As in varnishing, a warm, dry atmosphere is essential, and all draughts of cold air from door or window must be avoided.

Pour a little linseed oil into a cup and some polish into another; take a piece of woollen rag a few inches square, and having rolled it up into a ball saturate it with polish, and cover with a piece of linen or muslin drawn tightly over it. In this way the rubbers or pads are prepared, and they should, when taken by the fingers of the right hand, be held in such a manner as to draw the linen covering tight, and present a smooth, slightly convex surface to work with; apply one drop of oil and one drop of polish to the surface of the pad, and it is ready for use. Care must be taken that the material of which the rubbers are made is well washed and free from starch or soap. The work having been thoroughly smoothed with fine glass paper and the dust wiped away with a clean cloth, the polishing is commenced with free, continuous and uniform circular strokes, applied with very slight pressure, and gradually traversing the whole surface, observing not to do more than a square foot at a time; the same process is repeatedly continued, varying the position of the strokes as much as possible, but keeping them about the same size, and taking care that every portion of the surface receives an equal but not excessive quantity of polish, which is regulated partly by the degree of pressure on the rubber, and partly by squeezing it between the fingers.

The process of polishing is continued until the grain of the wood appears to be thoroughly filled up, and the surface exhibits a uniform appearance, well covered with a thin coat of polish. It is then allowed to stand for an hour or two to become thoroughly hard, when it is rubbed with very fine glass paper, to smooth down all the irregularities of the grain of the wood, and also of the polish. The polishing is then repeated, and, if it should be found necessary, it is again smoothed, and the polishing is persevered in until the surface appears quite smooth, and uniformly covered with a thin and tolerably bright coat of polish, but which will, nevertheless, show cloudy marks from the rubber, owing to the presence of the oil, which is finally removed with a few drops of spirits of wine applied on a clean rubber and covered with a clean soft linen rag, with which the work is rubbed with very light strokes, applied first with a circular motion, and when the surface appears nearly dry, straight strokes are taken lengthways of the grain of the wood, and traversed entirely off the ends of the work; this is continued until the rubber and work are both quite dry, when the polishing will be completed.

The polish, however, will be partly absorbed by the wood in the course of a day or two; and therefore it is desirable to repeat the process after a lapse of a few days, first slightly rubbing down the former coat with very fine or nearly worn-out glass paper.

Stopping For French Polishing

Plaster of Paris, when made into a creamy paste with water, proves a most valuable pore-filling material, It is to be rubbed by means of a coarse rag across the woody fibre into the holes and pores, till they are completely saturated, and then the superfluous stucco on the outside is to be instantly wiped off. The succeeding processes are technically termed papering, oiling, and embodying.

When finely-pounded whiting is slaked with painters' drying oil, it constitutes another good pore-tiller. It is applied in the same manner as the preceding, and it is recommended on account of its quickly hardening and tenacious virtues as a cement; sometimes white-lead is used in lieu of the whiting.

Before using either of these, or other compositions for the same purpose, it is best to tint them to correspond exactly with the colour of the article it is intended to size.

Holes and crevices may be well filled up with a cement that is made by melting beeswax in combination with rosin and shellac.

French Polishes

(a) 1 pint spirits of wine, 1/4 oz. cum copal, 1/4 oz. gum arabic, and 1 oz. shellac. Bruise the gums and sift them through a piece of muslin. Place the spirits and the gums together in a vessel closely corked, near a warm stove, and frequently shake them; in two or three days they will be dissolved. Strain through a piece of muslin, and keep corked tight.

(6) Dissolve 1 1/2 oz. shellac, 1/4 oz. sandarach, in 1/2 pint naphtha. To apply the polish, fold a piece of flannel into a sort of cushion, wet it well with the polish, then lay a piece of clean linen rag over the flannel, apply one drop of linseed oil; rub your work in a circular direction lightly at first. To finish off, use a little naphtha applied the same as the polish.

(c) Pale shellac, 2 1/4 lb.; mastic and sandarach, each 3 oz.; spirits, 1 gal. Dissolve, and add copal varnish, 1 pint; mix well by agitation.

(d) Shellac, 12 oz.; wood naphtha, 1 qt.; dissolve, and add 1/2 pint linseed oil.

(e) Crush 3 oz. shellac with 1/2 oz. gum mastic, add 1 pint methylated spirits of wine, and dissolve.

(f) Shellac, 12 oz.; gum elemi, 2 oz.; gum copal, 3 oz.; spirits of wine, 1 gal.; dissolve.

(g)Shellac, 1 1/2 oz.; gum juniper, 1/2 oz.; benzoin, 1/2 oz.; methylated alcohol, pint.

(A) 1 oz. each of gums mastic, sandarach, seed-lac, shellac, and gum arabic; reduce to powder; then add 1/4 oz. virgin wax; dissolve in a bottle with 1 qt. rectified spirits of wine. Let it stand for 12 hours, and it is then fit for use.

(0 1 oz. gum-lac; 2 dr. mastic in drops; 4 dr. sandarach; 3 oz. shellac; 1/2 oz. gum dragon. Reduce the whole to powder.

French Polish Reviver

(a) Linseed oil, 1/2 pint; spirits of camphor, 1 oz.; vinegar, 2 oz.; butter of antimony, 1/2 oz.; spirit of hartshorn, 1/4 oz.

(b) 1/2 gill vinegar; 1 gill spirits of wine; 1 dr. linseed oil.

(c) Naphtha, 1 lb.; shellac, 4 oz.; oxalic acid, 1/4 oz. Let it stand till dissolved, then add 3 oz. linseed oil.

(d) Pale linseed oil, raw, 10 oz.; lac varnish and wood spirit, of each 5 oz. Mix well before using.

Furniture Pastes

(a) To keep wood light, scrape 1/4 lb. beeswax into 1/2 pint turpentine. By adding linseed oil the wood is darkeued.

(6) Dissolve 6 oz. pearlash in 1 qt. hot water, add 1/4 lb. white wax, and simmer for 1/2 hour in a pipkin; take from off the tire; when cool,the wax will float; it should be taken off, and, with a little hot water, worked into a paste.

(c) Beeswax, spirits of turpentine, and linseed oil, equal parts; melt and cool.

(d) Beeswax, 4 oz.; turpentine, 10 oz.; alkanet root to colour, melt and strain.

(e) Digest 2 dr. alkanet root in 20 oz. turpentine till the colour is imparted; add yellow wax in shavings, 4 oz., place on a water bath and stir till the mixture is complete.

(/) Beeswax, 1 lb.; linseed oil, 5 oz.; alkanet root, 1/2 oz.; melt, add 5 oz. turpentine, strain and cool.

(g) Beeswax, 4 oz.; rosin, 1 oz.; oil of turpentine, 2 oz.; Venetian red to colour.

(h) 1 lb. white wax; 1 oz. black rosin; 1 oz. alkanet root; and 10 oz. linseed oil.

Furniture Creams

(a) Yellow wax, 4 oz,; yellow soap, 2 oz.; water, 50 oz.; boil, with constant stirring, and add boiled oil and oil of turpentine, each 5 oz.

(6) Soft water, 1 gal.; soap, 4 oz.; white wax, in shavings, 1 lb. Boil together, and add 2 oz. pearlash. To be diluted with water, laid on with a paint brush, and polished off with a hard brush or cloth.

(c) Wax, 3 oz.; pearlash, 2 oz.; water, 6 oz. Heat together, and add 4 oz. boiled oil and 5 oz. spirits of turpentine.

(d) Raw linseed oil, 6 oz.; white wine vinegar, 3 oz.; methylated spirit, 3 oz.; butter of antimony, 1/2 oz.; mix the linseed oil with the vinegar by degrees, and shake well so as to prevent separation; add the spirit and antimony, and mix thoroughly.

Furniture Oils

(a) Boiled linseed oil, 1 pint; yellow wax, 4 oz.; melt, and colour with alkanet root.

(6) Acetic acid, 2 dr.; oil of lavender, 1/2 dr.; rectified spirit, 1 dr.; linseed oil, 4 oz.

(c) Linseed oil, 1 pint: alkanet root, 2 oz.; heat, strain, and add lac varnish, 1 oz.

(d) Linseed oil, 1 pint;*rectified spirit, 2 oz.; butter of antimony, 4 cz.

(e) For darkening furniture, 1 pint linseed oil; 1 oz. rose-pink; and 1 oz. alkanet root, beaten up in a metal mortar; let the mixture stand for a day or two; then pour off the oil, which will be found of a rich colour.

(f) Mix 2 oz. alkanet root with 4oz. shellac varnish, 2 oz. turpentine, the same quantity of scraped beeswax, and 1 pint linseed oil; this should stand a week.

For Turners' Work

Dissolve 1 oz sandarach in 1/2 pint spirits of wine; shave 1 oz. beeswax, and dissolve it in a sufficient quantity of spirits of turpentine to make it into a paste; add the former mixture to it by degrees; then, with a woollen cloth, apply it to the work while it is in motion in the lathe, and polish it with a soft linen rag; it will appear as if highly varnished.

For Wainscot

Take as much bees wax as required, and placing it in a glazed earthen pan, add as much spirits of wine as will cover it, and let it dissolve without heat. Add either one ingredient as is required, to reduce it to the consistence of butter. When this mixture is well rubbed into the grain of the wood, and cleaned off with clean linen, it gives a good gloss to the work.

For Carved Cabinet-Work

Dissolve 2 oz. seed-lac, and 2 oz. white rosin, in 1 pint spirits of wine. This varnish or polish must be laid on warm, and if the work can be warmed also, it will be so much the better; at any rate, moisture and dampness must be avoided. Used with a brush for standards or pillars of cabinet-work. The carved parts of cabinet-work are also polished thus: varnish the parts with common wood varnish, and having dressed them off where necessary with emery paper, apply the polish used for the other parts of the work.

Copal Polish

Melt with gentle heat finely-powdered gum copal, 4 parts, and gum camphor, 1 part, with ether to form a semi-fluid mass, and then digest with a sufficient quantity of alcohol.

For Wood Carving

Take a piece of wadding, soft and pliable, and drop a few drops of white or transparent polish or French polish, according to the colour of the wood. Wrap the wetted wadding up in a piece of old linen, forming it into a pad; hold the pad by the surplus linen; touch the pad with one or two drops of linseed oil. Pass the pad gently over the parts to be polished, working it round in small circles, occasionally re-wetting the wadding in polish, and the pad with a drop or so of oil. The object of the oil is merely to cause the pad to run over the wood easily without sticking, therefore as little as possible should be used, as it tends to deaden the polish to a certain extent. Where a carving is to be polished after having been varnished, the same process is necessary, bat it can only be applied to the plainer portions of the work. Plane surfaces must be made perfectly smooth with glass paper before polishing, as every scratch or mark will show twice as badly after the operation. When the polish is first rubbel on the wood, it is called the bodying in; it will sink into the wood and not give much glaze. It must, when dry, have another body rubbed on. and a third generally finishes it; but if not, the operation must be repeated.

Just before the task is completed, greasy smears will show themselves; these will disappear by continuing the gentle rubbing without oiling the pad.