books



previous page: Photo Lighting | by Felix Raymer
  
page up: Art and Photography Books
  
next page: Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography Vol 6-10| by J. B. Schriever

Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography Vol 1-5| by J. B. Schriever



Back in the 70's of the last century - not so many years ago, after all - photography was in its infancy and but little practiced by the general public. The few professionals who made it their regular business prepared most of their own materials, plates, papers, etc., and the results were frequently very uncertain, as they depended largely upon local conditions, and on the skill and knowledge of the operator. Photography as applied today to the arts and sciences was unheard of. Now, there is hardly a science, industry, or enterprise of any account undertaken that photography, in some form or other, does not enter into. It is invaluable as an aid to research, study, and to the diffusion of knowledge...

TitleComplete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography. Vol 1-5
AuthorJ. B. Schriever
PublisherAmerican School Of Art And Photography
Year1909
Copyright1909, American School Of Art And Photography
AmazonComplete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography

J. B. Schriever, Editor-in-Chief popular Edition, Published By American School of Art and Photography

American School Of Art And Photography

Volume I. Elementary Photography

Volume II. Negative Developing and After-Manipulation

Volume III. General Exterior Photography Composition

Volume IV. Photographic Printing

Volume V. Photographic Printing. Part II

Part I: Volume 1: Elementary Photography

-Volume I. Elementary Photography. Preface
Back in the 70's of the last century - not so many years ago, after all - photography was in its infancy and but little practiced by the general public. The few professionals who made it their regular...
-Origin Of The Library
THE publication of these volumes is our response to a universal request probably never exceeded in the annals of technical education. Down through the past successful years of the American School of ...
-Studies And How They Were Produced. Volume I. Study
NUMBER TITLE Valambrosa 1 Street Performance 2 Eventide 3 At the Sea Shore 4 Home Sweet Home 5 The After Glow 6 Winter Afternoon 7 The Effort 8 In the Gloaming 9 Wading the Stream 10 A Winter...
-Chapter I. The Meaning Of Photography - Its History
1. Photography is the art of producing images of objects by the agency of light. Such images may be made on many different materials by direct contact of the object to be imaged with a sensitive surfa...
-Historical
9. The story of photography is that of a dream come true - a fancy transmutted into fact. Whoever was the first to wonder why the image of the summer clouds in a woodland pool, or his own face reflec...
-Historical. Continued
18. The pictures produced by this process, called, in honor of the inventor, Daguerreotype, have never been surpassed in delicacy and beauty. They are not really positives, but negatives of exceedin...
-Chapter II. The Camera - How To Operate It
34. While the above title might indicate that this volume is intended only for the beginner, yet we would advise those who have had some experience, but have possibly begun wrong, to carefully read th...
-General Description Of Cameras
42. Box Cameras. The Box Camera is the cheapest and simplest of all types of cameras. Some are made for use with films, others for plates, but they are seldom obtainable in sizes larger than 4x5. Box ...
-General Description Of Cameras. Part 2
53. Operating The Shutter Operating The Shutter. The Rotary Shutter shown in Illustration No. 5 is automatic in action and always set. It is operated by pressure on a lever, which protrudes from the ...
-General Description Of Cameras. Part 2. Continued
57. Diaphragms or Stops. The diaphragm or stop in a shutter is usually an opening which can be regulated from outside the lens barrel, making it larger or smaller in proportion to the amount of light ...
-General Description Of Cameras. Part 3
69. Fixed Focus Fixed Focus. This term applies chiefly to small box cameras or to those fitted with short focus single lenses. It does not mean any distinct kind of a lens with extraordinary power of...
-General Description Of Cameras. Part 4
75. Testing The Focus Testing The Focus. In order to test the focus select a building or object in strong sunlight. Determine the distance this object or building is from the camera, which distance, ...
-General Description Of Cameras. Part 5
81. Fixed Focus Box Cameras Require No Focusing Fixed Focus Box Cameras Require No Focusing. The fixed focus or box cameras contain no scale. As they are all a fixed general focus, such cameras need ...
-General Description Of Cameras. Part 6
86. Horizontal Swing Horizontal Swing. Most view cameras, and many of the better class hand cameras, are provided, in addition to the perpendicular swing, with a horizontal one, the object of this be...
-General Description Of Cameras. Part 7
93. Inserting Slide In Plate Holder Inserting Slide In Plate Holder. You will notice that the handle or top part of the slide, which covers the plate in the holder, is painted a light color on one si...
-General Description Of Cameras. Part 8
99. Ruby Light Ruby Light. As the dry plate on which the image is to be photographed is extremely sensitive to all white light, only non-actinic light - i. e., light that has no appreciable effect on...
-Chapter III. How To Proceed
105. The first and most important consideration in all good picture making is the angle of light. By comparing the lens and camera with the human eye, one can have a fair idea of the effect of light u...
-How To Proceed. Part 2
116. Developing Solutions Developing Solutions. The use of prepared developing powders is recommended to the beginner for his experiments in developing plates or films. These powders can be procured ...
-How To Proceed. Part 3
123. Definition Of A Negative Definition Of A Negative. The action that is taking place on the plate during development is as follows: The light that passes through the lens affects the plate in prop...
-Chapter IV. Beginners' Difficulties
132. Unable To See Image In The Finder Unable To See Image In The Finder. You have probably looked into the finder at the wrong angle; the camera was pointed toward the sun; or direct sunlight fell o...
-Beginners' Difficulties. Part 2
137. Image Very Dim And Hazy On Ground-Glass Image Very Dim And Hazy On Ground-Glass. (a) Caused by pointing the camera toward the sun and allowing the sunlight to either come into the lens direct or...
-Beginners' Difficulties. Part 3
140. Obtaining Sufficient Angle Of View In Narrow Streets Obtaining Sufficient Angle Of View In Narrow Streets. If the street is a narrow one and you are using a rectilinear lens - the majority of vi...
-Beginners' Difficulties. Part 4
146. Weak Ruby Light Weak Ruby Light. Even with the ruby lamp lighted, when you first enter the dark-room difficulty will be experienced in seeing, and you might think that you have not enough light....
-Beginners' Difficulties. Part 5
150. When To Stop Development When To Stop Development. It requires considerable practice to become expert in judging when a negative is correctly developed. Negatives of various kinds of lightings r...
-Beginners' Difficulties. Part 6
153. Judging When A Plate Is Fixed Judging When A Plate Is Fixed. A plate is not fixed until the white, milky appearance disappears from the back and the plate has remained in the hypo bath as long...
-Beginners' Difficulties. Part 7
160. Negative Will Not Fix Negative Will Not Fix. Caused by a hypo bath being extremely weak or too cold. A weak hypo bath, of course, is not strong enough to act upon the unused silver salts in the ...
-Chapter V. Kodaks And Films
166. This section is devoted to Kodak and Film Photography, including the manipulation of kodak or other film cameras and the handling and developing of the different classes of films, i. e., Eastman ...
-Kodaks And Films. Part 2
173. Daylight Loading Films Daylight Loading Films. Daylight loading spool films, as the name implies, can be loaded into the camera in daylight. The operation should be carried on in subdued light, ...
-Kodaks And Films. Part 3
180. Instantaneous Exposures Instantaneous Exposures. (Snap-shots.) Most of the box types of kodaks have shutters which are always set and are operated by pushing the lever alternately to right or le...
-Exposure Table
185. White walls and more than one window: Bright sunlight outside, 2 seconds; hazy sun, 5 seconds; cloudy bright, 10 seconds; cloudy dull, 20 seconds. 186. White walls and only one window: Bright ...
-Exposure Table. Part 2
197. Removing Film From Kodak Removing Film From Kodak. No dark-room is required for changing the spools. The operation can be performed in the open air, but to avoid all liability of fogging the ...
-Exposure Table. Part 3
202. Cutting Films Cutting Films. It is sometimes found preferable to cut the film up into the individual exposures before development. In this case you must exercise care in unrolling the film, so ...
-Exposure Table. Part 4
206. Washing Films Washing Films. The hypo must be thoroughly removed from the film. There are several ways of doing this. Place the film in a wash-bowl of cold water and allow it to soak, for five ...
-Exposure Table. Part 5
211. Kodoid Plates Or Cut Films Kodoid Plates Or Cut Films. Kodoid plates or cut films are used in the regular plate holders in the same manner as glass plates. They are, practically speaking, cut ...
-Exposure Table. Part 6
222. Removing Films From Film Pack Removing Films From Film Pack. Take the camera or adapter to the dark-room, remove the pack and break the red seal at the sides, near the bottom, which will open ...
-Chapter VI. Kodaks And Films - Difficulties
227. Loading Roll Film In Kodak Loading Roll Film In Kodak. No difficulty will be experienced if, in loading the roll into the kodak, you follow the instructions which accompany each roll of film. ...
-Kodaks And Films - Difficulties. Part 2
231. Double And Blurred Images Double And Blurred Images. Double and blurred images will occur, when making time exposures, if the object moves; or the camera itself may have been moved or shaken ...
-Kodaks And Films - Difficulties. Part 3
237. Blank Spaces In The Developed Roll Film Blank Spaces In The Developed Roll Film. Should you observe spaces in the film that are entirely blank, you have either very much undertimed that ...
-Chapter VII. Tank Developing For Films. No Dark-Room Necessary
244. Of all methods of developing films the developing machine or tank is the simplest, and with this simplicity is included the possibility of the very finest results. 245. By the tank method, of ...
-Tank Developing For Films. No Dark-Room Necessary. Part 2
253. Kodak Film Tank Kodak Film Tank. The kodak film tank is well constructed, and is made in different sizes, accommodating films from the Brownie up to a 7-inch spool. For a number of years ...
-Tank Developing For Films. No Dark-Room Necessary. Part 3
258. Premo Cut-Film Developing Tank Premo Cut-Film Developing Tank. The Premo Cut-Film Developing Tank is the latest application of the tank principle. The Premo tank provides for the development of ...
-Tank Developing For Films. No Dark-Room Necessary. Part 4
264. Fixing Fixing. The prepared acid fixing powders may be employed if desired, or one can make up his own solution according to formula given in this chapter. 265. The bath should be prepared in ...
-Chapter VIII. Preparing Chemicals: Developing With Pyro
266. Good results can be produced with the ready prepared powders and solutions, and for the beginner's first experiments they are recommended, as he will, without doubt, secure better results with ...
-Preparing Chemicals: Developing With Pyro. Part 2
271. Formula For Developing With Pyrogallic Acid Formula For Developing With Pyrogallic Acid. Stock Solution No. 1 Water.............. 24 ounces Pyro................... 1 ...
-Preparing Chemicals: Developing With Pyro. Part 3
277. Fixing Bath Fixing Bath. For fixing bath use plain hypo and water (4 ozs. hypo to 1 pt. of water), and during hot weather keep the bath cool. Allow plates to remain in this bath about 20 ...
-Preparing Chemicals: Developing With Pyro. Part 4
282. Developing Under-Exposures Developing Under-Exposures. In case the image appears slowly and with contrast, you will readily understand that the plate is undertimed. Then immediately place it in ...
-Chapter IX. General Hints On Development
288. It is not a good plan to place the plate in water before development, nor to first pour the developer into a dish and then drop the plate into it. Both of these proceedings tend to cause the ...
-General Hints On Development. Part 2
292. Temperature Of Developer Temperature Of Developer. The temperature of developer has considerable influence on its action. As a general rule from 60 to 65 is best. Above this, surface ...
-General Hints On Development. Part 3
297. Washing After Development Washing After Development. In all cases it is desirable to wash the plate for at least a minute before fixing it. 298. Under-Exposure Under-Exposure. An under-...
-General Hints On Development. Part 4
302. Preparing A Bromide Solution Preparing A Bromide Solution. Into a bottle pour 9 ozs. of water, and to this add 1 oz. bromide of potassium. Shake until dissolved. With a pocket knife, cut a thin ...
-Chapter X. Intensifying And Reducing
305. Intensifying Intensifying. The intensifying of a negative is the building up of a negative which is thin and transparent - due to either over-exposure or under-development - and making it more ...
-Chapter XI. Appearance Of Negatives With Different Exposures
313. In order to give a more perfect idea of the appearance of negatives when incorrectly exposed, we have prepared a series of illustrations showing a negative at different stages. 314. Normal ...
-Appearance Of Negatives With Different Exposures. Continued
323. Under-Exposure Under-Exposure. If a negative has not been given full exposure, and is not treated for under-exposure in the developing, it will lack detail in the shadows, and the result is ...
-Chapter XII. Elementary Tank Development
326. Tank or Stand Development is purely a mechanical procedure. The requirements are merely a tank or liquid-holding receptacle, chemicals, exposed plates, a thermometer and a time-piece. 327. Tank ...
-Elementary Tank Development. Part 2
335. Washing Washing. The plates, after fixing, should be removed from the rack for final washing. The washing is preferably done in a regular washing tank, or it may be done in trays. When removing ...
-Elementary Tank Development. Part 3
338. Loading The Tank With Plates Loading The Tank With Plates. Style A tank having a movable grooved rack for holding the plates, the rack should be taken from the tank and loaded by sliding the ...
-Elementary Tank Development. Part 4
345. Filling The Developing Tank Filling The Developing Tank. Prepare in a large graduate or pitcher the quantity of developer necessary to fill the size tank employed. With the tank loaded with ...
-Elementary Tank Development. Part 5
350. Washing Washing. One hour's washing in running water is sufficient. After washing the plates may be placed in the drying rack in the usual way. Where plates are developed, fixed and washed back ...
-Chapter XIII. Photographic Printing
352. Printing is a method of obtaining, on paper or other material, positive pictures from negatives, which maybe either plates or films. The necessary apparatus is a printing frame, in which the ...
-Photographic Printing. Part 2
356. Depth Of Printing Depth Of Printing. You will find that while this paper prints fairly rapidly, it is best to make your prints in strong sunlight. The paper is placed in position on the ...
-Photographic Printing. Part 3
364. Practice Work Practice Work. Making blue prints, especially where you buy the paper already sensitized, is a very simple process, as the paper is printed in bright sunlight and is developed by ...
-Chapter XIV. Blue Print (Ferro-Prussiate) Sensitizing - Paper, Cloth, Silk, Etc
366. While instructions for using this paper already sensitized, ready for use, will be found in the previous paragraphs, the following formula for preparing your own paper may be employed. This same ...
-Blue Print (Ferro-Prussiate) Sensitizing - Paper, Cloth, Silk, Etc. Continued
373. Sepia Paper Sepia Paper. A sensitizing solution which will give a sepia paper is made according to the following formula: (a) Ferric Ammonium Citrate (green)..... no grains ...
-Chapter XV. Gelatin Printing-Out Paper
375. Printing And Toning Gelatin Printing-Out Papers Printing And Toning Gelatin Printing-Out Papers. The following instruction covers the simplest method of finishing prints made on gelatin ...
-Gelatin Printing-Out Paper. Part 2
381. Toning Toning. Sometimes prints toned in the combined bath are not permanent. There are also times when some prints of a batch are permanent and others fade quickly. This is generally caused by ...
-Gelatin Printing-Out Paper. Part 3
393. Caution - Toning Caution - Toning. If prints are allowed to lie in the tray, without being constantly separated and moved about, they will tone unevenly and disagreeable streaks or spots will ...
-Gelatin Printing-Out Paper. Part 4
400. Mounting Glossy Prints Mounting Glossy Prints. Squeegeed glossy prints can be mounted after squeegeeing, if they are prepared in the following manner: With your prints squeegeed onto the ...
-Chapter XVI. Printing And Toning - Difficulties
406. Depth Of Printing Depth Of Printing. Only practice and close observation can teach you this. With the combined bath, where both the toning and the fixing are done in one operation, the prints ...
-Printing And Toning - Difficulties. Part 2
414. Toning Bath Becoming Discolored When First Prepared Toning Bath Becoming Discolored When First Prepared. This will only occur if the toning bath has been made up in a tin, or in any metal dish. ...
-Printing And Toning - Difficulties. Part 3
422. Small Brown And Black Spots Small Brown And Black Spots. These are caused by air-bells gathering on the prints. They prevent the toning solution from coming in contact with the print and cause ...
-Chapter XVII. Developing Or "Gaslight" Papers - Regular Grades
429. Quite unsimilar to the papers described in the previous chapters are the so-called developing or gaslight papers. The first name is given to these papers because the image has to be developed on ...
-Developing Or "Gaslight" Papers - Regular Grades. Part 2
437. Fixing Bath Fixing Bath. After a print is developed it is only partly completed, for it is yet sensitive to light. All sensitive salts that have not been affected by either light or developer ...
-Developing Or "Gaslight" Papers - Regular Grades. Part 3
443. Artificial Light Artificial Light. While it is perfectly practical to make prints by daylight, yet, for the first experiments, we advise the use of artificial light (kerosene lamp, gas or ...
-Developing Or "Gaslight" Papers - Regular Grades. Part 4
451. Exposure Exposure. In making the first exposure, cut a sheet of the sensitized paper into narrow strips (about an inch wide). One of these should be placed on that part of the negative showing ...
-Developing Or "Gaslight" Papers - Regular Grades. Part 5
455. Recording Exposures Recording Exposures. A good plan, after having ascertained the correct exposure for a negative, is to write on one corner of the film, with ink, the number of seconds ...
-Developing Or "Gaslight" Papers - Regular Grades. Part 6
460. Fixing Fixing. Watch the print carefully during development, and agitate the developer by moving the print Developing or Gaslight Papers - Regular Grades. 247 around. When it is dark enough ...
-Developing Or "Gaslight" Papers - Regular Grades. Part 7
467. Trimming Prints Trimming Prints. If prints are to be mounted, trim while wet, in the following manner: Take a square sheet of glass, wet it and place the print - face down - on the same. Turn ...
-Chapter XVIII. Developing Papers - Difficulties
469. Print Refuses To Develop Print Refuses To Develop. If the print was properly exposed and the sensitive side of the paper was next to the plate, and the print still refuses to develop, you may ...
-Chapter XIX. Water Tone Platinum Paper
480. Eastman W. D. Paper. - The W. D. Platinum Paper, manufactured by the Eastman Kodak Company, is a paper not unlike the regular platinum paper, and on which pure platinum and absolutely permanent ...
-Chapter XX. Aristo Gold Paper
Aristo Gold Paper is a collodion matt surface paper, requiring no toning bath, the emulsion containing the necessary toning chemicals. Directions 491. Printing Printing. Print Aristo Gold Paper lik...
-Chapter XXI. Aristo Carbon Sepia
A self-toning collodion emulsion, coated on Post Card stock. Requires no toning bath. Produces rich carbon sepia tones. Directions 504. Printing Printing. Print until the high-lights are well tinte...
-Chapter XXII. Aristo Self-Toning Paper
510. As its name implies, this paper requires no toning or developing' solutions, and can be worked with an ease and certainty which cannot fail to delight users of gloss paper. 511. Aristo Self-...
-Aristo Self-Toning Paper. Continued
521. Note (B) Note (B). Only pure water, testing neutral with litmus paper, should be used for making a salt bath for self-toning paper. Water containing alkali will not give the best results. ...
-Chapter XXIII. The Kallitype Process
532. Introduction Introduction. Of the various simpler processes which admit of practically any kind of paper being prepared and sensitized by the individual worker, the process known as kallitype ...
-The Kallitype Process. Part 2
538. The Paper The Paper. A fairly good quality of paper should be used for the process - good writing or drawing paper will generally be found suitable, although most any paper may be used. Some ...
-The Kallitype Process. Part 3
544. Development Development. It is necessary that the print be developed soon after printing, as there seems to be a continuous printing action. If the paper were kept for a number of hours before ...
-The Kallitype Process. Part 4
552. Final Washing Final Washing. A final washing of one-half hour completes the operation. Drying may be hastened by blotting off, or by heat, as there is no gelatin coating to stick or melt. 553. ...
-Chapter XXIV. Elementary Bromide Enlarging
557. Note Note. Detailed instruction on Bromide Enlarging is given in Volume V. This elementary instruction is intended only for those who do not have access to a room that can be arranged specially ...
-Elementary Bromide Enlarging. Part 2
565. Making The Enlargement Making The Enlargement. First place the film or glass negative in the negative holder, with the face or dull side towards the lens, and attach the holder securely to the ...
-Elementary Bromide Enlarging. Part 3
569. Making The Exposure Making The Exposure. With the Brownie or Ingento enlarging camera, they being always in focus, all that is required, after loading the camera with the bromide paper, is to ...
-Elementary Bromide Enlarging. Part 4
574. Developers Developers. For the beginner we would recommend the prepared solution, which is usually put up in concentrated form and requires only diluting with water, when it is ready for use. ...
-Elementary Bromide Enlarging. Part 5
582. Drying Drying. After the prints are carefully washed they may be surface dried by placing between clean white blotters, then laid out on dry blotters, face side up, until they become surface ...
-Chapter XXV. Trimming And Mounting
594. It is not enough to be able to make good negatives and good prints. The print should have a proper setting, to heighten its effect. The undesirable portions should be trimmed away, and a ...
-Trimming And Mounting. Part 2
598. Mounting Prints Mounting Prints. It is only when prints have been properly trimmed, that we are ready to consider mounting them. There are two distinct kinds of mounts, viz.: commercial mounts ...
-Trimming And Mounting. Part 3
602. Double Mounting Double Mounting. In double mounting it is often best to use two or more shades of the same color, showing as rules around the print, rather than to experiment with another color....
-Chapter XXVI. Supplementary Lenses For Hand Cameras
604. The lenses which are supplied with most small hand cameras are limited in their scope, and the amateur is often desirous of doing work which his lens will not accomplish. Of course lenses for ...
-Supplementary Lenses For Hand Cameras. Part 2
610. Wide-Angle Lens Wide-Angle Lens. Attach this lens in the usual way, by slipping over your regular lens, and focus as you ordinarily would, always using the large stop. It is necessary, however, ...
-Supplementary Lenses For Hand Cameras. Part 3
618. Kodak Portrait Lens Kodak Portrait Lens. The Kodak Portrait attachment is simply an extra lens that slips in front of the regular lens. It in no way affects the operation of the fixed focus ...
-Chapter XXVII. Synopsis Of Hand Camera Work
622. The simplest form of photography, when rightly understood, is hand camera work. But it is a mistake to assume that since it is easy to use a hand camera, it is therefore easy to take successful ...
-Synopsis Of Hand Camera Work. Part 2
628. Shutters Shutters. Among the attachments of a hand camera, next in importance to the lens is a good shutter. The best lens in the world will fail when the shutter is unreliable or does not work ...
-Synopsis Of Hand Camera Work. Part 3
632. Exposure Exposure. The tendency among all beginners of hand camera work is towards under-exposure. It is a remote contingency that the beginner will over-expose. The older worker, accustomed to ...
-Synopsis Of Hand Camera Work. Part 4
635. Holding The Hand Camera Holding The Hand Camera. Never point the camera directly at the sun, or the result will be a flare spot on the negative. The direction of the light should be from over ...
-Synopsis Of Hand Camera Work. Part 5
639. Selection Of Accessories Selection Of Accessories. Simplicity should be the main object in all pictures. The introduction of figures should be done sparingly. Now and then they add a touch of ...
-Chapter XXVIII. Practical Use Of The Camera. Architectural And Landscape Photography For Beginners
647. The object of this chapter is to encourage the beginner to improve his work by diligent and intelligent effort and to urge him take pictures of a high standard of excellence only. The first step ...
-Practical Use Of The Camera. Architectural And Landscape Photography For Beginners. Continued
655. In Ill. No. 73 we have another type of open air picture, where the landscape is used only as a setting for the portrait or figure study of a girl. The entire point of interest here is a girl ...
-Chapter XXIX. Elementary Snow Photography
663. In making snow pictures, aside from the selection of view the principal secret lies in the proper exposure and the angle of light. Early in the forenoon, before 9 o'clock, or in the afternoon ...
-Elementary Snow Photography. Continued
674. Lens Lens. Attention must be given to the lens during frosty weather. See that it does not scum over by the condensing of moisture in the air. This will occur on very cold days and when first ...
-Chapter XXX. Elementary Flashlight Photography
677. Frequently it is desired to make a photograph of an improperly lighted interior. The problem, then, is to secure even illumination and, at the same time, procure detail in the deepest shadows of ...
-Elementary Flashlight Photography. Part 2
682. Preparing The Flash-Powder Preparing The Flash-Powder. There are different ways of operating or igniting the flash-powder. The most convenient for amateur use, however, are either the flash ...
-Elementary Flashlight Photography. Part 3
688. Flash-Lamp Flash-Lamp. There are various flash-lamps that may be purchased at prices ranging from $1.00 up. These will be found to give excellent satisfaction and there is less danger in ...
-Elementary Flashlight Photography. Part 4
692. Groups Groups. Groups should be arranged in a semicircular form, facing the camera. Each member of the group should be exactly the same distance from the camera. In case of groups of a dozen or ...
-Chapter XXXI. The Evolution Of The Dark-Room From A Bath-Room. By Richard Hines, Jr
THE dark-room of the average amateur is a work of evolution, and it is not hard, after a look into the dark-room to come very near judging the manner of the amateur who inhabits it. My own experience...
-Chapter XXXII. My Dark-Room. By Ulysses G. Orr
OFTENTIMES the problem of fitting up a dark-room in the average home is troublesome in the extreme. As a compromise, the bath-room, some closet, or even the basement, is resorted to with anything but ...
-Chapter XXXIII. How The Studies Illustrating This Volume Were Made
Frontispiece. Title, Valambrosa, made in Florence, Italy, by Wm. H. Phillips, of Liverpool, Ohio. This picture was produced with a No. 3 Folding Pocket Kodak; the lens used was a Goerz 5-inch focus,...

Part II: Volume 2: Negative Developing and After-Manipulation

-Volume II. Negative Developing and After-Manipulation. Chapter I. Dry Plate Developing
Introduction After the exposure has been made on the plate or film there is still no visible image, and it is necessary to employ some means of changing the invisible image to a visible one, and, in ...
-Chapter II. Detailed Instruction. Dry Plate Developing
Note to Beginners.- In the following instruction wherever the word plate is used film may be substituted. 8. Dark Room Dark Room. The first point to consider in the developing of the dry plate i...
-Detailed Instruction. Dry Plate Developing. Part 2
12. Developing Outfit Developing Outfit. The room should contain, besides the sink with a tap above it, a table and several shelves, four developing trays, one fixing box, one washing box, one 16-oun...
-Detailed Instruction. Dry Plate Developing. Part 3
17. Developing Light Developing Light. The developing light is constructed so that the front is bevel shaped, for in this way it throws the light downward upon the developing tray. The front of this ...
-Detailed Instruction. Dry Plate Developing. Part 4
21. Bromide And Negative Enlarging Bromide And Negative Enlarging. When this side of the room is used for negative and bromide enlarging, the table employed for changing plates is dropped in order to...
-Detailed Instruction. Dry Plate Developing. Part 5
28. Discoloring Of Hypo Bath Discoloring Of Hypo Bath. A strong fixing bath should always be used for fixing plates. To more fully understand the reasons for this, let us study the peculiar propertie...
-Detailed Instruction. Dry Plate Developing. Part 6
34. Bromide Solution Bromide Solution. To make a ten per cent, solution of bromide, dissolve one ounce of bromide of potassium in ten ounces of water. Place this stock solution in a twelve-ounce bott...
-Detailed Instruction. Dry Plate Developing. Part 7
37. Snap And Crispness Snap And Crispness. It is well after a plate has been developing in the old or restrained developer for some time, to place it in a fresh normal developer in order to give snap...
-General Notes On Developers
Pyro. - Too much pyro clogs the whites. Too little pyro: slow development, lack of brilliancy. Alkali. - Too much alkali: quick development, dense, flat negatives. Foggy and granular. Too little alka...
-Nature Of Chemicals Used For Developing With Pyrogallic Acid
46. Sulphite Of Soda Sulphite Of Soda. Transparent crystals, also granular and dried ( anhydrous) very soluble in water, two parts of crystal are equivalent to one part dried (anhydrous or granular)....
-Nature Of Chemicals Used For Developing With Pyrogallic Acid. Part 2
50. Proper Color Of Plate Proper Color Of Plate. If the plate when fixed is too yellow, strengthen the sulphite; if there is a lack of color, the negative is a blue-gray, reduce the strength of the s...
-Nature Of Chemicals Used For Developing With Pyrogallic Acid. Part 3
55. Alteration Of Formula For Different Brands Of Plates Alteration Of Formula For Different Brands Of Plates. The formula for developing given herein will work well with any brand of plate by follow...
-Chapter III. Difficulties - Dry Plate Developing
62. Plate Slow in Starting to Develop - This difficulty you can overcome by being careful that your developer is not too cold. The temperature should never be under sixty nor above seventy degrees Fah...
-Difficulties - Dry Plate Developing. Part 2
64. Properly Exposed Plates Developing Slowly Properly Exposed Plates Developing Slowly. As already stated, the first consideration in developing is the temperature of your developer. If the develope...
-Difficulties - Dry Plate Developing. Part 3
70. Judging Proper Strength Judging Proper Strength. It is impossible to give any method by which one could judge absolutely the proper strength of development under all conditions. Only practice and...
-Difficulties - Dry Plate Developing. Part 4
75. Frilling Frilling. Caused by warm solutions, warm hypo, or warm wash waters. Remedy: Keep all solutions and wash waters cool. (See paragraph 57.) Dry your negatives in a cool, well ventilated roo...
-Difficulties - Dry Plate Developing. Part 5
80. Small Transparent Spots, Triangular In Shape And Irregular In Size Small Transparent Spots, Triangular In Shape And Irregular In Size. These are caused by particles of dust adhering to the gelati...
-Difficulties - Dry Plate Developing. Part 6
85. Thin Negatives Thin Negatives. Thin negatives with transparent shadows are due to under-exposure and can seldom be improved by intensifying. (See Chapter IV (Developing Under-Exposures), Developi...
-Chapter IV. Developing Under-Exposures
95. It is not the object of this instruction to encourage the under-timing of plates, but to provide the student with a means of treating plates which he finds, upon development, are under-timed. In o...
-Developing Under-Exposures. Part 2
101. Under-Timing Portraiture Under-Timing Portraiture. In portraiture the only real necessity for under-timing a plate is when photographing children, especially babies. Many times a very natural, p...
-Developing Under-Exposures. Part 3
107. Tank Development Tank Development. Another very good way is to use tank development. This method requires a larger quantity of solution, but several plates may be developed in this tank at one t...
-Developing Under-Exposures. Part 4
119. Practice Work Practice Work. It is advisable to purposely under-time a few experimental plates under different conditions. The different methods suggested for the treatment of plates under-expos...
-Difficulties - Developing Under - Exposures
120. Negative Drying With Too Much Grain Negative Drying With Too Much Grain. This is apt to happen with plates that have developed slowly. Long, continuous soaking will soften the film, and cause it...
-Difficulties - Developing Under - Exposures. Continued
125. Little Blisters Forming On Plate Little Blisters Forming On Plate. Blisters on the plate should be treated exactly as you would a frilling plate. These little blisters come from the same source ...
-Chapter V. General Negative Intensifying
129. The object of intensifying is to rectify the misjudg-ment of exposure and development. Many times very weak negatives are condemned on account of their poor printing quality, they being thin, an...
-General Negative Intensifying. Continued
135. Intensifying Formula Intensifying Formula. Warm water..................... , ....... 12 ounces Bichloride of Mercury..................... 1/2 ounce. Label this ...
-General Precautions To Be Observed
141. Rocking Tray While Intensifying Rocking Tray While Intensifying. The trays must be continually rocked while applying either solution in intensifying to obtain even strength. The mercury trays sh...
-General Precautions To Be Observed. Continued
145. Light To Be Used While Intensifying Light To Be Used While Intensifying. As white light will not affect the plate, this work can be performed in subdued daylight, where you can judge the proper ...
-Difficulties In Intensifying
155. Negatives Appearing Oily Negatives Appearing Oily. If the negative has not been sufficiently washed and there is hypo present in the negative, or if it was previously dried and then not soaked s...
-Difficulties In Intensifying. Continued
161. Shadows Remaining Weak After Intensifying Shadows Remaining Weak After Intensifying. If your negative is badly under-timed it is impossible to produce any detail in the shadows by intensificatio...
-Chapter VI. Local Intensifying
168. The object of Local Intensifying is to strengthen only parts of the plate which are weak. There are cases where, if we strengthen only a portion of a negative and allow the rest to remain as it i...
-Local Intensifying. Continued
173. Clearing The Plate Clearing The Plate. After this immersion, rinse the plate carefully for a minute and then immerse in the sulphite of soda clearing bath, until the entire plate has resumed its...
-Difficulties - Local Intensifying
179. Parts Not Improving By Intensifying Parts Not Improving By Intensifying. If the negative has been fixed in an acid hypo bath, or the plate was placed in a hardener, it will be almost impossible ...
-Chapter VII. Developing Over-Exposures
187. The exposing of plates, or film, beyond the latitude in which they may be developed in a normally prepared developer, should be avoided wherever possible. 188. Until one becomes thoroughly ...
-Developing Over-Exposures. Part 2
194. Restraining The Sensitive Emulsion Restraining The Sensitive Emulsion. To illustrate: The sensitive emulsion on the plate is composed of layer upon layer of these minute sensitive silver ...
-Developing Over-Exposures. Part 3
197. The Use Of Two Trays For Developing The Use Of Two Trays For Developing. In case of uncertain exposure, whether over or under-timed, and even for properly timed plates, a good method to adopt ...
-Developing Over-Exposures. Part 4
202. Developing Extreme Over - Exposures Developing Extreme Over - Exposures. In case the plate is very much over-timed, it may require more dense developing than for normal exposure. This you can ...
-Developing Over-Exposures. Part 5
206. Plate Developed Too Far Before Restraining Plate Developed Too Far Before Restraining. In case the development has been carried too far in the normal developer before restraining, and you have ...
-Chapter VIII. Difficulties - Developing Over-Exposures
211. Action Of Developer On Over - Exposed Plates Action Of Developer On Over - Exposed Plates. A plate that is over-exposed will flash up quickly, as soon as the developer is flowed over it. The ...
-Difficulties - Developing Over-Exposures. Part 2
216. Fifth Fifth. If the plate flashes up in from three to five seconds, or almost immediately after developer is flowed over it, the plate is greatly over-timed and should at once be placed in a ...
-Difficulties - Developing Over-Exposures. Part 3
221. Obtaining Desired Contrast Of Over-Timed Plates Obtaining Desired Contrast Of Over-Timed Plates. When a plate is only slightly over-exposed, treat it according to paragraph 32, Instruction, Dry ...
-Difficulties - Developing Over-Exposures. Part 4
227. How Far To Carry Development Of Plates That Are Over-Exposed How Far To Carry Development Of Plates That Are Over-Exposed. The development of an over-exposed plate depends entirely on how badly ...
-Difficulties - Developing Over-Exposures. Part 5
232. Yellow Negatives Yellow Negatives. Yellow negatives are generally caused from long development due to under or over-exposure. The developing of an under-exposed plate is always slow owing to ...
-Difficulties - Developing Over-Exposures. Part 6
239. Large Transparent Spots Large Transparent Spots. These spots are generally caused by adding bromide to the developer while the plates are in the tray. A drop of bromide falling upon a plate ...
-Chapter IX. Advanced Development Of Over-Timed Plates
240. Most photographers have learned from experience that it is very essential to have sufficient time on all exposures. There are cases when in doubt as to the exact exposure necessary, and in order ...
-Advanced Development Of Over-Timed Plates. Continued
255. Portrait Work, Over - Exposed Portrait Work, Over - Exposed. In slight overexposure of portraits, start the plate in half old and half fresh developer. This many times will sufficiently ...
-Chapter X. General Negative Reducing
Note. - In the following lesson wherever the word plate is used film may be substituted. 257. There are times when, because of faulty exposure, one finds it necessary to over-develop the plate,...
-General Negative Reducing. Part 2
261. Persulphate Ammonia Reducer Persulphate Ammonia Reducer. The second reducer which is very successfully used is the persulphate of ammonia. This reducing agent will first attack the denser ...
-General Negative Reducing. Part 3
268. Reducing The Plate Reducing The Plate. We will now suppose that you have your reducing solution prepared, and that you have sufficient quantity. Never try to reduce with a small amount of ...
-General Negative Reducing. Part 4
273. Judging Plates To Be Reduced Judging Plates To Be Reduced. By exercising judgment when to apply and use the reducer, you should never have a dense or slow printing negative. Frequently the true ...
-Persulphate Of Ammonia Reducer
274. Reducing With Persulphate Of Ammonia Reducing With Persulphate Of Ammonia. The persulphate of ammonia does not keep well when made in solution, and, therefore, it should be made up in small ...
-Reducing
278. If a 5 x 7 plate is to be reduced, five ounces solution will be sufficient. If a number of plates are to be reduced, it is advisable to make up ten ounces of solution. This bath should be ...
-Nature Of Chemicals Used For Reducing Negatives
285. Red Prussiate Of Potash (Ferricyanide) Red Prussiate Of Potash (Ferricyanide). Red prussiate crystals, when pulverized, become a yellow powder. Action, acid. Must be kept from the light and air ...
-Chapter XI. Local Reducing. Plates Or Film
291. Undoubtedly many negatives are made in which it is desirable that certain portions of the plate be made a trifle thinner, yet it would not do to sacrifice the whole plate for a few minor ...
-Local Reducing. Plates Or Film. Part 2
295. Strength Of Solution To Use Strength Of Solution To Use. The reducing solution must be used diluted, because the action of the solution begins on the surface of the film, and works its way ...
-Local Reducing. Plates Or Film. Part 3
301. Reducing Plates After They Have Dried Reducing Plates After They Have Dried. When the plate is dry, and you wish to locally reduce it, it is necessary to first place the plate in plain cool ...
-Difficulties - Reducing. Difficulties Met With In Reducing With Red Prussiate Of Potash
307. Negative Reducing Too Slowly Negative Reducing Too Slowly. Plates or films which have been fixed in a bath containing alum, acid, or any hardening chemical, are apt to reduce slowly, and at ...
-Difficulties Met With In Reducing With Persulphate Of Ammonia
317. Persulphate Of Ammonia Not Reducing Persulphate Of Ammonia Not Reducing. If the persulphate of ammonia bath is prepared properly, and is of good quality, it reduces. If it acts slowly ...
-Chapter XII. Universal Developing
322. In our previous Instruction on Ordinary Developing we dealt principally with the use of necessary chemicals, and the manipulation of the different solutions in order to produce certain results. ...
-Universal Developing Formula
328. Prepare Your Developer As Follows: - Stock Solution, No. 1 Water...................................... 6 ounces Sulphuric Acid,C.P . 1/2 dram Pyro.................
-Directions For Using
332. Take of Solution No. 2, four ounces; of Stock Solution No. 3, two ounces; of Stock Solution No. 4, two ounces, - making eight ounces of solution. Before using pour this combined solution back ...
-Important Notes
338. With this developer, working as it does quite rapidly, care must be exercised that you do not over-develop. Examine the plate frequently. It is a good plan to provide yourself with a washing ...
-Alum Hypo Bath
In warm weather, or warm climates, the following alum fixing bath may be used in place of the plain hypo and water :- A Water.............................. ...... 96 ounces H...
-Difficulties - Universal Developing
342. Developing Heavy Shadow Lightings Developing Heavy Shadow Lightings. In developing shadow lightings, in portraits or views containing dense shadows requiring detail, you must strive for ...
-Difficulties - Universal Developing. Part 2
347. Negatives Too Strong In Color - Yellow Negatives Too Strong In Color - Yellow. Either your sulphite of soda solution has deteriorated by becoming old, or it is not strong enough. Sometimes ...
-Difficulties - Universal Developing. Part 3
353. Plate Developing Flat Plate Developing Flat. In portraiture this is due to flat lighting, or over-exposure. If the plate develops up very flat and your subject was properly lighted, and the ...
-Chapter XIII. Special Pyro Developing For Commercial Photography
357. By employing the methods for developing given in this instruction, one can overcome many obstacles, and produce successful photographs which, with ordinary developing, would be impossible. 358. ...
-Method Of Development
365. The entire success of this method of development lies in sufficient exposure, and as the latitude as to extreme exposure is so great we must strive only to give full time, as any reasonable ...
-Developing Formula
Stock Solution No. I Water...................... 24 ounces Pyrogallic Acid.............. 1 ounce Sulphuric Acid.............. 8 drops Stock Solution No. ...
-Chapter XIV. Special Developing Of White Drapery Portrait Negatives
380. The object of this Instruction is to train you in the method of producing the most beautiful chemical effects; how to preserve the relative value of flesh and drapery; how to preserve every ...
-Special Developing Of White Drapery Portrait Negatives. Continued
392. First First. You must give full time to the most dense shadows. Try to over-time a trifle - it will do no harm - but to under-time will result in total failure, for if you underexpose, then you ...
-Difficulties - Special Developing
398. Development Slow. Image Over Five Minutes in Making Appearance. - If the plate has been sufficiently timed the image should begin to appear within two minutes, even though an extremely small ...
-Difficulties - Special Developing. Continued
405. Color Of Plate Too Gray Color Of Plate Too Gray. The color of the plate is, of course, governed entirely with your sulphite. On account of the small quantity of carbonate being used it may at ...
-Chapter XV. Hydroquinone And Eikonogen - Non-Staining And Non-Poisonous Developer
413. Although there is no developing agent that can equal pyro for the best general results, yet some object to its use owing to it staining the ringers when proper care is not exercised. 414. While ...
-Hydroquinone And Eikonogen - Non-Staining And Non-Poisonous Developer. Part 2
417. Acid-Fixing Bath Acid-Fixing Bath. The plain fixing bath has the disadvantage of becoming dark and discolored when organic developers are used, and, consequently, it is liable to stain the ...
-Hydroquinone And Eikonogen - Non-Staining And Non-Poisonous Developer. Part 3
421. Bromide Of Potassium Bromide Of Potassium. Bromide of potassium is a white crystal used as a restraining agent. It restrains the development and holds the shadows clear throughout the ...
-Chapter XVI. Metol - Hydroquinone And Metol - Adurol Combined Developer For Negatives And Lantern Slides
426. The various developers mostly show in their character considerable variation. Each has its special merit, which makes it suitable for a particular work. In order, therefore, to combine ...
-Metol - Hydroquinone And Metol - Adurol Combined Developer For Negatives And Lantern Slides. Continued
Metol- Adurol. 435. With advantage sometimes adurol takes the place of hydroquinone in combination with metol, and it has the advantage of working more clearly, and dissolving more easily, while its ...
-Chapter XVII. Ammonia Developing
439. Developing Instantaneous Exposures With Ammonia Developer Developing Instantaneous Exposures With Ammonia Developer. The ammonia developer is not recommended for general work, nor even for ...
-Ammonia Developing. Continued
446. Developing Of Plates Developing Of Plates. Having carefully prepared your developer, according to the formula, place the exposed plate in the tray, and flow with a sufficient quantity solution ...
-Chapter XVIII Factorial Development
448. By factorial development is meant the technical method of development in which the process of developing is regulated solely by mathematical figuring, when certain conditions exist. It is the ...
-Chapter XVIII Factorial Development. Part 2
452. Temperature Temperature. The temperature of the developer is of the utmost importance, as high temperature hastens the action, and lower temperature retards the action. Sixty-five degrees Fahr. ...
-Chapter XVIII Factorial Development. Part 3
461. Developing With Different Factors Regulates Speed Of Developer Developing With Different Factors Regulates Speed Of Developer. The following formulae are given for regular pyro developers ...
-Chapter XVIII Factorial Development. Part 4
466. Mixing The Developer Mixing The Developer. To mix the developer take of Solution No. 2, four ounces, and as each ounce of this solution contains five grains of pyro, the four ounces will ...
-Chapter XVIII Factorial Development. Part 5
470. A Twenty-Five-Minute Developer A Twenty-Five-Minute Developer. If you take the regular developing solution (eight ounces), and add enough water to make the total bulk thirty-two ounces, or just ...
-Metol - Hydroquinone Formula
Stock Solution Water ......................... 24 ounces Metol.......................... 15 grains Sulphite of Soda (Anhydrous). . . 11/4 ounces Hydroq...
-Difficulties - Factorial Development
479. Judging The Time Of Appearance Judging The Time Of Appearance. This is perhaps the most difficult in factorial development, and can only be successfully accomplished by practice. Watch ...
-Chapter XIX. Tank Or Stand Developing
484. A great deal can be said in favor of tank development, yet unless one has carefully followed the previous instruction given on developing by the ordinary way, so that negative developing is ...
-Tank Or Stand Developing. Part 2
495. A pyro bath can be used continually during one day, so long as it produces proper results, and develops in the given time; usually a twenty-minute bath of ninety-six-ounce solution will develop ...
-Tank Or Stand Developing. Part 3
505. Directions For Use Directions For Use. Take sixteen ounces Stock Solution No. 2, eight ounces Stock Solution, No. 3, and eight ounces Stock Solution, No. 4, making thirty-two ounces of Stock ...
-Metol - Hydroquinone Developer
Stock Solution. Water........................... 24 ounces Metol 15 grains. Sulphite of Soda ( Anhydrous )... 1 1/4ounces Hydroquinone 1 dram. ...
-Developing Tanks
511. Description Of Developing Tank Description Of Developing Tank. These tanks are generally made of brass, nickel plated or zinc, strongly built, and with little care will last many years. The ...
-Developing Tanks. Continued
514. Fixing Tank Fixing Tank. The Ideal Fixing Tank is made of heavy tin, with deep corrugations, thoroughly enameled with acid-proof varnish. It is equipped with a patent lifting bottom, and is ...
-Additional Formulae For Slow Tank Development
523. With the following formula there is little or no danger of fog from long development if the tank is covered, excluding: all light: - Metol - Hydroquinone Tank Developer No. 2. Metol ........
-Acid-Fixing Bath
526. The plain fixing bath has the disadvantage of becoming dark and discolored when organic developers are used, and consequently, it is liable to stain the plate. This is overcome by using the acid-...
-Difficulties - Tank Developing
531. Plates Developing Too Slowly Plates Developing Too Slowly. If the plate develops too slowly it is either because the developer has been diluted too much, it is too cold, or it has become ...
-Difficulties - Tank Developing. Continued
539. Negatives Full Of Detail, But Very Thin Negatives Full Of Detail, But Very Thin. The plates were either over-exposed or under-developed, or both. It is advisable to carry plates which appear ...
-Chapter XX. Tank Developing For The Professional. Dominant Principles In Tank Development
The effect of light values in the studio as pertaining to correct tank developing. 1909 Addition. To insure the best possible results by this system of development, many principles must be closely a...
-Developing Tanks For Professional Use
Of the different developing tanks manufactured for professional use, we describe a few. Each tank is constructed with the intention of overcoming the usual difficulties met with in tank developing, wh...
-Use Of The Eastman Plate Tank
By S. G. Lofft, of the Plate Division, Eastman Kodak Co. With a view to eliminating many of the inconveniences of the ordinary tanks, the Eastman Plate Tank has been designed to meet the requirements...
-Chapter XXI. Special Instruction Supplied By The Standard American Manufacturers For The Manipulation Of Their Different Brands Of Plates
549. Introduction Introduction. Believing it essential that the photographer should be competent to manipulate any of the standard American brands of plates, it is advisable, therefore, that each ...
-Part I. Cramer Plates
Special notes treating upon the manipulation of the various brands of Cramer plates, compiled especially for this Library by the Cramer Dry Plate Company. 551. A resume of negative-making methods of...
-Part I. Cramer Plates. Part 2
561. Development Of Normal Exposures Development Of Normal Exposures. If you want a steady quality of negatives you must be able to reproduce identical conditions in your dark room every day, if you ...
-Part I. Cramer Plates. Part 3
567. The Best Developer The Best Developer. We are often asked what is the best developer. This question can only be answered relatively, as it depends on for what purpose the negative is to be used....
-Part I. Cramer Plates. Part 3. Continued
A.- Pure water 25 ounces 750 c.c.m. Metol 60 grains 4 grams hydroquinone 60 grains 4 grams Cramer's Dry Sulphite Soda. 1 ounc...
-Pyro - Acetone For X-R.AY Plates. (Very Fine.)
Use the regular A and B Pyro - Acetone solutions taking: 1 ounce A ...... ...... 30 c.c.m. 4 ounces B...... ...... 120 c.c.m. 2 ounces water.. . ...... 60 c.c.m...
-Pyro - Acetone For X-R.AY Plates. (Very Fine.). Part 2
590. Tank Development Tank Development. Or stand development, is constantly growing in popularity, due to its simplicity and the even quality of its results. There are several precautions which must ...
-Pyro - Acetone For X-R.AY Plates. (Very Fine.). Part 3
600. Different Brands Of Cramer Plates And Their Uses Different Brands Of Cramer Plates And Their Uses. Cramer Crown Plates are the most rapid plates made. They work with great softness and shadow ...
-Pyro - Acetone For X-R.AY Plates. (Very Fine.). Part 4
612. Screens Or Ray Filters Screens Or Ray Filters. For use with Isochromatic plates for best results, should be adjusted to the plate, and we are now preparing to place on the market screens ...
-Pyro - Acetone For X-R.AY Plates. (Very Fine.). Part 5
624. Cramer's Double-Coated Non-Halation Plates Cramer's Double-Coated Non-Halation Plates. First coated with a slow, and for a second time with a rapid emulsion. Specially made to prevent halation, ...
-Pyro - Acetone For X-R.AY Plates. (Very Fine.). Part 6
634. Cramer Contrast Plates Cramer Contrast Plates. For copying drawings, engravings, photographs etc., for half-tone plates (Line screen or Process Work). 635. For developing use any of the normal ...
-Pyro - Acetone For X-R.AY Plates. (Very Fine.). Part 6. Continued
While any color filter will give effects of a kind, yet for choice results the filter must be adjusted to the plate; it naturally follows that the plate maker is in the best position to determine this...
-Part II. Seed Plates
Special notes treating upon the manipulation of the various brands of Seed Plates, compiled especially for this Library by the Seed Dry Plate Company. 642. Without going into a scientific explanatio...
-Part II. Seed Plates. Continued
674. Example Example. Highlights appeared in 24 seconds and the plate was taken out 240 seconds after the developer was poured on. The print from this negative showed proper contrast. 240 seconds ...
-Plates For Portraiture And General Work
Gilt Edge 27. 690. This is the fastest plate we make. It is especially suited for all extremely short exposures and flash-light work. Speed is a great help in winter, for then the light almost always...
-Double Coated Plates For The Prevention Of Halation In Cases Where Contrasts Of Light And Shade Are Necessarily Violent
693. Non-Halation Plate Non-Halation Plate. In photographing interiors the strongest highlights, such as the windows and other out-of-door openings, are almost always very dense and blurred at the ...
-Plates For Special, Commercial And Process Work
702. Commercial Ortho Commercial Ortho. There has been an increased demand from commercial workers for a plate suitable for reproduction of the grain of wood in mahogany furniture, dark oak, and ...
-Plates For Special, Commercial And Process Work. Part 2
713. Orthochromatic Plates And Light Filters Orthochromatic Plates And Light Filters. When, a few years ago, Orthochromatic plates made their initial appearance before the photographic public, the ...
-Plates For Special, Commercial And Process Work. Part 3
726. The Panchromatic Plate The Panchromatic Plate. Orthochromatic photography is the means by which we obtain, with the aid of properly prepared plates, the light intensity values of objects not ...
-Practical Advice
733. Exposure Exposure. For most subjects the latitude of a plate will be about two, that is, if one second were correct exposure, two seconds would not be too much for safety. For beginners an open,...
-Practical Advice. Part 2
742. Drying Negatives Drying Negatives. The warmer the air in which negatives are dried, the more intense they become. Negatives should be dried in a current of air. If more than two hours are ...
-Practical Advice. Part 3
753. To Clean A Lens To Clean A Lens. First spread upon a table a clean sheet of paper; take your lens carefully apart; now dust with camel's-hair brush each lens on both sides; then take a clean ...
-Part III. Hammer Plates
Special notes treating upon the manipulation of the various brands of Hammer plates, compiled especially for this Library by the Hammer Dry Plate Company. (For the best results we recommend Hammer f...
-Good Developing Formulae For Hammer Plates
767. The quantity of sodium sulphite in the developer must be regulated to produce the color desired. It is to the 11 - 16 photographer's advantage, when using pyro developer, to use our formula, as ...
-Good Developing Formulae For Hammer Plates. Continued
775. The Acid Chrome-Alum Fixing Bath The Acid Chrome-Alum Fixing Bath. Experience has taught us that negatives obtained with an alkaline developer are best fixed in a fixing bath having an acid ...
-Developing Formulae For Hammer Lantern Plates
783. Pyrocatechin Solution Pyrocatechin Solution. A one-solution, quick-acting developer, giving black tones. Boiled or distilled water....... 5 ounces Pyrocatechin 120 ...
-Developing Formulae For Hammer Lantern Plates. Part 2
794. Hammer's Dry Powder Developer Hammer's Dry Powder Developer. (For the amateur.) (Factor 8.) Is compounded with accuracy from the best of chemicals insuring good results to the user. 795. The ...
-Developing Formulae For Hammer Lantern Plates. Part 3
802. Acid Chrome-Alum Fixing Bath Acid Chrome-Alum Fixing Bath. This kind of a bath has been in use for years and is preferred by many (mix only in the order given) : Water (about) ..............
-Orthochromatic Screens And Plates
810. A general misconception still prevails concerning the use of Orthochromatic Plates with or without a screen. The relative brightness of the colors of an object as represented in an ordinary ...
-Hammer's Orthochromatic Plates
(Three Grades.) Slow - Extra Fast - Non-Halation. 811. The product of years of chemical research, which have produced a plate that is sensitive to orange, yellow, green and the ordinary reds. 812. ...
-Hammer's Orthochromatic Plates. Part 2
Hammer's Extra Fast Plates 831. Specially adapted for use in the studio, for general photographic work where short exposures are necessary, also for the hand camera and instantaneous exposures. 832....
-Hammer's Orthochromatic Plates. Part 3
Hammer's Slow Plates 841. This brand of plates allows great latitude in the exposure; has exceptionally fine grain, and is what its name implies - Slow, being about one-fourth the rapidity of Hammer'...
-Hammer's Orthochromatic Plates. Part 4
Hammer's Non-Halation Is a Double- Coated Plate. 859. The cleaned glass is first coated with our Slow emulsion and dried as usual; then each plate is examined for any possible defects. The perfect p...
-Chapter XXII. Wet Plate Process
864 Following closely on the heels of the earliest method of taking portrait photographs - that is, on a silver plate by the Daguerrean process - came the discovery of the use Of collodion as a ...
-Wet Plate Process. Part 2
870. Dark-Room Dark-Room. The first requirement for the wet plate process is the dark-room. While any ordinary photographic dark-room will do, yet, as the wet plate is less sensitive to light than ...
-Wet Plate Process. Part 3
877. Dippers Dippers. For the purpose of lowering the plate into the silver bath, or into the fixing bath, you should provide yourself with two hard rubber dippers. These are so arranged that the ...
-Wet Plate Process. Part 4
884. Plain Collodion Plain Collodion. Alcohol 10 ozs. Ether........................ 10 ozs. Gun Cotton (Neg. Cotton) ... 120 grs. 885. Preparing The ...
-Wet Plate Process. Part 5
891. Strength Of Silver Bath Strength Of Silver Bath. The proper strength of the silver bath should be anywhere from 45 to 50 grains of silver to the ounce of solution. The simplest method for ...
-Wet Plate Process. Part 6
898. Fixing Bath Fixing Bath. The fixing bath is composed of cyanide of potassium in approximately the following proportions: Cyanide of Potassium 1 oz. Water ......................
-Wet Plate Process. Part 7
905. Collodionizing Or Coating The Plate Collodionizing Or Coating The Plate. Assuming that the collodion has been prepared properly and has had an opportunity to ripen, that the silver bath has ...
-Wet Plate Process. Part 8
912. Loading The Plate-Holder Loading The Plate-Holder. The wet plate, as its name implies, must be exposed while in its wet condition. After the plate has been in the silver bath a sufficient ...
-Wet Plate Process. Part 9
917. Fixing The Plate Fixing The Plate. When the plate is completely developed, it is rinsed under the tap and then placed directly into the fixing bath. It must remain in this bath until all ...
-Wet Plate Process. Part 10
926. Washing Washing. After intensifying and fixing, the plate should be thoroughly washed in the usual manner. It may then be dried by holding over a gas or oil stove, or may be placed in a ...
-Wet Plate Process. Part 11
931. Keeping The Sensitizing Bath In Working Condition Keeping The Sensitizing Bath In Working Condition. From constant use the silver bath will in time become charged with soluble salts, resulting ...
-Wet Plate Process. Part 12
938. Note Note. The salts used for collodion should keep and react neutral. Cadmium salts thicken the collodion; alkaline salts make it thinner. Three to four parts of iodine compound are generally ...
-Chapter XXIII. Difficulties - Wet Plate Process
942. Parts Of The Film Leave The Plate Parts Of The Film Leave The Plate. This is a certain sign that the collodion has not been sufficiently set before sensitizing, or if the collodion has been ...
-Difficulties - Wet Plate Process. Part 2
950. Straight Perpendicular Lines Straight Perpendicular Lines. This may be caused by the bath becoming charged with alcohol liberated from the collodionized plates. Such a bath should be boiled ...
-Difficulties - Wet Plate Process. Part 3
957. Circular Marks On The Plate Circular Marks On The Plate. This is usually caused from drops of silver on the back of the glass plate. To overcome this, either wipe off the back before placing in ...
-Chapter XXIV. Wet Plate Photography For The Photo-Engraver
By Charles A. Stinson, Supt, Gatchel & Manning, Illustrators and Engravers, Philadelphia, Pa. 960. The wet plate process is the method used by the photo-engraver in making the negatives for half-to...
-Wet Plate Photography For The Photo-Engraver. Part 2
970. Silver Bath Silver Bath. Silver Nitrate ............. ....................8 ozs. Water (Distilled) ........... .................120 ozs. Iodide of Potassium ....
-Wet Plate Photography For The Photo-Engraver. Part 3
981. Exposure Exposure. The amount of time necessary for the exposure must be judged by the amount of reduction, quality of lens and the intensity of light, and this portion of the work can only be ...
-Wet Plate Photography For The Photo-Engraver. Part 4
987. Intensifying Intensifying. The negative is then intensified by the use of the solution, which has to be determined by the quality of the negative, and after this operation the negative must be ...
-Chapter XXV. Ferrotype Process
995. Ferrotype Process (Tintype) Ferrotype Process (Tintype). While the making of ferrotypes, commonly called tintypes, is almost a thing of the past, the process is still employed at summer resorts,...
-Ferrotype Process. Part 2
1002. Dark-Room Dark-Room. Any ordinary dark-room will do. (See description of dark-room in Paragraph 870, instructions on Wet Plate Process.) 1003. Other Materials Other Materials. Bottles for ...
-Ferrotype Process. Part 3
1009. Bromo - Iodizer Bromo - Iodizer. In order to bromo - iodizc the plain collodion, dissolve in five fluid ounces of alcohol, the following: Iodide of Cadmium ........... ................
-Ferrotype Process. Part 4
1017. Collodionizing The Plate Collodionizing The Plate. On the supposition that you have made all preparations and are ready to make your exposure, you may now proceed to coat or collodionize the ...
-Ferrotype Process. Part 5
1020. Exposing Exposing. Place your plate-holder in position at the back of the camera, being careful, however, that it is not unnecessarily jarred. Close the shutter and carefully draw the slide, ...
-Ferrotype Process. Part 6
1024. Fixing Fixing. After the image is fixed it must be carefully washed. While this can be done in a very few minutes you must be careful that it is done thoroughly. If the cyanide is not washed ...
-Chapter XXVI. How The Studies Illustrating This Volume Were Made
Study No. 2, title, Woodland Mist, by W. T. Knox, New York, N. Y. The weather conditions, dull and misty; exposure was made in the morning; lens used, single combination of Zeiss; focal length, 23 i...
-"American Annual" Table of Symbols, Atomic Weight and Solubilities of the Principal Chemicals used in Photography
Abbreviations. - s., soluble; v. s., very soluble; sp. s., sparingly soluble; n. s., not soluble; dec, decomposed; del., deliquescent. Name. Symbol. Molecular Weight. One Part is...
-Table Of Symbols, Atomic Weight And Solubilities Of The Principal Chemicals Used In Photography
Abbreviations. - s., soluble; v. s., very soluble; sp. s., sparingly soluble; n. s., not soluble; Name. Symbol. Molecular WEIGHT. One Part is Soluble in ColdWater One Part ...

Part III: Volume 3: General Exterior Photography Composition

-Volume III. General Exterior Photography Composition. Architectural and Landscape Photography Introduction
In introducing Architectural and Landscape Photography to the reader, we desire to call special attention to one or two points of importance: Foremost, it is wrong to assume, as most people do, that a...
-Chapter I. Architectural Photography. Part I. Preliminary Instruction
1. When the beginner in photography first tries his camera it is usually pointed at some building, generally the family home, for the reason that such an object is erroneously supposed to be the most ...
-Architectural Photography. Part I. Preliminary Instruction. Part 2
8. Cameras Cameras. The first consideration of the photographer, especially the professional, should be his camera and lens, as in architectural photography it is necessary for the proper photographi...
-Architectural Photography. Part I. Preliminary Instruction. Part 3
13. Obtaining Perpendicular Lines Obtaining Perpendicular Lines. To help you to determine when you have your lines as true as possible, draw a top and side line, with pencil and straight-edge, 3/4 of...
-Architectural Photography. Part I. Preliminary Instruction. Part 4
19. Convertible Three-Focus Lens Convertible Three-Focus Lens. With the convertible three-focus lens can be obtained similar results to the Telephoto, as by using the rear combination alone the image...
-Architectural Photography. Part I. Preliminary Instruction. Part 5
23. Tripods Tripods. We advise the use of a strong, serviceable, wooden tripod, which will support the heaviest camera without danger of vibration. Avoid a tripod of the so-called light weight class....
-Architectural Photography. Part I. Preliminary Instruction. Part 5. Continued
35. Illustration No. 6. Being a very dark building the strong sunlight adds relief to the color monotony. 36. Illustration No. 7. Picture of the same building photographed with the sun obscured by a ...
-Chapter II. Architectural Photography. Part II. General Instruction
46. Selection Of Subject For This Lesson Selection Of Subject For This Lesson. In applying this instruction you should make a photograph of a residence, using your best judgment as to position of cam...
-Architectural Photography. Part II. General Instruction. Part 2
51. Setting Up Tripod Setting Up Tripod. Assuming that you have selected the proper location from which to make the view, next place your tripod and camera in this position. The tripod should be so p...
-Architectural Photography. Part II. General Instruction. Part 3
56. Using The Swing-Back Properly Using The Swing-Back Properly. Having attached the camera to a carefully leveled tripod, you will find that the axis of the lens is in the center of the ground-glass...
-Architectural Photography. Part II. General Instruction. Part 4
67. Horizontal Swing Horizontal Swing. The horizontal swing is attached to the regular view camera and is seldom used for ordinary work. However, when taking a view along one side of a narrow street,...
-Architectural Photography. Part II. General Instruction. Part 5
70. Vanishing Or Converging Lines Vanishing Or Converging Lines. Lines BB are known as the vanishing or converging lines, their vanishing point being where they meet on the horizon. 71. There are si...
-Architectural Photography. Part II. General Instruction. Part 6
76. Relative Values Of Different Markings On Diaphragms Relative Values Of Different Markings On Diaphragms. There are two methods generally used in marking diaphragms or stops. The first expresses t...
-Architectural Photography. Part II. General Instruction. Part 7
79. Orthochromatic Plates Orthochromatic Plates. Where tone effects are desired, such as the proper rendering of color values of a house, the orthochromatic plate is indispensable. The orthochro-mati...
-Architectural Photography. Part II. General Instruction. Part 8
84. Practice Work Practice Work. In applying this instruction select a residence, or building of any description. One with projections, porches, etc., is the best. Bear in mind these few facts. 85. ...
-Chapter III. Architectural Photography. Part III. Detailed Instruction
89. The Photographing of Buildings with Figures Introduced, Public Buildings, Commercial Buildings, Photographing Streets, Photographing High Buildings in Sections, etc., are the subjects of this inst...
-Architectural Photography. Part III. Detailed Instruction. Part 2
97. Time Exposures Time Exposures. The conditions for the work up to this time have required quick exposures. It is important that you become thoroughly familiar with all conditions requiring various...
-Architectural Photography. Part III. Detailed Instruction. Part 3
101. Stops To Use Stops To Use. The size of the stops to use in making group pictures will depend upon the lens employed. For portraiture you do not want extremely sharp, wiry effects, so focus with ...
-Architectural Photography. Part III. Detailed Instruction. Part 4
107. Cloud Effects Cloud Effects. Where clouds are to be retained the exposure must be a rapid one. The building should be photographed at quite a distance to obtain more of a general view, admitting...
-Architectural Photography. Part III. Detailed Instruction. Part 5
112. Moving Objects Moving Objects. If people are passing the building to be photographed, it is advisable to use the smallest stop and give an accordingly long exposure. Persons passing, as long as ...
-Architectural Photography. Part III. Detailed Instruction. Part 6
118. Developing Developing. Architectural views made under a clouded sky with small stops and long exposures should be developed slowly. In order to restrain the plate and keep it free from fog, seve...
-Chapter IV. Difficulties - Architectural Photography
120. Obtaining Proper Angle Of Light Obtaining Proper Angle Of Light. This is thoroughly taken up in Paragraphs 74. Study the effect of light at different times of the day and when you find the time ...
-Difficulties - Architectural Photography. Part 2
125. Obtaining Less Foreground Or Sky Obtaining Less Foreground Or Sky. This difficulty can be readily overcome by the use of the rising front to which the lens is attached. By raising it you will ob...
-Difficulties - Architectural Photography. Part 3
134. Figures Very Small When Entire Building Is Shown Figures Very Small When Entire Building Is Shown. As this is not intended to be a portrait of subjects introduced, but a picture of the building,...
-Difficulties - Architectural Photography. Part 4
140. Center Of Plate Sharp, Ends Out Of Focus, Appearing Blurred Center Of Plate Sharp, Ends Out Of Focus, Appearing Blurred. This clearly shows that the lens does not cover the entire plate or it wa...
-Chapter V. Landscape And General View Photography
144. Introduction Introduction. We have been taught that all our relations with the outer world are maintained by five senses - sight, hearing, smell, taste and feeling - but it is now a very general...
-Information On Choice Of Apparatus And Material
157. In no field of photographic work is it possible to use apparatus as inexpensive as in the making of pictorial landscapes. It is, however, always advisable before making an exposure to thoroughly ...
-Information On Choice Of Apparatus And Material. Part 2
160. Angle Of View Angle Of View. The question of angle of view has much to do with what has previously been said regarding the focal length of the lens; yet it is of sufficient importance to conside...
-Information On Choice Of Apparatus And Material. Part 3
166. The Effect Of Backing The Effect Of Backing. The immediate effect of the use of backing can be easily observed by again taking the piece of clean glass and holding it at an angle, to obtain the ...
-Information On Choice Of Apparatus And Material. Part 4
176. Backing Sheets Backing Sheets. A very handy method of backing plates quickly and economically is to use backing sheets. These are composed of stout material, such as tough brown paper, coated wi...
-Information On Choice Of Apparatus And Material. Part 5
182. Ray Filter Ray Filter. In photographing landscapes, the sky will be greatly over-exposed by the time a sufficient amount of detail has been secured in the foreground, as the plate is extremely ...
-Information On Choice Of Apparatus And Material. Part 6
193. Home-Made Ray Filters Home-Made Ray Filters. If you desire to make your own orthochromatic screen, you will find the following experiment very interesting, as well as instructive. In gaslight ...
-Information On Choice Of Apparatus And Material. Part 7
199. Choice Of Subject And Filter Choice Of Subject And Filter. If pleasing results in landscape work are desired, a good deal of discrimination must be exercised in the selection of the ray filter. ...
-Chapter VI. Landscape And General View Photography
Composition. 201. Securing Pictorial Effects Securing Pictorial Effects. The photographer is greatly handicapped, as compared with the painter, inasmuch as he has very limited power to omit from, or...
-Landscape And General View Photography. Part 2
208. Elementary Art Principles Elementary Art Principles. Before entering into the actual work of taking pictures, it is advisable to dwell for a short time upon some of the principles and ...
-Landscape And General View Photography. Part 3
213. The Principal Object Of Interest The Principal Object Of Interest. Another vital point in composition is: There must be a principal object of interest in the picture, and that object must be ...
-Landscape And General View Photography. Part 4
217. Pulling Power Of Picture Space Pulling Power Of Picture Space. Each and every part of the picture has a certain amount of pulling power; that is, each and every section claims attention, and ...
-Landscape And General View Photography. Part 5
226. Artistic Bisection Of A Line Artistic Bisection Of A Line. In order that you may understand more clearly why a subject should be located either to right or left of the center, or above or below ...
-Landscape And General View Photography. Part 6
235. Value Of Location Of Units Within The Picture Space Value Of Location Of Units Within The Picture Space. You must bear in mind that every picture is composed of a collection of units or items, ...
-Landscape And General View Photography. Part 7
241. Line Of Curvature Line Of Curvature. One of the easiest forms of composition for the beginner to handle is the one based upon the letter S, or upon the more angular form of the letter Z. Among ...
-Landscape And General View Photography. Part 8
251. Test Card Test Card. In order to save a certain amount of time, you will find it most convenient to take a piece of cardboard and cut in it an opening the size of the plate you are using, and ...
-Chapter VII. Instruction In Landscape Photography
254. Suggestions For Choice Of Subject Suggestions For Choice Of Subject. Never allow strong colors and complicated views to carry you away from the principles which will produce the most artistic ...
-Instruction In Landscape Photography. Continued
259. Focusing Focusing. Focusing is a very important factor, and you must remember that sharpness of focus is only permissible for objects in the foreground; the distance will take care of itself. ...
-Chapter VIII. Sunlight On Landscapes Rendering Light And Shade
268. How To Expose How To Expose. Perhaps in your photographic work you have been led to believe that if you have a bright sunny day you will be assured of splendid results. On the other hand, if ...
-Sunlight On Landscapes Rendering Light And Shade. Continued
273. Roads And Trees Roads And Trees. There is something very fascinating in the vanishing point of a road or where it winds around behind a clump of trees. It really gives the observer a feeling of ...
-Chapter IX. Part I. Figures In Landscape
280. As to the advisability of including a figure or figures in any view, ask yourself the two questions: First, is the figure necessary to carry out the idea of the scene? Second, is the figure or ...
-Part I. Figures In Landscape. Part 2
289. Narrow Angle Lens The Best Narrow Angle Lens The Best. The most common fault which presents itself in the handling of the foreground is derived from the use of a lens of too wide an angle, so ...
-Part I. Figures In Landscape. Part 3
295. Use Of Rising Front Use Of Rising Front. The wise employment of the rising front of your camera will often serve to remove a bare expanse of foreground and save the use of a trimming knife. ...
-Part II. Street Photography
300. Camera For Street Photography Camera For Street Photography. Pictorial results are often difficult when making photographs of city streets. Many of the difficulties, however, may be overcome by ...
-Chapter X. Forms Of Composition
312. One of the clearest and most concise articles on the subject of pictorial composition for beginners was given by Mr. J. W. Ridpath, before the Photographic Section of the Franklin Institute. As ...
-Chapter XI. General Talk On Composition And Art
328. Composition is the creating of a subtle arrangement of lines or forms in photography which shall present a beautiful whole. The object of all composition in photography is to give pleasure ...
-General Talk On Composition And Art. Part 2
339. Following on this question of lines comes the question of the manner in which the subject should be presented. Every picture should have a story telling quality. Story telling pictures have long ...
-General Talk On Composition And Art. Part 3
349. The eye naturally seeks the principal point of interest, and if there are a number of interesting spots distributed through the picture, it goes naturally into the picture, touching first the ...
-Chapter XII. Difficulties - Landscape Photography And Composition
361. Unsatisfactory Results In General Unsatisfactory Results In General. In the first place, unsatisfactory results are often caused from not taking time enough to compose the picture properly. Do ...
-Difficulties - Landscape Photography And Composition. Part 2
368. Misleading Effects Produced By Color Misleading Effects Produced By Color. In many highly lighted landscapes the beginner will be misled by the brilliancy. In such a case, the photographic ...
-Difficulties - Landscape Photography And Composition. Part 3
372. Unsuccessful Work On Windy Days Unsuccessful Work On Windy Days. A great source of trouble to the landscape worker comes from the movement of trees caused by the wind, when you desire, perhaps, ...
-Difficulties - Landscape Photography And Composition. Part 4
378. Spotted Effect When Trees Appear In Landscape Spotted Effect When Trees Appear In Landscape. This difficulty will be most apparent when photographing woodland scenes with the sun too high in ...
-Difficulties - Landscape Photography And Composition. Part 5
385. Figures In Landscape Too Small Figures In Landscape Too Small. When photographing landscapes in which figures appear, the great mistake beginners make is that they wait before making the ...
-Difficulties - Landscape Photography And Composition. Part 6
392. Lack Of Interest In Street Scenes Lack Of Interest In Street Scenes. This difficulty is also very carefully handled in Chapter IX (Advanced Development Of Over-Timed Plates), Paragraphs 300 to ...
-Chapter XIII. Cloud Photography
393. The landscape or seascape picture with sky is not complete unless it contains the proper cloud effect. The extreme amount of contrast between the light blue of the sky and the dark green of the ...
-Cloud Photography. Part 2
399. Selection Of Clouds Selection Of Clouds. If it is your intention to make a series of cloud negatives to print-in with the foregrounds of other negatives, you must make a very careful ...
-Cloud Photography. Part 3
408. Storm Clouds Storm Clouds. Cumulo-Stratus and Nimbus Clouds can usually be secured without employing a ray filter, for they are very often made up of heavy semi-dark tones and such shades of ...
-Cloud Photography. Part 4
411. Exposure To Obtain Cloud Negatives Exposure To Obtain Cloud Negatives. In securing these cloud negatives separately, so that you may print them over landscapes or seascapes that require their ...
-Cloud Photography. Part 5
418. Practice Work Practice Work. After having become fairly familiar with the various types and forms of clouds, make an exposure or two of the best subjects at your command. It may be necessary to ...
-Chapter XIV. Snow And Frost Photography
420. Every season of the year has its own special features that invite the eamerist to work with his instrument. But the winter season is specially inviting because of the subtle charm of the winter ...
-Snow And Frost Photography. Part 2
427. Cultivate Observation Cultivate Observation. Before attempting to photograph subjects of this class, study them at other seasons and note their characteristics. The knowledge thus gained will ...
-Snow And Frost Photography. Part 3
436. Color Of Ray Filter Color Of Ray Filter. The color of the ray filter should be light amber. Using the ray filter you can give a slightly longer exposure, preserving the detail in the foreground,...
-Chapter XV. Difficulties - Cloud, Snow And Frost Photography
444. Flat Cloud Effects Flat Cloud Effects. Flat cloud effects are invariably due to over-exposure. When it is desired to secure the landscape on the same negative with the sky, the light from the ...
-Difficulties - Cloud, Snow And Frost Photography. Continued
450. Lighting Lighting. The lighting has much to do with relief, roundness and atmospheric effect. If the sunlight falls perpendicularly upon the scene as is the case during the noon hours, you will ...
-Chapter XVI. Part I. Seascape Photography
453. The majority of the camera users at the seaside can be divided into three different classes. We do not include tintype photographers, but simply consider amateur photographers, who are usually ...
-Part I. Seascape Photography. Part 2
459. Handling The Tripod Handling The Tripod. If, however, a tripod is employed on any occasion, care should be taken to see that the points of the legs are on a firm base. If the tripod is erected ...
-Part I. Seascape Photography. Part 3
465. Focusing Scale Focusing Scale. Another point worthy of attention by the earnest hand camera user, especially if the camera is a new one, is to carefully test the focusing scale before starting ...
-Part I. Seascape Photography. Part 4
469. Photographing The Sea Photographing The Sea. If you have never had any previous experience of seascape work, you will at first be somewhat disturbed by the largeness of your subject. It is ...
-Part I. Seascape Photography. Part 5
476. Lighting Lighting. The position of the source of light is an important factor in the success of seascapes. When sunsets and strong cloud effects are desired, the water usually plays a secondary ...
-Part II. Photographing Sea Birds
479. Especially during the late summer and fall, the camera user with a love for nature and natural history will find photographing sea birds a most fascinating branch of photography. If you have ...
-Part II. Photographing Sea Birds. Continued
486. Exposure Exposure. It is very essential that you give full exposure, especially if the birds have some black about them. The razor-bill, a dull or a sooty-black, requires somewhat excessive ...
-Chapter XVII. Difficulties - Seascape Photography
492. Flat Seascapes Flat Seascapes. In making negatives of any subject, flat effects are more or less due to over-exposure. In seascape photography, however, the tendency to over-expose is far ...
-Chapter XVIII. Night Photography
498. A field of photographic work that but few amateurs enter, except for the hit or miss exposure, and one in which great possibilities lie, is photography at night. Although exposures at night have ...
-Night Photography. Part 2
502. Lightning Flashes Lightning Flashes. For photographing lightning flashes at night, use a quick plate, with the camera set to universal focus, employing the largest stop. Point the camera in ...
-Night Photography. Part 3
506. Naval Displays Naval Displays. Photographing naval displays at night is almost impossible if there is any considerable amount of movement. Heavy seas, rapidly moving craft or high winds ...
-Night Photography. Part 4
511. Moonlight Effects Moonlight Effects. With a very bright moon exposures at night need not be lengthy. An open view, like a large city square, may be taken in four or five minutes, using stop F. ...
-Night Photography. Part 5
516. Apparatus For Night Photography Apparatus For Night Photography. No special apparatus is required for night work but much can be said in favor of a fixed focus camera, as it saves considerable ...
-Night Photography. Part 6
519. The Lens Hood The Lens Hood. A lens hood is useful to shield the lens from any light that may reflect from either side. Although it may not come within the angle of view it is likely to cause ...
-Night Photography. Part 7
525. Exposure Exposure. Under each of the previous sub-headings we have given approximate exposures for the various subjects that you will be likely to deal with. Remember that these exposures are ...
-Chapter XIX. Difficulties - Night Photography
528. Lightning Flashes Lightning Flashes. The greatest difficulty in securing practically perfect negatives of a lightning flash will be found in pointing the camera in the proper direction to have ...
-Chapter XX. Floral Photography
534. Nearly everyone is impelled at some point or other in their photographic career, to make pictures of flowers. You may begin making floral studies at the very first of the year and continue until ...
-Floral Photography. Part 2
543. The Ray Filter The Ray Filter. The ray filter is quite essential in photographing blue flowers, but it is not necessary to use one of an extremely deep shade. Any ordinary light-colored ray ...
-Floral Photography. Part 3
548. Special Background For Flowers Special Background For Flowers. Where it is intended to make numerous flower studies, a special background of some nature should be provided. A simple arrangement ...
-Floral Photography. Part 4
556. Lighting The Flowers Lighting The Flowers. The material upon which to lay your flower studies may be exactly the same as that described in Paragraph 548, relating to the background on the ...
-Floral Photography. Part 5
561. Focusing Focusing. In focusing take the utmost care to get the foremost parts of the flowers perfectly sharp. It may happen that parts in foreground shadows will escape notice unless you give ...
-Chapter XXI. Wild Flowers
568. There are few branches of picture-making more fascinating, especially in the summer time when it is possible to work out of doors, than the photographing of wild flowers where they grow. It is ...
-Chapter XXII. Animal Photography
575. Introduction Introduction. There are few branches of photography affording more pleasure, yet requiring more patience, than the photographing of animals, whether domestic pets, wild animals, ...
-Animal Photography. Part 2
597. Cattle Cattle. The photographing of cattle and especially of blooded stock, necessitates a certain amount of knowledge of the important points which should be brought into prominence. ...
-Animal Photography. Part 3
603. Horses Horses. One of the most difficult of the domestic animals to photograph is the horse. It is comparatively easy, of course, if it is in harness or held by means of a halter, but to ...
-Animal Photography. Part 4
608. Animals In Landscape Photographs Animals In Landscape Photographs. When making pictures of pastoral subjects, cattle, horses and sheep often prove useful, either as providing a chief motive, or ...
-Animal Photography. Part 5
615. Practice Work Practice Work. In order to become proficient in the photographing of animals, you should proceed to photograph different subjects, following carefully the directions which have ...
-Chapter XXIII. Natural History Photography - Birds, Insects, Animals, Etc
617. Photographing Wild Life Photographing Wild Life. At all seasons of the year there is an opportunity for securing excellent records of both birds and animals in their native wild state. This ...
-Natural History Photography - Birds, Insects, Animals, Etc. Part 2
628. Insects Insects. The photographing of insects, butterflies, etc., is a very interesting study. Especially in the spring and early summer is it possible to find the wayside and ponds teeming ...
-Natural History Photography - Birds, Insects, Animals, Etc. Part 3
636. Practice Work Practice Work. For your first experiments it will not be necessary for you to go into the woods, as you may photograph a hen standing beside her nest. Another photograph may be ...
-Chapter XXIV. Fuzzy Photography
638. A definition is hardly necessary, as the word explains itself. How often you have seen, or made by accident, a beautiful sketch of woodland, water, or sky scenery not at all like the ordinary ...
-Fuzzy Photography. Part 2
651. Moonlight Effects Moonlight Effects. Moonlight effects are best rendered from negatives made in broad daylight. You will need your ordinary camera and lens, a very rapid shutter, and a few non-...
-Fuzzy Photography. Part 3
662. Caution Caution. Bear in mind negatives for fuzzy prints should be slightly over-exposed and developed for flatness rather than contrast. Start these in normal developer, and if they are well ...
-Chapter XXV. Pin-Hole Photography
666. That a high-grade lens is a great addition to any-photographic worker's outfit is beyond question. It is not the purpose of this chapter to discourage anyone's ambition to some day become the ...
-Pin-Hole Photography. Part 2
675. Making The Pin-Hole Making The Pin-Hole. To make a pin-hole, take a piece of very thin brass, or other metal, or even tough black paper. Take a wire nail and place it in the center of the brass,...
-Pin-Hole Photography. Part 3
683. Angle Of View Angle Of View. The extreme width of angle which may be obtained with a pin-hole renders its aid very valuable when working in confined situations. With a very carefully made pin-...
-Pin-Hole Photography. Part 4
687. Development Development. The development of a pin-hole negative is exactly the same as for any other negative. 688. Paper To Use Paper To Use. The surface of the paper on which the final ...
-Chapter XXVII. How The Studies Illustrating This Volume Were Made
Study No. 2. Title, An October Morning, by Sweet Brothers, Minneapolis, Minn. This picture was made at 7:30 a. m. in a very heavy frost. The lens used was a Zeiss, stopped down to F. 8; plate used, ...
-How The Studies Illustrating This Volume Were Made. Continued
Study No. 9. Title, The Bridge, by J. H. Field, Berlin, Wis. The exposure was made at 6 a. m., on a misty day. The lens used was a rapid rectilinear 5 x 7, of an 8 inch focal length; stop used, wide...
-Chapter XXXVIII. How To Understand And Enjoy The Studies Illustrating This Volume
Pictures, books and music all have charms to soothe and help one to forget the worriments and cares of life. People with different temperaments take to one or the other of these, accordingly as their ...
-How To Understand And Enjoy The Studies Illustrating This Volume. Part 2
The foreground is sufficiently broad to emphasize the vertical columns of the portico. If there was any less, the building would appear cut off and top heavy in the photograph, which would result in w...
-How To Understand And Enjoy The Studies Illustrating This Volume. Part 3
The Parthenon at Athens is perhaps the best example of architecture in the world today. Like the splendid creations of human genius in other lines of human endeavor, Shakespeare's Hamlet, Leonardo d...
-How To Understand And Enjoy The Studies Illustrating This Volume. Part 4
For instance, literature does not depend upon one language, nor upon one class of subjects for expression. Music is not confined to one instrument; neither is art in picture making confined to one met...
-How To Understand And Enjoy The Studies Illustrating This Volume. Part 5
In Winter in the Country, by Sweet Brothers, we have a landscape in which the dominant interest is snow. Its soft white texture is emphasized by the inky blackness of the water which, by a graceful ...
-How To Understand And Enjoy The Studies Illustrating This Volume. Part 6
Study No. 9, The Bridge, by J. H. Field. Only an artist would have selected this point of view for a picture of this bridge. The abutment in the foreground being upright, vertical, emphasizes by con...
-How To Understand And Enjoy The Studies Illustrating This Volume. Part 7
Study No. 19, Street Scene - Winter, by J. S. Neary. For delicacy of tone value and a broad arrangement of light and shade this picture is a photographic gem. Its strength lies in the subtle renderi...
-How To Understand And Enjoy The Studies Illustrating This Volume. Part 8
Study No. 34, The Blue Flag, by John M. Schreck. This is a graceful flower study, well rendered by the photographer. Owing to the close proximity of the lens the flowers do not reflect much surface ...

Part IV: Volume 4: Photographic Printing

-Volume IV. Photographic Printing. Part I. Chapter I. Introduction And Theory Of Printing-Out Process
1. After a glass, or film, negative has been produced it is necessary to have some means of transferring the negative image to a positive form and placing it upon some permanent substance. For commerc...
-Introduction And Theory Of Printing-Out Process. Part 2
9. Theory Of Printing Theory Of Printing. The paper is placed in a printing frame, under a negative, and exposed to daylight. At once the color begins to change, the exposed parts assuming a pink tin...
-Introduction And Theory Of Printing-Out Process. Part 3
15. Fading Of Prints Fading Of Prints. It was previously stated that citric acid is present in the emulsion of printing-out papers; this will decompose hypo and liberate sulphur. If alum be present a...
-Chapter II. Warm Tones On Gelatin Glossy Paper
Brief General Instruction 22. Necessary Material Necessary Material. The following material is necessary for toning glossy prints: Four trays of good size. If many prints are to be toned, the trays...
-Warm Tones On Gelatin Glossy Paper. Continued
29. Preparing The Toning Bath Preparing The Toning Bath. Into a two quart bottle or jar, pour 40 ozs. of distilled water and add 1 oz. of Stock Solution No. 1, also 1 oz. of Stock Solution No. 2. Tho...
-Chapter III. Warm Tones On Gelatin Glossy Paper
Detailed Instruction 35. Temperature Temperature. All wash waters and baths should be exactly the same temperature from the beginning of the washing of the prints until they are ready to mount, the ...
-Warm Tones On Gelatin Glossy Paper. Part 2
42. Printing From Soft Or Quick Printing Negatives Printing From Soft Or Quick Printing Negatives. A soft, thin negative, owing to its printing so quickly, prints on the surface only, unless it be ex...
-Warm Tones On Gelatin Glossy Paper. Part 3
46. Trays For Washing And Toning Prints Trays For Washing And Toning Prints. Many failures are caused from negligence in caring for trays. One should have at least two washing trays, besides one for ...
-Warm Tones On Gelatin Glossy Paper. Part 4
52. Borax Borax. Borax is found native in the crude state in the saline portions of Nevada and California, but is also manufactured by boiling boracic acid (crude) with sodium carbonate. It is put up...
-Warm Tones On Gelatin Glossy Paper. Part 5
61. How To Tone How To Tone. We will now suppose that your Toning Bath has ripened ready for use and the prints are carefully washed, as instructed. Immerse one print in the Toning Bath and with the ...
-Warm Tones On Gelatin Glossy Paper. Part 6
67. Life Of A Toning Bath Life Of A Toning Bath. A Toning Bath is good as long as it will tone prints in a reasonable time. The formula given will tone 25 cabinet, or 4x5 prints, or their equivalent....
-Warm Tones On Gelatin Glossy Paper. Part 7
70. Fixing Fixing. After all the prints are toned they are ready for fixing. The fixing bath is prepared according to formula given in Paragraph 33. With the left hand drop the prints, one at a time,...
-Chapter IV. Purple Tones On Collodion And Gelatin Glossy Papers
Brief General Instruction 73. Introduction Introduction. Preceding chapters have dealt particularly with the fundamental principles of handling glossy printing-out papers, as far as securing an aver...
-Purple Tones On Collodion And Gelatin Glossy Papers. Continued
86. Special Acetate Toning Bath Special Acetate Toning Bath. Take 60 ounces of water, 1 ounce of the Gold Stock Solution No. 1, and add from 4 to 6 drams of a saturated solution of acetate of soda. T...
-Chapter V. Purple Tones On Collodion And Gelatin Glossy Papers
Detailed Instruction 91. Temperature Temperature. Too much emphasis cannot be laid upon the advisability of keeping all wash waters and baths at a uniform temperature, which should not exceed 70...
-Purple Tones On Collodion And Gelatin Glossy Papers. Part 2
98. Using Old Toning Bath Using Old Toning Bath. The regular toning bath should be saved, and when you desire to tone again add one-half fresh bath to the old. A bath of this kind will give better re...
-Purple Tones On Collodion And Gelatin Glossy Papers. Part 3
106. Prints Softening In First Wash Water Prints Softening In First Wash Water. If the prints soften in the first wash water, then a 5% solution of alum is best to use for the second water, and the p...
-Chapter VI. Difficulties - Collodion And Gelatin Glossy Papers
112. Judging Depth Of Printing Judging Depth Of Printing. No set rules can be given regarding the depth of printing, other than print until the highest points of light are from one to two shades da...
-Difficulties - Collodion And Gelatin Glossy Papers. Part 2
119. Muddy Tones Muddy Tones. If prints are flat in the shadows and refuse to clear up, it is because the bath is too alkaline, or your washing before toning was not thorough. 120. Streaky Prints S...
-Difficulties - Collodion And Gelatin Glossy Papers. Part 3
127. Surface Of Prints Softening In Wash Waters Surface Of Prints Softening In Wash Waters. This will not occur where cold water is used, and will only happen during the summer months when the water ...
-Difficulties - Collodion And Gelatin Glossy Papers. Part 4
133. Edges Of Print Cracking Edges Of Print Cracking. This is due to the prints curling because they were not perfectly flattened in the first wash water. Be careful that you do not use more water th...
-Chapter VII. Printing And Toning Matte Surface Papers
Brief General Instruction 138. Introduction Introduction. The majority of matte surface printing-out papers are coated with collodion. The general treatment of the manipulation of this class of pape...
-Printing And Toning Matte Surface Papers. Continued
142. Washing Washing. It is absolutely necessary to thoroughly wash the prints before they enter the first toning bath. Eight or ten changes, handling each print separately in every change of water, ...
-Phosphoric Acid Platinum Bath
151. Preparing the Stock Solution. Water................................... 4 Ozs. Chloro-Platinite................................. .. .15 grs. Phosphoric Acid (50%...
-Citric Acid Platinum Bath
153. Citric acid may be substituted for phosphoric acid. Dissolve 8 ozs. of citric acid in 8 ozs. of hot water and place in a bottle labeled Citric Acid Solution. 154. Prepare the Platinum Stock So...
-Chapter VIII. Printing And Toning Matte Surface Papers
Detailed Instruction 160. Depth Of Printing Depth Of Printing. The printing quality of a negative has the same influence on matte papers as it has on glossy, i. e., it is not necessary to print as d...
-Printing And Toning Matte Surface Papers. Part 2
165. Printing From A Soft Negative Printing From A Soft Negative. A soft or quick printing negative prints only on the surface, unless it is exposed and printed in the shade, and even then it should ...
-Printing And Toning Matte Surface Papers. Part 3
169. Temperature Of The Water Temperature Of The Water. The temperature of the water has much to do with the curling of the paper. In water too cold prints will curl readily. The proper temperature i...
-Printing And Toning Matte Surface Papers. Part 4
178. Quality Of Tone Quality Of Tone. The final tone produced in the platinum toning bath is almost entirely governed by the depth of toning in the gold bath. If only the whites are clear in the gold...
-Printing And Toning Matte Surface Papers. Part 5
186. Alkalies Alkalies. The alkalies used in the different gold baths recommended are: borax, carbonate of soda, and bicarbonate of soda. Carbonate of soda is a very strong alkali and should be used ...
-Printing And Toning Matte Surface Papers. Part 6
191. Acetate Of Soda Acetate Of Soda. Acetate of soda is a very weak alkali, almost a neutral chemical. The fact of its being one of the mildest alkalies permits us to use it in large quantities. As ...
-Printing And Toning Matte Surface Papers. Part 7
196. Washing After Toning In Gold Bath Washing After Toning In Gold Bath. As the prints become toned place them in a tray of fresh water, using plenty of solution. As you proceed with the toning, ...
-Printing And Toning Matte Surface Papers. Part 8
202. Fixing The Prints Fixing The Prints. It is advisable to prepare the hypo bath by hydrometer test, making it 18 grs. strong. The hypo should also be slightly alkaline and be tested with blue and ...
-Printing And Toning Matte Surface Papers. Part 9
206. Caution Caution. Long soaking in the bath and wash waters very materially affects the brilliancy of the prints. Because of this, one cannot be too particular about the speed of various baths, ...
-Chapter IX. Part I. Toning With Aristo Gold And Platinum Solutions
210. The preceding instruction is applicable to all classes of matte papers and excellent results will be secured if the directions are carefully followed. The American Aristotype Company supply gold ...
-Borax Enough To Turn Red Litmus Paper Blue In One Minute
212. The gold toning bath should be made up from 10 to 12 hours before using. Add enough gold to keep speed of bath 6 to 8 minutes. Do not make the bath too strong, as the print will tone before the ...
-Borax Enough To Turn Red Litmus Paper Blue In One Minute. Part 2
220. Note 1 Note. A good many photographers omit the acetate of soda from the gold bath, claiming just as good results. Whether or not it is best to use acetate of soda depends a great deal on the ...
-Borax Enough To Turn Red Litmus Paper Blue In One Minute. Part 3
227. Caution Caution. In preparing the backing paper it must be understood that the emulsion on this paper contains preserving chemicals which it is necessary to remove before using. The paper ...
-Chapter X. Varying Water Conditions. Their Effects Upon The Manipulation Of Sensitized Papers
232. Varying water conditions have considerable to do with the manipulation of printing-out papers. Generally in the spring and fall of the year all printers experience more or less trouble, and in ...
-Varying Water Conditions. Their Effects Upon The Manipulation Of Sensitized Papers. Part 2
236. Difference Between Fresh And Old Paper Difference Between Fresh And Old Paper. The paper when you receive it, if fresh, is in an acid condition, caused by the chemicals used to preserve it. In ...
-Varying Water Conditions' Effects Upon The Manipulation Of Sensitized Papers. Part 3
242. Treating Water Which Is Strongly Alkaline Or Acid Treating Water Which Is Strongly Alkaline Or Acid. It is always advisable, in case you experience trouble in any manipulation, to first look to ...
-Water Tests
247. For Lime For Lime. Drop two drops of strong oxalic acid solution in a glass of water. If it turns the water milky, lime is present. 248. For Alkalies For Alkalies. If red litmus paper is ...
-Chapter XI. Difficulties - Printing And Toning Matte Surface Papers
252. Keeping The Trays Clean Keeping The Trays Clean. Chemically unclean trays are the cause of a great deal of trouble to photographers. It is essential that each tray be kept for one particular ...
-Difficulties - Printing And Toning Matte Surface Papers. Part 2
259. Keeping Large Prints In Contact Keeping Large Prints In Contact. Much trouble is often caused in printing from large negatives by the paper cockling and throwing the print out of contact. This ...
-Difficulties - Printing And Toning Matte Surface Papers. Part 3
265. Uniform Tones Uniform Tones. A formula for a gold bath is intended for prints from average negatives. 266. No bath will tone prints from strong, contrasty negatives and prints from weak, thin ...
-Difficulties - Printing And Toning Matte Surface Papers. Part 4
275. Black Spots On Prints While In Platinum Bath Black Spots On Prints While In Platinum Bath. This is due to some foreign chemical, or matter, getting into the toning bath. In preparing your ...
-Difficulties - Printing And Toning Matte Surface Papers. Part 5
289. Hypo Stains Hypo Stains. Washing prints before toning in the gold bath, in trays that are used for washing the prints after fixing. Not washing the hands often enough when handling the ...
-Difficulties - Printing And Toning Matte Surface Papers. Part 6
298. Black Spots Black Spots. Black spots, when they show a star or comet-like effect on paper in the first wash waters, are caused by small particles of iron rust in the water, which may come from ...
-Difficulties - Printing And Toning Matte Surface Papers. Part 7
306. Backed Prints Turning Yellow In Spots Backed Prints Turning Yellow In Spots. Unless the backing paper has been thoroughly washed to eliminate all the acid in the collodion emulsion, this is apt ...
-Difficulties - Printing And Toning Matte Surface Papers. Part 8
314. Prints Cracking Prints Cracking. Using extremely cold water for washing is apt to cause the prints to crack. If you are careful about properly flattening and handling the prints during the ...
-Difficulties - Printing And Toning Matte Surface Papers. Part 9
323. Washing Large Prints After Hypo Washing Large Prints After Hypo. Have two trays 25x 30 inches, and four inches deep. Bore a row of half-inch holes around sides of tray one inch from top. This ...
-Chapter XII. Artists' Proofs On Collodio Carbon Paper
Brief General Instruction 325. Introduction Introduction. Collodio Carbon is a matte surface collodion emulsion paper coated on extra heavy stock, and prints on this paper, toned either black or sep...
-Artists' Proofs On Collodio Carbon Paper. Continued
332. Preparing The Gold Bath Preparing The Gold Bath. The toning bath is prepared as follows: Into a 2-quart bottle pour 48 ounces of water, and of Stock Solution No. 1 add 1 1/2 ozs., of Stock ...
-Chapter XIII. Artists' Proofs On Collodio Carbon Paper
Detailed Instruction 342. Quality Of Negative Quality Of Negative. The printing quality of the negative required for this paper is practically the same as for Aristo Platino or matte papers, general...
-Artists' Proofs On Collodio Carbon Paper. Part 2
345. Examining The Print Examining The Print. The greatest of care must be exercised in examining the print during printing, it being necessary to keep the margin perfectly white, as the surface is ...
-Artists' Proofs On Collodio Carbon Paper. Part 3
349. How To Tone How To Tone. First, proceed to test your gold bath by trying one print. Place the print in the bath and with the right hand spray the solution over the print, watching it tone. If ...
-Artists' Proofs On Collodio Carbon Paper. Part 4
351. Toning In The Platinum Bath Toning In The Platinum Bath. Phosphoric acid sometimes results in rendering yellow, muddy prints, on account of not being absolutely pure, or because of its action ...
-Artists' Proofs On Collodio Carbon Paper. Part 5
358. Sulphite Of Soda Bath Sulphite Of Soda Bath. To 60 ounces of water add 1/2 ounce saturated solution of sulphite of soda. This bath will darken the tone somewhat but all prints will be of a ...
-Artists' Proofs On Collodio Carbon Paper. Part 6
363. Final Drying And Flattening Final Drying And Flattening. For final drying and flattening, first lay a dry blotter on a smooth, level surface; covering the blotter with prints face down. Cover ...
-Artists' Proofs On Collodio Carbon Paper. Part 7
367. Embossing Print Embossing Print. When prints are dry, in order to produce the plate-sunk effect, place them face down on the paper guide of the embossing device. Adjust the print to the opening ...
-Plate Sinking Device
A Simplified Method for Light-weight Mounts or Prints. Plate Sinking Mounts. - Modern ideas regarding the dress for the photographic print have so revolutionized the method of mounting that for even ...
-Chapter XIV. Toning Collodio Carbon With Aristo Gold And Platinum
372. Introduction Introduction. The following instruction is given so that those who desire to employ Aristo gold and platinum prepared solutions may do so. The instruction given in the preceding ...
-Toning Collodio Carbon With Aristo Gold And Platinum. Continued
380. Another Gold Bath Another Gold Bath. For Black and White Tones. Water.............................................. 64 ozs. Aristo Gold, No. 2..................................
-Chapter XV. Difficulties - Artists' Proofs On Collodio Carbon Paper
392. The general manipulation of collodio-carbon paper is practically the same as for other matte surface papers, and the majority of the difficulties are covered in previous instruction. However, a ...
-Chapter XVI. Sepia Toning Of Collodio Carbon, Aristo Platino, And All Collodion Matte Printing-Out Papers
407. Collodio carbon or any collodion matte surface paper lends itself quite naturally to warm tones, and by means of the different formulae employed any desired shade ranging from a brick red to a ...
-Sepia Toning Of Collodio Carbon, Aristo Platino, And All Collodion Matte Printing-Out Papers. Part 2
414. Preparing Alum Bath Preparing Alum Bath. ALUM BATH. Water......................................... 64 ozs. Sat. Solution of Alum.......................... 2 ozs. ...
-Sepia Toning Of Collodion Matte Printing-Out Papers. Part 3
427. Preparing Hypo Bath Preparing Hypo Bath. Hydrometer test 10 grains strong, or if by weight, Hypo............................................ .60 Ozs. Water.....................
-Sepia Toning Of Collodion Matte Printing-Out Papers. Part 4
434. Toning Toning. Proceed to tone your prints in this bath by handling them exactly as you were previously instructed. The prints should tone in from 6 to 8 minutes. If they tone more slowly, add ...
-Chapter XVII. Part I. Sepia Tones On Matte Papers With Aristo Gold
440. Printing Printing. Prints should be printed the same as for plain gold toning; about two shades darker than the finished print. 441. Washing Washing. Wash prints in two changes of clear water ...
-Warmer Sepia Tones
452. Printing Printing. Print a shade lighter than for gold tones. 453. Washing Washing. Wash in eight changes of clear water before toning to thoroughly remove all free silver. Handle prints over ...
-Sepia Toning With Carbonate Of Soda
465. Washing Washing. Wash prints in three changes of clear water (about 70 degrees Fahr.), then place them in a salt bath (13 ozs. salt to the gallon of water) for five minutes, separating prints ...
-Sepia Toning With Carbonate Of Soda. Continued
476. Sepia Tones On Aristo Platino Paper Sepia Tones On Aristo Platino Paper. For rich sepia tones the paper should have age enough to print a rich cherry red color. Sulphocyanide of Ammonia.....
-Chapter XVIII. Difficulties - Sepia And Purple Tones
The difficulties which we have already enumerated for col-lodio carbon black and white will, in most cases, apply to the sepia toning. The following however are a number of difficulties which apply di...
-Printing Cabinet For Electric Light
502. One of the most serious handicaps to photographers has been their inability to finish orders on printing-out papers on dark, cloudy days. The Aristo Lamp has been brought into use not only for ...
-Chapter XIX. Platinum Printing - Black And White
Introduction 506. Of all the printing processes, especially those best for the busy photographer, there are none offering the advantages of the platinotype, or platinum process. Among pictorial worke...
-Chapter XX. Platinum Printing - Black And White
Detailed Instruction 519. Platinum paper is put up in tin tubes and sealed with rubber tape. The sealing is to prevent the air from coming in contact with the paper, and to keep it free from moisture...
-Platinum Printing - Black And White. Part 2
526. Loading The Printing Frame Loading The Printing Frame. As platinum paper is very sensitive to strong light, loading the frame should be done in diffused light. Direct light falling on this ...
-Platinum Printing - Black And White. Part 3
534. Judging Proper Depth Of Printing Judging Proper Depth Of Printing. A very good way to judge when your platinum print is printed to the proper depth is to be guided by the strongest highlights. ...
-Platinum Printing - Black And White. Part 4
543. Developing Developing. We will suppose that you have made your prints and are ready to develop. Decant a portion of the bath into a rubber tray, which has not been used for any other purpose. ...
-Platinum Printing - Black And White. Part 5
551. Clearing Bath Clearing Bath. As soon as a print is fully developed it must be placed, face down, directly into a clearing bath made up as follows: 552. Formula for Clearing Bath. ...
-Platinum Printing - Black And White. Part 6
569. Practice Work Practice Work. The chief success of platinum printing lies in correct exposure. Of course, all negatives will not make good platinum prints, but prints from some negatives, which ...
-Chapter XXI. Notes On Developing Platinum Prints - Black And White
571. In order to produce uniform results from a variety of negatives, you should have three developing trays, each containing different developers, as follows: 572. In one tray prepare a normal ...
-Notes On Developing Platinum Prints - Black And White. Continued
578. Developing Contrasty Prints Developing Contrasty Prints. Prints quite con-trasty should be developed in the warm bath, as the warm developer softens the whites and warms the shadows, giving ...
-Chapter XXII. Difficulties - Platinum Printing
584. Prints Developing Black, All Detail Lost Prints Developing Black, All Detail Lost. This is due entirely to over-printing - exposing too long. 585. Image Developing Up Slowly And Very Faint ...
-Difficulties - Platinum Printing. Continued
594. White Comets On Prints White Comets On Prints. May be caused by the calcium dust from the lump of preservative in the tube; also from lime that may fall from the ceiling while cutting the paper,...
-Chapter XXIII. Platinum Paper - Sepia
601. With a few exceptions Sepia Platinum paper is manipulated the same as black. The paper is supplied in the same grades, the principal difference being in the printing and developing. 602. The ...
-Platinum Paper - Sepia. Part 2
613. Developing Sepia Prints Developing Sepia Prints. Catching the corners of the print between the thumb and first finger of both hands, and with the face side up, slide the print under the ...
-Platinum Paper - Sepia. Part 3
620. Clearing Clearing. Sepia paper, being more sensitive to the light than the black, may be affected by the light when in the acid bath. Therefore in the first acid bath they should be placed face ...
-Platinum Paper - Sepia. Part 4
626. Saving Platinum Waste Saving Platinum Waste. As considerable platinum remains in the print after developing, it is eliminated in the first acid water. By saving these acid baths one may reclaim ...
-Platinum Paper - Sepia. Part 5
633. Sepia Tones Produced With Bichloride Of Mercury Sepia Tones Produced With Bichloride Of Mercury. Still another toning bath is called mercury toning. While we do not recommend mercury toning ...
-Chapter XXIV. Developing Or Gaslight Papers
Introduction 641. Introduction Introduction. Developing paper, more commonly called gaslight paper, is a paper which can be printed by light of any kind and from negatives of all descriptions. The i...
-Chapter XXV. Velox Printing And Developing. Introduction
651. Surfaces And Grades Surfaces And Grades. Velox papers are divided into two grades called regular and special. These terms have reference only to speed and contrast, but not to surface. They ...
-Velox Printing And Developing. Introduction. Continued
659. The Necessary Outfit For Printing And Developing Velox Papers The Necessary Outfit For Printing And Developing Velox Papers. The size of trays to be used in the manipulation of Velox papers is ...
-Chapter XXVI. Velox Printing And Developing
Brief General Instruction. 662. Printing Printing. A good rule to follow is to sort your negatives. When about to print from them, print the heavy ones first, using Special Portrait Velox; then for ...
-Velox Printing And Developing. Continued
678. Testing Exposure Testing Exposure. Use small strips of Velox paper to test and experiment with. After you secure the proper tone and everything is working well, proceed to make your prints. You ...
-Chapter XXVII. Velox Printing And Developing
Detailed Instruction 681. Proper Light For Developing Proper Light For Developing. While gaslight papers are not nearly as sensitive to actinic or white light as dry plates, still it is necessary th...
-Velox Printing And Developing. Part 2
689. Printing With Electric Light Printing With Electric Light. For studio work and where a large amount of printing is done, a 32 candle-power incandescent electric bulb, which can be arranged ...
-Velox Printing And Developing. Part 3
693. Test For Exposure Test For Exposure. When opening a package of paper, avoid exposing it to bright light (as previously suggested). If uncertain which side has the sensitized surface, determine ...
-Nature Of Chemicals Used For Developing And Fixing
694. Metol Metol. A whitish powder, soluble in water. Is a developing agent, producing detail even to flatness. 695. Sulphite Of Soda Sulphite Of Soda. Transparent crystals, also granular and ...
-Nature Of Chemicals Used For Developing And Fixing. Part 2
704. Metol Poisoning Metol Poisoning. Metol is of a poisonous nature attacking some people more than others. It often causes an itching and soreness of the skin. With ortol there is little ...
-Nature Of Chemicals Used For Developing And Fixing. Part 3
712. Diluting The Developer Diluting The Developer. The effect of diluting the developer for prints is just the opposite in action to what it is in developing plates. A diluted developer will give ...
-Nature Of Chemicals Used For Developing And Fixing. Part 4
716. Washing Washing. Imperfect washing will cause the prints to fade after a time, owing to the chemical action of the fixing solution remaining in the prints when dry. 717. Marring Prints ...
-Nature Of Chemicals Used For Developing And Fixing. Part 5
724. Practice Work Practice Work. The making of Velox prints is most successfully done by artificial light and we advise its use, especially for your first experiments, and as the general run of ...
-Chapter XXVIII. Developing Velox With Prepared Developers
727. For those who experience difficulty in securing absolutely pure chemicals, or who do not care to compound their own developers, we recommend the use of the liquid developers put up by ...
-A Universal Prepared Developer For Paper Or Plates
733. Nepera Developing Solution. - This is known as the universal developer because it may be used not only for Velox, but for Argo, bromide paper, films or plates. Like all Nepera liquids, it is ...
-Chapter XXIX. Difficulties - Manipulating Velox And Other Gaslight Papers
745. Prints Are Too Light, Lack Detail Prints Are Too Light, Lack Detail. This is due to underexposure. The negative may be too dense for the Regular paper; use the Special papers. 746. ...
-Difficulties - Manipulating Velox And Other Gaslight Papers. Part 2
752. Prints Flat, Lacking Contrast Prints Flat, Lacking Contrast. Generally due to overexposure; or, if the negative is a weak one, full of detail but very thin, you must use the regular grade of ...
-Difficulties - Manipulating Velox And Other Gaslight Papers. Part 3
758. Blisters Blisters. Blisters are generally caused (if they do not appear until the prints reach the hypo) by too strong a hypo bath, or too much acid in the hypo; uneven temperature of developer,...
-Chapter XXX. Special Printing And Developing Of Velox And Gaslight Papers
771. The reader having followed the preceding instruction on the general manipulation of Velox paper should have a good knowledge of the general manipulation of gaslight papers. However there are ...
-Special Printing And Developing Of Velox And Gaslight Papers. Part 2
783. Dodging During Exposure Dodging During Exposure. Frequently during exposure results can be improved if a portion of the negative is held back somewhat, without masking the entire negative. ...
-Special Printing And Developing Of Velox And Gaslight Papers. Part 3
799. Vignetting Velox Prints Vignetting Velox Prints. By vignetting is meant the method of printing, by which the margins of the picture are made to gradually fade or blend away. This effect is ...
-Special Printing And Developing Of Velox And Gaslight Papers. Part 4
806. Method Of Procedure Method Of Procedure. To execute the developing method of vignetting, place the sensitive paper on the negative in the printing frame in the regular way; hold the frame up to ...
-Special Printing And Developing Of Velox And Gaslight Papers. Part 5
810. Life Of Hypo Bath Life Of Hypo Bath. The question which arises in the mind of both amateur and professional is, How long, and for how many prints, can the hypo bath be safely used? In ...
-Special Printing And Developing Of Velox And Gaslight Papers. Part 6
816. Overcoming Abrasion Marks Overcoming Abrasion Marks. Frequently there will appear on the prints fine black lines or soiled whites, more especially on glossy prints. These are called abrasion ...
-Chapter XXXI. Difficulties - Special Printing And Developing Of Velox
822. Shadows Too Black Before Sufficient Detail Has Been Produced In The Highlights Shadows Too Black Before Sufficient Detail Has Been Produced In The Highlights. This difficulty generally occurs ...
-Difficulties - Special Printing And Developing Of Velox. Part 2
828. Prints Yellowing During Washing Prints Yellowing During Washing. This is sometimes caused by vegetable matter in the water. To test the water for vegetable matter, take a pail and fill it with ...
-Difficulties - Special Printing And Developing Of Velox. Part 3
836. Tone Of Print Brown Tone Of Print Brown. Brown tones are caused by overexposure and excessive use of bromide. Learn to print to the proper depth, and be careful not to use too much bromide, but ...
-Sepia Tones On Velox And Other Gaslight Or Bromide Papers
844. While the practical making of sepia prints by direct development is a problem still unsolved, most satisfactory results are obtained by a process of bleaching and development. The process is ...
-Chapter XXXII. Library Of Practical Photography
848. No. 1. Bleaching Stock Solution.- Ferricyanide Potassium............................ 2 1/2 ozs. Bromide Potassium...................... 2 1/2 ozs Water............
-Library Of Practical Photography. Continued
856. Preparing The Bleaching Solution Preparing The Bleaching Solution. To prepare the bleaching solution dissolve one capsule in 4 ounces of water. Place this solution in a bottle and label ...
-Chapter XXXIII. Azo And Nepera Gaslight Paper
868. Azo Paper Azo Paper. Azo paper, being coated on a cheaper stock, is furnished at a lower price than the regular Velox paper, being intended principally for commercial purposes. 869. The ...
-Azo And Nepera Gaslight Paper. Part 2
879. Developing Developing. Nepera paper is best developed with one or the other, of the following formulae: 880. Metol-Hydro Developer. Stock Solution. - Dissolve chemicals in the order named, ...
-Azo And Nepera Gaslight Paper. Part 3
891. Developing Developing. Immerse the print, face up, in the developer, being sure that it is quickly and evenly covered by the solution. The time of development should not exceed one minute, and ...
-Chapter XXXIV. Cyko Gaslight Paper
898. Surfaces And Grades Surfaces And Grades. Cyko is made in five surfaces and three grades. The surface is represented by the number on the end labels, the grade by the color of the label. In each ...
-Cyko Gaslight Paper. Part 2
908. Printing Cyko Paper Printing Cyko Paper. We will assume that the printing is to be done by artificial light, and, in order to secure an even illumination, it is necessary that the printing ...
-Cyko Gaslight Paper. Part 3
920. Note Note. For softness in any of the grades of Cyko paper always increase the exposure and dilute the developer with water. The more dilution the softer will be the results, providing ...
-Cyko Gaslight Paper. Part 4
932. Washing Washing. Cyko prints are washed in the usual way. It is essential that the finished prints be washed thoroughly to free them from hypo. To wash a batch of one hundred 4x5 prints, using ...
-Chapter XXXV. Difficulties - Cyko Gaslight Paper
940. Impure Or Grayish Whites Impure Or Grayish Whites. Lack of bromide in the developer - add a few drops of a 10% solution of bromide to the developer. Under-timed prints which have been forced in ...
-Difficulties - Cyko Gaslight Paper. Continued
949. Blisters Blisters. The printing frame has been placed too near the source of light. This would be indicated if the negative felt rather warm to the touch when taking the print out. In this ...
-Chapter XXXVI. Artura Developing Or Gaslight Papers
Detailed Instruction 957. Negative Quality Negative Quality. Artura is the original contact developing paper that will register the values of a negative, such as regularly made for printing-out pa...
-Artura Developing Or Gaslight Papers. Part 2
964. Manipulation Of Iris Paper Manipulation Of Iris Paper. Iris is of exceptionally fine printing quality and possesses all of the finer points of quality and tone necessary for the better grades ...
-Artura Developing Or Gaslight Papers. Part 3
979. Toning Bath Toning Bath. Boiling Water..................................... 128 ozs. Hypo.............................................. . 16 Ozs. Alum...........
-Artura Developing Or Gaslight Papers. Part 4
983. Spots Spots. Untoned spots are caused by not thoroughly and evenly immersing the print in the toning bath, or by air-bells forming on the surface of the print during toning. Air-bells may be ...
-Artura Developing Or Gaslight Papers. Part 5
992. Note Note. The speed of Carbon Black paper makes it suitable for enlarging purposes, the resulting prints having a richness and depth unequaled by any of the bromide papers. For enlarging, use ...
-Artura Developing Or Gaslight Papers. Part 6
1000. Manipulating Artura Chloride Paper Manipulating Artura Chloride Paper. Soft artistic effects without lustre, made in three surfaces: Heavy Smooth - Double Weight - Smooth surface without ...
-Artura Developing Or Gaslight Papers. Part 7
1009. Note Note. Glossy prints should be ferrotyped in the usual way, by placing the face of print in contact with the tins or glass. 1009a. Iris. Grade A. Regular weight stock, smooth and semi-...
-Chapter XXXVII. Artura Paper - General Information And Difficulties
1010. Fixing Prints Fixing Prints. When fixing prints in large quantities, the following method may be used to insure proper fixing: Fix prints face up for about 10 minutes and then turn this ...
-Artura Paper - General Information And Difficulties. Part 2
1018. Blotters Blotters. The life and usefulness of blotters is increased by keeping dry. Spread them out to dry when not in use. 1019. Yellowish Stains Yellowish Stains. 1. Weak or overworked ...
-Artura Paper - General Information And Difficulties. Part 3
1027. Irregular Or Patchy Development Irregular Or Patchy Development. 1. Overexposure and under-development will cause an uneven appearance in the print. 2. Uneven development is another cause. ...
-Use Bromide As Necessary To Insure Clear Whites
1035. Action Of Chemicals On Paper Action Of Chemicals On Paper. Developing agents such as metol-hydroquinone, ortol, amidol, etc., are used to develop the image. Sulphite of soda is used as a ...
-Metol And Hydroquinon Are The Developing Agents
Sulphite of Soda is used as a preservative and prevents the developer from decomposing rapidly and becoming discolored. Carbonate of Soda is used to open the pores of the emulsion and allow the devel...
-Chapter XXXVIII. Post Cards - Printing-Out Paper
1040. Introduction Introduction. When photo post cards were first introduced they were used almost entirely for landscape, architectural, views of historical points of interest, etc., but little or ...
-Post Cards - Printing-Out Paper. Part 2
1047. Sensitizing Solution Sensitizing Solution. Nitrate of Silver................................ 150 grs. Water (Clear or Distilled)........................ .4 ozs. ...
-Post Cards - Printing-Out Paper. Part 3
1057. Sepia Or Vandyke Brown Tones Sepia Or Vandyke Brown Tones. Without previously washing the prints place them one at a time in the following plain hypo fixing bath and allow to remain for at ...
-Chapter XXXIX. Post Cards - Gaslight Paper
1063. Grade Of Post Cards Grade Of Post Cards. The different brands of sensitized post cards on the market are numerous. The most popular seem to be Velox, Azo, Cyko, and Argo. All are good, ...
-Post Cards - Gaslight Paper. Continued
1071. Developing Developing. While any developer intended for gaslight papers may be employed, yet, owing to the fact that the emulsion of each brand of paper is different, they require a developer ...
-Chapter XL. Dodging In The Printing
1077. There are few negatives that cannot be improved by a little dodging in the printing, and with a little care, most pleasing effects can be produced, which are not visible in the original ...
-Dodging In The Printing. Part 2
1103. Formula For Ground-Glass Substitute Formula For Ground-Glass Substitute. Samdarac..................... ..............1/4 oz. Mastic............................ .........
-Dodging In The Printing. Part 3
1117. Plain Prints Plain Prints. All negatives from which plain prints are to be made should be printed either in the shade, or under tissue or ground-glass, and not in direct sunlight, as printing ...
-Chapter XLI. Vignetting
1126. Vignetting is a term applied to the method of printing, by which the margins of the picture are made to gradually fade or blend away. This softness is produced in various ways. The vignette is ...
-Vignetting. Continued
1142. Testing The Vignette Testing The Vignette. Place a piece of proof paper on the negative, clamp the back in position, and place in the window to print, slanting the frame at an angle with the ...
-Chapter XLII. Combination Printing
1147. A landscape negative may in itself possess practically perfect qualities and give an excellent print. It may or it may not be artistic when considering balance, light and shade and general ...
-Combination Printing. Part 2
1151. Masking The Negative Masking The Negative. The simplest way to mask a negative is to paste one thickness of tissue paper over the printing frame containing the negative. In order to hold the ...
-Combination Printing. Part 3
1157. Another Method Of Blocking The Negative Another Method Of Blocking The Negative. By the following method not only is the negative blocked, but the blocking is also vignetted. First take a ...
-Combination Printing. Part 4
1165. Printing-In Figures In Groups Printing-In Figures In Groups. When it is desirable to add an extra figure to a group, a small negative must be made of the additional figure, the size and ...
-Chapter XLIII. Double Printing
Printing-in Borders and Tinting Margins. 1168. Artistic and effective results may be produced by double printing. This method is only applicable to printing-out papers, as the tinting is done in sect...
-Double Printing. Continued
1177. Making Oval Masks Of Various Sizes Without A Trimmer Making Oval Masks Of Various Sizes Without A Trimmer. Begin with the making of the first cut-out from one of your regular forms; then, for ...
-Chapter XLIV. Gravure Effects
1180. Introduction Introduction. Gravure effects are produced by closely vignetting, or blocking out, the entire figure in any negative, then printing on large sheets of paper, the figure vignetted ...
-Chapter XLV. Mounting and Trimming
1196. Introduction Introduction. The finishing touches are generally responsible for the making or the spoiling of many things. This can be no more emphatically exemplified than in the completion of ...
-Mounting and Trimming. Part 2
1211. Trimming Ovals Trimming Ovals. While not all pictures are suitable for this form of trimming, frequently the oval form will enable you to cut off an objectionable corner. When the composition ...
-Mounting and Trimming. Part 3
1219. Trimming Wet Prints Trimming Wet Prints. If you desire to mount prints solid, without previously drying, they may be easily trimmed, while wet, in the following manner: 1220. Take a square ...
-Mounting and Trimming. Part 4
1228. Enameling Glossy Or Special Glossy Prints Enameling Glossy Or Special Glossy Prints. This grade of paper can be burnished with an ordinary burnisher, but care must be exercised that the ...
-Mounting and Trimming. Part 5
1232. Artistic Mounting Artistic Mounting. The mount must be one that will not detract from the print. On the contrary it should be subordinate to it. From this it will be understood that the use of ...
-Mounting and Trimming. Part 6
1237. Multiple Mounting Multiple Mounting. One of the most effective styles of mounting for platinum prints is known as multiple mounting, which calls for the use of two or more tints of paper, or ...
-Mounting and Trimming. Part 7
1240. Mounting Mounting. In multiple mounting the print and mounts should be tacked only at the top - not pasted solid. Trim the first section to suit the print and tack the print to this section, ...
-Mounting and Trimming. Part 8
1246. Remedy Remedy. Lower or raise the temperature of the iron and apply it again. Full directions for use accompany both the mounting apparatus and the tissue. 1247. If you desire to go to the ...
-Chapter XLVI. How The Studies Illustrating This Volume Were Made
Study No. 2. Portrait by John Garo, Boston, Mass. This picture was made in an operating room 35 x 45 feet; style of light, top and side; size of light 20 x 22. The light was used wide open without dif...

Part V: Volume 5: Photographic Printing. Part 2

-Volume V. Photographic Printing. Part II. Chapter I. Albumen Paper Process
1. While the making of prints on albumen paper in the regular photographic studio is, practically speaking, a thing of the past, this paper being superseded by the ready sensitized product, of which t...
-Albumen Paper Process. Part 2
8. Preparing A Small Bath Preparing A Small Bath. As before stated, when albumen paper is not used exclusively and on a large scale, then there is no need for a stock solution and the bath may be pre...
-Albumen Paper Process. Part 3
13. Sensitizing Bath Dish Sensitizing Bath Dish. The sensitizing bath dish used has a flat bottom and is usually made of papier-mache 20 x 24 inches in size, or large enough to receive a full-size sh...
-Albumen Paper Process. Part 4
20. Floating The Paper On The Bath Floating The Paper On The Bath. Care is necessary in floating the paper on the bath to avoid the formation of air-bubbles. Each air-bubble, unless destroyed as soon...
-Albumen Paper Process. Part 5
26. Stretchers For Drying Paper Stretchers For Drying Paper. The simplest form of stretchers can be made as follows: Provide yourself with strips of soft wood 1/2 x 3/4 inches, and 20 inches long. On...
-Albumen Paper Process. Part 6
31. Gold Stock Solution Gold Stock Solution. In a bottle of convenient size, place the contents of a 15-grain tube of gold chloride; add to this 15 drams of water. Neutralize this gold solution by ad...
-General Notes
40. Keeping Silver Bath In Working Condition Keeping Silver Bath In Working Condition. There is considerable likelihood of the bath deteriorating, therefore, it requires frequent examining, or testin...
-General Notes. Continued
44. Strengthening The Sensitizing Solution Strengthening The Sensitizing Solution. The amount of nitrate of silver to be added to the bath if it proves too weak, or the extra amount of water to add i...
-Chapter II. Plain Salted Paper Process
49. Introduction Introduction. The commercial photographic worker of today is not limited to any one particular method or brand of paper for printing. In fact, the variety of processes is so great th...
-Plain Salted Paper Process. Part 2
53. Other Supports Other Supports. This process may be applied to silk or any fabric, also to wood or leather. The methods employed are practically the same as those for manipulating paper. 54. Prep...
-Plain Salted Paper Process. Part 3
59. Caution Caution. All chemicals used for the sizing and salting must be absolutely pure. As ammonium chloride often comes in an impure state, special care must be exercised when purchasing it. 60...
-Plain Salted Paper Process. Part 4
65. Printing Printing. When you are ready to print, cut the paper into suitable sizes, and with a pencil carefully mark the back of each sheet, so as to indicate the side which is not sensitized. Thi...
-Chapter III. Part I. Difficulties - Albumen Paper
74. White Spots White Spots. These are generally produced if bubbles of air are allowed to remain beneath the paper while floating. Raise the corner of the paper as soon as it lays flat on the bath, ...
-Part II. Difficulties - Plain Salted Paper
86. Prints Discoloring Or Fading In Spots Prints Discoloring Or Fading In Spots. This is due to the use of impure paper, or paper which is not free from chemicals which have a deteriorating effect on...
-Chapter IV. Carbon Process. Part I. Introduction
93. While yet the oldest of all printing processes in present use, the Carbon Process still remains one of the most popular. It has never yet been superseded for permanency and beauty of result, or ac...
-Carbon Process. Part I. Introduction. Continued
100. Sensitizing Chemicals Sensitizing Chemicals. Bichromate of potassium, bichromate of ammonium and bichromate of sodium are all used for sensitizing carbon tissue, the first named being most gener...
-Carbon Process
108. For all record work, or where an inversion of the image would be a detriment, however, the single transfer picture must be again reversed before it can be made use of. This, in turn, is accomplis...
-Chapter V. Carbon Process. Part II. Brief General Instruction. - Single Transfer
125. In the previous chapter we gave a brief summary of what the carbon process really is and what it accomplishes. In this chapter the practical working of carbon tissue will be described fully, with...
-Carbon Process. Part II. Brief General Instruction. - Single Transfer. Part 2
132. Alum Solution Alum Solution. Prepare the alum solution by dissolving one ounce of potash alum in 30 ounces of hot water. Cold water may be used, but hot water dissolves the alum more rapidly. Th...
-Carbon Process. Part II. Brief General Instruction. - Single Transfer. Part 3
139. Drying Tissue Drying Tissue. If your drying-room is connected with a room supplied with some way of heating it, it would be well to allow the door of this room to remain open for several hours b...
-Carbon Process. Part II. Brief General Instruction. - Single Transfer. Part 4
145. Actinometer Actinometer. As there is no outline visible until the tissue is developed, it is useless to examine the carbon tissue when placed upon the negative to print. You must, therefore, be ...
-Carbon Process. Part II. Brief General Instruction. - Single Transfer. Part 5
151. Printing Printing. After loading your frame with the carbon tissue, again place another narrow strip of ordinary printing-out paper on your actinometer and clamp it firmly. Place both frames in ...
-Carbon Process. Part II. Brief General Instruction. - Single Transfer. Part 6
155. Transferring The Print Transferring The Print. Into a tray of clear, cold water place as many sheets of celluloid as there are carbon sheets to be developed. In another tray of clear, cold water...
-Carbon Process. Part II. Brief General Instruction. - Single Transfer. Part 7
159. Stripping Off The Backing Paper Stripping Off The Backing Paper. The next operation is to remove the paper which forms the back of the carbon tissue, leaving the picture in an undeveloped condit...
-Carbon Process. Part II. Brief General Instruction. - Single Transfer. Part 8
164. Note Note. Should there be any portions of the print which you desire to have dissolved away more than others, you may dip up some of the warmer water in a small cup, and gently pour it on those...
-Carbon Process. Part II. Brief General Instruction. - Single Transfer. Part 9
169. The Completion Of The Print The Completion Of The Print. There will be a slight yellowness about the whites of the print when development is finished, but the alum bath will remove this and will...
-Chapter VI. Carbon Process. Part III. Practice Work
171. For your first practice work with carbon printing, all the material required, besides your paraphernalia for manipulating the process, is a couple of dozen sheets of carbon tissue the size of the...
-Chapter VII. Carbon Process. Part IV. Care Of Material And Detailed Instruction For Sensitizing The Tissue
180. In the preceding- chapter the process was covered in a general way. We did not explain the whys and wherefores of any particular part of the process, believing that the worker, after having had s...
-Carbon Process. Part IV. Care Of Material And Detailed Instruction For Sensitizing The Tissue. Part 2
198. Sensitizing The Paper Sensitizing The Paper. When ready for sensitizing, decant or filter sufficient of the solution into the tray for sensitizing the tissue that you expect to use within a few ...
-Chapter VIII. Carbon Process. Part V. Detailed Instruction For Printing Carbon Tissue
217. The first consideration, before placing the tissue on the negative to print, is to sort the negatives. In the previous chapter you were instructed to use a weak bichromate bath for sensitizing ...
-Carbon Process. Part V. Detailed Instruction For Printing Carbon Tissue. Part 2
226. Dodging In The Printing Dodging In The Printing. For a portrait negative where the entire image is flat, we advise covering the glass side with Prussian-blue water-color. This can be procured ...
-Carbon Process. Part V. Detailed Instruction For Printing Carbon Tissue. Part 3
229. Continued Action Of Light Continued Action Of Light. While it seems very singular, yet it is true, that carbon paper continues printing even after the action of light has ceased. This printing ...
-Chapter IX. Carbon Process. Part VI. Detailed Instruction For Developing The Image For Single Transfer
232. The picture printed from glass negatives is reversed on account of the tissue being transferred and developed upon another support. This transfer is absolutely necessary on account of the image ...
-Detailed Instruction For Developing The Image For Single Transfer. Part 2
243. A Convenient And Systematic Arrangement Of Trays For Development A Convenient And Systematic Arrangement Of Trays For Development. Convenience and system are quite an advantage in the ...
-Detailed Instruction For Developing The Image For Single Transfer. Part 3
259. Alum Bath Alum Bath. Carbon pictures do not require fixing, but it is necessary to eliminate the bichromate, of which a certain quantity still remains in the tissue. In order to remove every ...
-Chapter X. Part VII
A Condensed Table of Failures and Remedies for Carbon Printing. 265. Failure Failure. The pigmented gelatin shows signs of dissolving in the sensitizing bath, especially when touched with the finger...
-Chapter XI. Carbon Process. Part VIII. The Double Transfer Process
276. In the double transfer process there is little gained over the single transfer, as far as results are concerned. If anything, better results are obtained by the single transfer. The main object ...
-Carbon Process. Part VIII. The Double Transfer Process. Part 2
285. The Second Transfer The Second Transfer. Different grades of final paper supports can be purchased already prepared for use. If you prefer any special support, such as Whatman's paper, it must ...
-Carbon Process. Part VIII. The Double Transfer Process. Part 3
293. Note Note. The same care must be exercised in drying prints, both on temporary and final supports, as in drying the sensitized tissue. So far as dust is concerned, the room must be perfectly ...
-Chapter XII. Carbon Process. Part IX. Alternative Methods - Spirit Sensitizer, Etc
298. In the previous chapters we have given methods and formulae which, with practice and attention, will secure perfect results in carbon printing. There are various alternative methods which can be ...
-Carbon Process. Part IX. Alternative Methods - Spirit Sensitizer, Etc. Continued
305. Note Note. Carbon tissue sensitized with the spirit sensitizer prints much faster than when the bichromate sensitizing is used, the average Pyro developed negative (one that is not too dense) ...
-Chapter XIII. Part X. Double Transfer From Plate, Opal Or Ground-Glass
310. The plate-glass is recommended where a brilliant surface is desired. The opal, or ground-glass, is recommended for very fine grain matt surface results. 311. Preparing The Opal Or Ground-Glass ...
-Part X. Double Transfer From Plate, Opal Or Ground-Glass. Part 2
317. Preparing Plain Glass Preparing Plain Glass. If a brilliant surface is desired, plain plate-glass must be used; and after waxing in the usual way, and just before using, the waxed surface ...
-Part X. Double Transfer From Plate, Opal Or Ground-Glass. Part 3
322. Temperature Of Room Temperature Of Room. Do not work in a cold room; the temperature should not be under 60 Fahr. 323. Developing The Print Developing The Print. The development on glass ...
-Chapter XIV. Part XI Difficulties-Carbon Process, Double Transfer
327. Prints Stained Or Scratched Prints Stained Or Scratched. If the print on the temporary support has been cleared in an alum bath in which the alum has not been entirely dissolved, the film of ...
-Chapter XV. Part XII
Carbons on Watch and Cigarette Cases, Watch Dials, China, Ivory and Celluloid. 336. Many pretty and permanent effects can be obtained by transferring carbons onto watch dials, china, ivory and cellul...
-Part XII. Continued
344. Transferring On Watch-Case, Gold Or Silver Transferring On Watch-Case, Gold Or Silver. First, take your watch to a jeweler and have the movement removed. He will take charge of same and keep it ...
-Chapter XVI. Part XIII. Difficulties - Carbon Process
349. Preparing Sensitizing Bath Preparing Sensitizing Bath. The sensitizing bath should be prepared exactly according to the directions given in the lesson. If the bichromate does not dissolve ...
-Part XIII. Difficulties - Carbon Process. Part 2
354. Tissue Runs When Drying Tissue Runs When Drying. If the tissue runs during drying the drying-room is too warm. The room or drying-box must be kept about 75 Fahr., and at this temperature ...
-Part XIII. Difficulties - Carbon Process. Part 3
361. Frilling Of Edge Of Tissue During Development Frilling Of Edge Of Tissue During Development. The tissue was left too long in the water before the transfer was made, or the superfluous moisture ...
-Part XIII. Difficulties - Carbon Process. Part 4
369. Slight Reticulation While Developing Slight Reticulation While Developing. Reticulation, or the covering of the tissue with a network of small lines, is usually caused by water too hot, or by a ...
-Chapter XVII. The Ozobrome Process
372. Introduction Introduction. Ozobrome may be described as a simplification of the carbon process. The result obtained is a true pigment or carbon print, produced by a chemical process instead of ...
-The Ozobrome Process. Part 2
384. Temperature Temperature. It is important that the temperature of the sensitizing solution does not exceed 65 Fahr. 385. Placing Print And Tissue In Contact Placing Print And Tissue In ...
-The Ozobrome Process. Part 3
394. Manipulation For Transfer Process Manipulation For Transfer Process. Having provided the necessary materials as instructed under the heading of Materials Required, proceed as follows: Place a ...
-The Ozobrome Process. Part 4
402. Modifying The Carbon Picture Modifying The Carbon Picture. To Increase Depth and Contrast add two or three drops of glacial acetic acid to each ounce of concentrated solution contained in the ...
-Chapter XVIII. Difficulties - Ozobrome Process
406. The Image Uneven The Image Uneven. When the image is uneven and the pigment appears to adhere only in patches, the cause is due to failure to immerse the pigment in clean water before pressing ...
-Chapter XIX. Gum-Bichromate Process
416. The gum-bichromate process excels all known photographic printing processes in cheapness, simplicity and artistic interest. Its greatest achievements are to be found in the work of the advanced ...
-Gum-Bichromate Process. Part 2
423. The Nature Of The Process The Nature Of The Process. A gum-bichromate print is the result of the action of light in varying degrees on a thin surface of some sensitized colloid, such, for ...
-Gum-Bichromate Process. Part 3
434. Sizing The Paper Sizing The Paper. If the worker is not satisfied that the paper he is going to use is well sized, it is best to make a test. This can be done by mixing up a small quantity of ...
-Gum-Bichromate Process. Part 4
443. Printing Printing. The only difficulty in printing bichromate paper is in the lack of the appearance of an image. With certain colors-greens and reds, for instance-there is a slight outline ...
-Gum-Bichromate Process. Part 5
451. Retouching The Prints Retouching The Prints. It frequently happens that by mischance some of the coloring matter has been removed from the print during development. The color can be readily ...
-Gum-Bichromate Process. Part 6
459. Multi-Colored Gum-Bichromate Prints Multi-Colored Gum-Bichromate Prints. A variety of effects can be obtained by the skilled worker, by coating the print with different colors so as to obtain ...
-Chapter XX. Copying In The Professional Studio
460. Introduction Introduction. The field of copying offers much of real interest alike to professional and amateur photographers, yet it is a branch of the work which is considerably neglected, due,...
-Copying In The Professional Studio. Part 2
465. Lens To Use Lens To Use. Any ordinary rectilinear lens will do, providing it is large enough to cover the print to be copied. A larger lens than sufficient to cover the original to be copied ...
-Copying In The Professional Studio. Part 3
470. Enlarging Enlarging. When making quite large copies from small originals, sometimes the lens employed is of too long a focus and the bellows in the camera will not admit of enlarging to the ...
-Copying In The Professional Studio. Part 4
473. Overcoming Light Reflection In The Lens Overcoming Light Reflection In The Lens. It is always advisable to use a camera much larger than the plate you intend using for copying, because the ...
-Copying In The Professional Studio. Part 5
479. Exposure Exposure. The necessary exposure required for copying pictures generally is difficult to state, for there are three principal factors that must be considered in making the exposure: ...
-Copying In The Professional Studio. Part 6
485. Development Development. All copy-negatives receiving a full exposure must be treated accordingly, and be developed slowly and considerably farther than for ordinary work. In order to avoid fog ...
-Chapter XXI. Important Notes On Copying
490. Copying Old Pictures Copying Old Pictures. Should you have engravings or rough prints, or old albumen prints badly scratched and cracked, you can greatly improve them by coating the print with ...
-Important Notes On Copying. Continued
495. Distorted Pictures Distorted Pictures. Sometimes distorted pictures may be improved in the copying. By means of the tilting of the swing-back the lines may be made parallel, and then by ...
-Chapter XXII. Copying With Hand Or View Camera
501. Introduction Introduction. Any picture, no matter of what nature, can be copied, only you must understand, first of all, your instrument, and then the photographic quality of the picture you ...
-Copying With Hand Or View Camera. Continued
507. Proper Copying Light Proper Copying Light. Any ordinary window will do, the larger and higher the better. A window facing the north is preferable, as you will then have an even illumination at ...
-Chapter XXIII. Copying With Hand Or View Camera
Detailed Instruction. 517. Apparatus Apparatus. Any camera that is suitable for ordinary photographic work, no matter what size, can be used to copy a photograph or any picture. For the amateur the ...
-Copying With Hand Or View Camera. Part 2
533. Extension Device Extension Device. In order to supply sufficient distance between the ground-glass and the lens, the lack of bellows capacity can be overcome by having a box made of very light ...
-Copying With Hand Or View Camera. Part 3
539. Artificial Light Artificial Light. While the best results are obtained by daylight yet it is possible to copy at night by lamp, electric, or gaslight. The arrangements, however, are practically ...
-Copying With Hand Or View Camera. Part 4
544. Developing Developing. All copies having a full exposure must be treated as such, developed slowly and considerably further than ordinary work would require. In order to avoid fog, and retain ...
-Chapter XXIV. Difficulties - Copying
546. Placing The Original To Be Copied In The Proper Light Placing The Original To Be Copied In The Proper Light. In arranging the original picture or drawing in position for copying, great care ...
-Difficulties - Copying. Part 2
551. Securing Sharp Focus Securing Sharp Focus. Always focus with your lens wide open. Be careful that your picture is placed both perpendicularly and horizontally to your camera. Focus as close as ...
-Difficulties - Copying. Part 3
557. Plate Develops Thin Plate Develops Thin. A plate that develops thin and cannot be carried further in the developer is an extremely underexposed plate, while if thin and the shadows are filled ...
-Chapter XXV. Bromide Enlarging By Daylight Or Artificial Light
562. Introduction Introduction. While Bromide enlarging is perhaps one of the most interesting and profitable branches of the photographic business, yet many have an idea that the making of Bromide ...
-Bromide Enlarging By Daylight Or Artificial Light. Continued
569. Bromide Enlarging Briefly Described Bromide Enlarging Briefly Described. Bromide enlargements from small negatives are obtained by exactly the reverse method employed in making the original ...
-Chapter XXVI. Grades Of Bromide Paper And Their Use
576. Before entering upon the detailed instruction we will first give a description of the different grades of paper to be used. Bromide paper is a pure photograhic paper coated with a sensitive ...
-Grades Of Bromide Paper And Their Use. Continued
583. Royal Bromide Paper Royal Bromide Paper. Sepia-toned enlargements made through bolting cloth on Royal Bromide paper have the softness and beauty of rare old etchings. Owing to the broad effects ...
-Chapter XXVII. Brief Instruction For Bromide Enlarging With The Enlarging-Lantern
589. Enlarging-lanterns are constructed for use with artificial light. Either electric, gas or kerosene lamps can be used. Illustration No. 8 shows the Ingento Enlarging-Lantern. The end of the ...
-Chapter XXVIII. Daylight Enlarging With A Pocket Film Kodak
594. The Folding Pocket Kodak is arranged before a window in exactly the same manner as a larger camera, but as it is not provided with a flat-bed to rest on any flat surface, a frame must be ...
-Chapter XXIX. Daylight Enlarging With The View Or Hand Camera
Detailed Instruction. 603. Preparing The Apparatus Preparing The Apparatus. To prepare your apparatus for daylight work is a very simple matter. Select a room with a window facing north, if possible...
-Daylight Enlarging With The View Or Hand Camera. Part 2
606. Preparing Apparatus For Artificial Light Preparing Apparatus For Artificial Light. Bromide enlargements can be made equally well at night by the use of artificial light, although the necessary ...
-Daylight Enlarging With The View Or Hand Camera. Part 3
612. Condenser Condenser. This is a very large lens and is used in place of the ground-glass. It consists of two plano-convex lenses mounted with the convex faces inwards. See Illustration No. 14. ...
-Chapter XXX. Light For Enlarging. Part I. Introduction
616. Daylight Daylight. After a long series of experimenting with various kinds of light we have become satisfied that for the amateur-whose enlargements are only made occasionally-the daylight ...
-Part II
Arc-Light for Enlarging in the Professional Studio. 621. Condensing Lenses Condensing Lenses. In Illustration No. 15 is shown a section of a dark-room used for Bromide enlarging. The camera employed...
-Chapter XXXI. Home-Made Enlarging Apparatus Without Condensers
633. Introduction Introduction. If one does not desire to go to the expense of purchasing a regular enlarging camera, it is possible to construct an enlarging apparatus that will answer the purpose ...
-Home-Made Enlarging Apparatus Without Condensers. Continued
638. Full Explanatory Details Of Home-Made Enlarging Apparatus Without Condensers Full Explanatory Details Of Home-Made Enlarging Apparatus Without Condensers. (A) electric light; (B) cone of ...
-Chapter XXXII. Bromide Enlarging - Detailed Instruction
646. Lens for Enlarging - For professional work the regular lens employed for making portraits may be used for enlarging; all that is required is, that the lens be of sufficient size to cover the ...
-Bromide Enlarging - Detailed Instruction. Part 2
650. Focusing Focusing. Before focusing, see that your camera and negative are in position, and the room in total darkness, and that the only light coming into the room is passing through the ...
-Bromide Enlarging - Detailed Instruction. Part 3
655. Note Note. In case condensers are being used, the lens must remain on the axis of the condenser and the vertical adjustment obtained by raising and lowering the easel board. 656. Preparing ...
-Bromide Enlarging - Detailed Instruction. Part 4
659. Trays Trays. It is advisable to have trays of good size, so that if you want to make large prints you will be equipped for such work. The hypo trays, especially, should be several inches larger ...
-Bromide Enlarging - Detailed Instruction. Part 5
669. Making Prints On Enamel Bromide Making Prints On Enamel Bromide. Prints that are made on Enamel Bromide are liable to have fine black lines on them, commonly called hair-lines. These are ...
-Bromide Enlarging - Detailed Instruction. Part 6
677. Dodging Dodging. If you have some dense highlights in the negative that require printing more than other parts, and this oftentimes happens on faces and white drapery in which no detail appears,...
-Bromide Enlarging - Detailed Instruction. Part 7
683. Using Silk Bolting-Cloth Using Silk Bolting-Cloth. When using Royal Bromide paper beautiful effects of softness and breadth can be obtained by enlarging through a silk bolting-cloth screen. ...
-Chapter XXXIII. Sepia And Green Toned Bromide Prints. Part I. Introduction
695. Cold Hypo Toning Bath Cold Hypo Toning Bath. The cold hypo toning bath is especially adapted for the Eastman Royal Bromide, Enamel, and Matte-Enameled Bromide papers. By preparing this bath ...
-Part II. Rapid Sepia Tones By The Bleaching And Re-Developing Process
702. By this process prints may be given a rich sepia tone in from two to five minutes. Bromide prints made for sepia tones by this process should be developed a blue black. They must be thoroughly ...
-Part III. Special Tones On Bromide Paper
713. Bright Blue Tones Bright Blue Tones. A bright blue tone can be obtained with the following bath: Formula. Iron Alum ............................ 10 grs. ...
-Part III. Special Tones On Bromide Paper. Continued
718. What Papers To Use What Papers To Use. By exercising a little judgment in selecting the paper, almost any class of negative can be improved and the desired results obtained. From the large ...
-Chapter XXXIV. General Finishing Of Enlargements
723. Drying Bromide Prints Drying Bromide Prints. If the prints are to be trimmed, you can take them from the water and hang them up by attaching spring clothes-pins to a line which you have ...
-General Finishing Of Enlargements. Continued
729. Cleaning Ferrotype Plates Cleaning Ferrotype Plates. It is absolutely necessary that the ferrotype plate be thoroughly cleansed with hot water each time it has been used. Polish with a soft ...
-Chapter XXXV. Difficulties - Bromide Enlarging
737. Mealy, Mottled Prints Mealy, Mottled Prints. Over-exposure and short development. 738. White Spots White Spots. White spots are generally caused by air-bells gathering on the print when first ...
-Difficulties - Bromide Enlarging. Continued
750. Enlargement Sharp In The Center But Out Of Focus At The Edges Enlargement Sharp In The Center But Out Of Focus At The Edges. Evidently your lens is not large enough to cover the plates to be ...
-Chapter XXXVI. Bromide Enlarging Pointers
762. Prints Appear Dark In Dark-Room Prints Appear Dark In Dark-Room. Prints will appear darker in the yellow light of the dark-room than in daylight when finished. Bear this in mind, and do not ...
-Bromide Enlarging Pointers. Continued
780. Blisters Blisters. Uneven temperature of solutions and wash waters or a stream of water flowing directly on the surface of the print is apt to cause blisters. 781. Keep Prints Immersed Keep ...
-Chapter XXXVII. Negative Enlarging
Introduction. 798. There are times when one is well equipped for making good small negatives, but, has not the necessary apparatus for making large negatives. Professionals, very frequently, are hand...
-Negative Enlarging. Continued
805. Advantage Of Fine Grain Emulsion Advantage Of Fine Grain Emulsion. The advantage of using a close-grain plate for the intermediate contact transparency for enlarging will be readily seen. With ...
-Chapter XXXVIII. Negative Enlarging With Large Camera
811. When the large camera is used for negative enlarging, it is best to make a contact transparency from the small negative, and then enlarge the transparency. Any size enlarged negative may then be ...
-Chapter XXXIX. Negative Enlarging With A Bromide Enlarging Apparatus
820. Preparing The Apparatus For Daylight Work Preparing The Apparatus For Daylight Work. The drawing of the daylight Bromide Enlarging Apparatus, reproduced herein, serves to illustrate the use of ...
-Negative Enlarging With A Bromide Enlarging Apparatus. Part 2
827. Developing Developing. The enlarged negative, as well as the transparency, can be developed in normal developer, with a little Bromide added. The Bromide will hold the shadows clear, and ...
-Negative Enlarging With A Bromide Enlarging Apparatus. Part 3
832. Making The Exposure Making The Exposure. The exposure should be made by artificial light, and as the large size plate will require double the exposure of the small one, you must time ...
-Chapter XL. Difficulties - Negative Enlarging
837. Securing Proper Illumination On Negative Or Transparency To Be Enlarged Securing Proper Illumination On Negative Or Transparency To Be Enlarged. Follow closely the instructions given in regard ...
-Difficulties - Negative Enlarging. Part 2
845. Negative From Transparency Flat Negative From Transparency Flat. If the transparency is a weak, thin one, the enlarged negative will also be weak, thin and flat. If over-exposed, whether in ...
-Difficulties - Negative Enlarging. Part 3
852. Pin-Holes In Enlarged Negative, Which Are Hardly Visible In The Transparency Pin-Holes In Enlarged Negative, Which Are Hardly Visible In The Transparency. These pin-holes are caused by dust on ...
-Difficulties - Negative Enlarging. Part 4
859. Black Comet-Like Specks In The Enlarged Negative And Also In The Large And Small Transparency Black Comet-Like Specks In The Enlarged Negative And Also In The Large And Small Transparency. This ...
-Chapter XLI. Lantern-Slide Making. Part I. Introduction
865. A lantern-slide is a positive transparency on a glass 3 1/4 x 4 inches square. The picture itself is smaller, and may be any shape preferred by the maker, and any size up to 2 3/4 inches each ...
-Part II. Apparatus
867. The Camera The Camera. The only apparatus required is a camera that is large enough to take at least a 4 x 5 plate. A larger camera may be employed, however, but is not necessary. A tripod or ...
-Part II. Apparatus. Part 2
872. Using The Copying-Board Using The Copying-Board. Place the copying-board on a table, which must be as high as the window. If the table is not of the proper height, the board must be raised to a ...
-Part II. Apparatus. Part 3
877. Proper Light For Making Slides By Reduction Proper Light For Making Slides By Reduction. A north light is always best for lantern-slide work in daylight, because it gives more even illumination ...
-Chapter XLII. Lantern-Slide Making - General Instruction
884. Exposure For Contact Printing Exposure For Contact Printing. When making a lantern-slide by contact, the exposure should be very much less than when photographing a negative. Proceed to the ...
-Lantern-Slide Making - General Instruction. Part 2
891. Exposing Or Printing When Making Slides By Reduction Exposing Or Printing When Making Slides By Reduction. The method of printing lantern-slides by contact, as previously described, has a ...
-Lantern-Slide Making - General Instruction. Part 3
897. Copying With A Box Copying With A Box. Another very simple method is as follows: Procure an ordinary box, about 8 inches square and 14 inches long. Close one end of this box, and cut an opening ...
-Lantern-Slide Making - General Instruction. Part 4
902. Preparing Developer Preparing Developer. Each plate manufacturer has special formulae particularly adapted to their own plates, which are the results of very careful experimenting, guided by a ...
-Lantern-Slide Making - General Instruction. Part 5
918. Fixing Fixing. After development is finished, the lantern-slide (for such it now may be called) must be rinsed under the tap and placed in the hypo. An acid hypo should always be used for ...
-Lantern-Slide Making - General Instruction. Part 6
925. Toning Slides Toning Slides. The black tones which can be obtained with the formula just given are very fine, but for many subjects a warmer color is desirable, and this can be obtained by ...
-Chapter XLIII. Lantern-Slide Making
Clouds in Lantern-Slides. 932. Introduction Introduction. Landscape lantern-slides are rarely seen without clouds, as they add materially to the general appearance of the view. There is nothing that...
-Lantern-Slide Making. Part 2
937. The Landscape Slide The Landscape Slide. For this method the sky in the landscape slide should be represented by perfectly clear glass. If, for any reason, the sky should be a trifle dense, ...
-Lantern-Slide Making. Part 3
944. Introducing Clouds Into Slides By Contact Introducing Clouds Into Slides By Contact. Either of the preceding methods described for combining clouds with landscapes in slides is applicable to ...
-Chapter XLIV. Binding Lantern-Slides
949. Preparing The Cover-Glass Preparing The Cover-Glass. When the slides are thoroughly dry they are ready for mounting (or binding), and should be provided with cover-glasses, to protect them from ...
-Binding Lantern-Slides. Part 2
955. Mccormick's Self-Adjusting Lantern-Slide Mat Mccormick's Self-Adjusting Lantern-Slide Mat. For matting lantern-slides the Obrig Camera Co.'s (N. Y.) McCormick Self-Adjusting is the most ...
-Binding Lantern-Slides. Part 3
964. Binding Strips Binding Strips. Binding strips are manufactured in two grades. The best grade is made of bookbinders' black cloth, which is highly recommended on account of its everlasting ...
-Chapter XLV. Difficulties - Lantern-Slide Making
967. Copying Prints For Lantern-Slides Copying Prints For Lantern-Slides. Carefully follow the instructions given in the lesson on copying, and strive to produce negatives that are crisp, not flat. ...
-Difficulties - Lantern-Slide Making. Continued
975. No Snap Or Contrast In Slide No Snap Or Contrast In Slide. This is almost a certain sign that it is over-printed or over-exposed. Be careful about this and treat the slide according to the ...
-Chapter XLVI. Lantern-Slides - Pointers
984. Rinsing Rinsing. Always rinse slide between development and fixing. 985. Dusting Dusting. Remember that both negative and lantern-plate must be carefully dusted before exposing, when making a ...
-Chapter XLVII. Coloring Lantern-Slides
1007. Introduction Introduction. The coloring of lantern-slides is not a difficult task, but it is necessary that they be handled with great care, as the film is very delicate and easily spoiled. ...
-Coloring Lantern-Slides. Part 2
1014. Coloring Portrait Slides Coloring Portrait Slides. In the first recess on the left of the pallette or to the extreme left of the sheet of glass, place a drop of flesh color and dilute with a ...
-Coloring Lantern-Slides. Part 3
1021. Coloring Landscapes Coloring Landscapes. After moistening the plate with clean water, color the sky first, holding the slide upside down. Begin near the horizon with extremely weak cobalt-blue,...
-Coloring Lantern-Slides. Part 4
1025. Important Important. For all lantern-slide work, the strongest and most brilliant colors are not only desirable, but necessary, and it is important that the very best make of colors be secured,...
-Chapter XLVIII. Part I Method Of Enlarging. By Wm. H. Phillips
The following is a memorandum of my equipment: 1029. I use a No. 3 Folding Pocket kodak, fitted with a Goerz lens, 5 inch focus. I use N. C. films for my negatives, and develop with a developing mach...
-Part II. Method Of Enlarging. By George H. Scheer, M. D
1033. My apparatus is the simplest imaginable. I use one of the rooms in my office for making Bromide enlargements. This room has only one window, which faces south. This window I cover with a screen ...
-Chapter XLIX. How The Studies Illustrating This Volume Were Made
Study No. 1. By Miss Katherine Bingham, St. Johns-bury, Vt. Title, Responsibility. This negative was made in an old jail in York, Me., built in 1654. The exposure was made on a clear day at 2 P. M.;...









TOP
previous page: Photo Lighting | by Felix Raymer
  
page up: Art and Photography Books
  
next page: Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography Vol 6-10| by J. B. Schriever