The horsehair is first washed in soap and rinsed.

Brown is obtained by letting lie for 12 hours in a decoction of logwood and limewater at 120° F.

Blue, violet shade, is treated as described in brown, then passed through water to which a little chloride of tin solution has been added.

For blue, the hair is mordanted in a solution of 2 parts alum and 1 tartar, rinsed and dyed in a solution of sulphate of indigo, then washed and dried.


The hair is first laid down for 1 1/2 hours in a solution of chloride of tin, and then prepared as blue, violet shade; after rinsing, it is dyed with Brazil-wood and, alum allowed to lie in the bath for 24 hours, washed, and dried.


The pieces are always first polished with whiting and water, and when washed quite clean from the whiting are then prepared for the stain by a short immersion of from 3 to 5 minutes in acidulated cold water, in proportion of 1 part of muriatic acid, the ordinary acid of commerce, to 40 or 50 of water, or in an equally weak solution of nitric acid. This cleansing fluid extracts the gelatine from the surface of the ivory, and is essential to the attainment of a perfectly uniform colour. Extreme cleanliness and the absence of any grease or accidental soiling are as necessary, with which view the work in process of staining is at no time touched by the fingers, but is removed from one vessel to another by flat pieces of wood, attached to each other at one end by a flat metal spring after the form of a pair of sugar-tongs, separate pairs being kept for different colours. Subsequently to its treatment with the acid, the ivory is invariably again placed in cold water that has been boiled, before it is transferred to the stain.

(1) Place in vinegar for 1/4 hour, then in Judson's dyes till the required shade is produced.


(2) Lay for several hours in a strong solution of silver nitrate, remove and expose in a strong light.

(3) Place a handful of logwood in about 1 1/2 pints water in a saucepan, and let simmer till reduced to 3/4 pint; put the ivory into the still boiling liquid, and let remain for 10 minutes; remove and lay before a fire or in an oven till well dried; afterwards polish with chamois leather.

(4) Make a decoction of 2 oz. logwood dust in 1 qt. water, and stain; dissolve 1 oz. iron sulphate in 1 qt. water; then heat the two stains in separate vessels to 100° F. (38° C.), and immerse the ivory in the logwood for 15 minutes; well wash, and put it into the iron sulphate for 5 minutes.


(5) Immerse for some time in a dilute solution of indigo sulphate containing potash.

(6) Elderberries and alum.

(7) Steep in a solution of verdigris and sal-ammoniac in weak nitric acid, in the proportion of 2 parts of the former to 1 of the latter, being careful to observe the same precautions as in staining red; then dip in strong solution of pearlash and water.


(8) Alkanet root.


(9) Boil in a solution of verdigris in vinegar till the desired shade is produced.


(10) Make an infusion of cochineal in liquor ammonia, and immerse pieces therein, having previously soaked them for a few minutes in water slightly soured with nitric acid.

(11) Dip in the tin mordant used in dyeing, and then plunge into hot decoction of logwood, 1/2 lb. per gal. water.

(12) Dip in a solution of nitro-muriate of tin, and then in lac, to produce scarlet; by then plunging into a solution of potash it will become cherry red.

(13) Boil cuttings of scarlet cloth in water, and add pearlash by degrees till the colour is extracted; add a little rock-alum to clear the colour, then strain. Steep the ivory in nitric acid diluted with twice the bulk of water; take out and plunge into the dye till sufficiently deep. The acid bath must not be too strong, and the ivory should be taken out as soon as the surface becomes rough; the dye bath must be warm, but not hot. A variegated appearance may be produced by covering portions with white wax, these retaining their natural whiteness.


(14) Saffron or turmeric. Immerse in a solution of \ lb. alum per pint, then boil in decoction of turmeric in lime-water.

(15) 0.175 oz. picric acid are dissolved in 1.05 oz. hot water. On the other hand, 0.07 oz. concentrated sulphuric acid are diluted with 0.35 oz. hot water, and the freshly-smoothed articles are laid in the fluid, and frequently turned. They are then taken out, dried off, and placed in a solution of picric acid while this is still hot, where they remain until they are uniformly yellow. A lustre is given them by polishing with soap and water and fine whiting. (This is a very good method for colouring billiard balls yellow.)

(16) 0.35 oz. aniline yellow are dissolved in 10.5 oz. spirit of wine. The ivory is brushed over with this solution or is placed in it. If some aniline red is added to this stain, all shades of colour, from orange to bright reddish yellow, can be obtained.

Vegetable Ivory

L. Mtiller finds that objects of this material may be stained by boiling them for a long time in a perfectly clear solution of the desired colouring matter. Aniline red, picric, acid, or potassium dichromate, iodine green, sumach, aniline dyes, etc, may be used conveniently. The ivory must be thoroughly clean. It may be bleached by immersion for several hours in a solution of permanganate, and then in sulphurous acid.

Kid Gloves

Reimann states that the gloves are stretched over a wooden hand, and the colour is spread upon them with a brush. The following prescriptions are given: -


The glove is washed in alcohol, and 3 times brushed over with a decoction of logwood, allowing between each brushing 10 minutes for drying; afterwards dipped into solution of iron protosulphate, and then brushed with warm water. Should the colour not prove sufficiently dark, a decoction of quercitron may be added to the logwood decoction. Instead of the protosulphate, some nitrate of iron may be used. As the leather begins to dry, it is rubbed over with talc powder and some olive-oil, and pressed between flannel. The treatment with talc and oil is repeated, and the glove then allowed to dry on the stretch-wood.