Hyderabad (Haidardbad), or the Nizam's Dominions, a feudatory state of India, occupies the greater part of the Deccan proper or central plateau of southern India, between the provinces of Madras and Bombay. Area, 82,698 sq. m. (excluding the British assigned districts of Berar, q.v.); pop. (1901) 11,141,142. Only 1,138,666 are Mohammedans, found mainly in the capital, though the Nizam and state are Mohammedan. Telugu, Kanarese, and Marathi are the principal languages spoken. Education is making rapid strides. The surface is a slightly elevated tableland. The chief rivers are the Godavari, with its tributaries the Dudna, Manjira, and Pranhita; and the Kistna (Krishna), with the Bhima and Tunga-bhadra. In 1687 the territory, long called the Nizam's Dominions, became a province of the Mogul empire ; but soon after 1713 the viceroy of the Deccan made himself independent.
Hyderabad, the capital of the state, stands on the Musi's right bank, 1700 feet above the sea, 390 miles by rail NW. of Madras. It is 6 miles in circumference, and is surrounded by a stone wall. Population, 450,000. The palace of the Nizam, though architecturally unimportant, is of vast size. Hyderabad is a great stronghold of Mohammedanism. The principal mosque was fashioned after the model of the Great Mosque at Mecca ; in the interior are line monolithic granite columns, and outside the building is crowned by lofty minarets. Another remarkable edifice is the Char Minar or College, with four minarets resting on four connected arches, at which the four principal thoroughfares converge. On the opposite side of the river is the magnificent British Residency ; it stands in the midst of fine gardens, and communicates with the Nizam's palace by a bridge. The neighbourhood boasts of wild and picturesque scenery, and abounds with huge tanks and beautiful gardens. - Secunderabad (Sikan-darabad) is a British military cantonment 6 miles NE. of Hyderabad.
Hyderabad, the historical capital of Sind, and chief city of a district, stands 3 1/2 miles E. of the left bank of the Indus. On the other side is the Sind railway, terminating at Kurrachee. Hyderabad is famous for its silks, gold-work, pottery, lacquered ware, and arms. Pop. 70,000.