments; manufactories of cigars, carpets, cloth, furniture, and boots and shoes; some small dockyards; and an Emigrants' Home. The city is the seat of an archbishopric, and possesses several public libraries and museums, eleven hospitals, and numerous other charitable institutions. The terminus of six railways, it has some 150 miles of tramway lines; there is cable communication with Europe and the United States, and a good telephone service. The drainage is well planned, and the water and gas supply excellent; the climate is not so exceptionally fine as the name of the town (' good airs or breezes') would imply. The exports (one-sixth to England) and imports (about one-half British) are practically those of the Argentine Republic; but there is also a river-trade averaging £3,500,000. Pop. (1902) 865,500. Buenos Ayres was founded in 1535, but was subsequently twice destroyed by the Indians. In 1806 a British force, which had just captured the city, was obliged to surrender; and in 1807 another, which attempted to recover the place, was repulsed with heavy loss; and these successes over so formidable a foe emboldened the colonists, three years afterwards, to throw off the yoke of Spain. In the insurrection of 1892 the city was bombarded.