Veterinary medicine was studied among the ancient Egyptians, Arabs, Parsees, and Hindoos, and it attracted considerable attention among the ancient Greeks. Hippocratps and Aristotle describe maladies of the (domestic animals, and 600 years later we find systematic Greek works on veterinary medicine. The science was virtually lost in the destruction of the eastern empire, and only began to revive in the end of the 16th century, when Carlo Ruini published his work on the anatomy of the horse. But little real progress was made till 1762, when the prevailing epizootics among farm animals led to the establishment of the Lyons veterinary college, speedily followed by the founding of similar institutions in every country of Europe. In the 19th century especially the earnest study of comparative anatomy and physiology, and the careful investigation of animal diseases, and of the contagions and parasites which are intercommunicable among the lower animals and between them and man, have opened up a new path of usefulness for veterinary medicine, advanced the science of comparative pathology, and added a most valuable chapter to the-doctrine of prophylaxis.

As at present existing, veterinary science embraces the anatomy, physiology, hygiene, dietetics, and general care of domestic animals, together with their diseases, therapeutics, and prophylaxis, the philosophy of breeding, shoeing, sanitary principles of building, drainage, and ventilation, the influence of soils and seasons on the food, water, and air, the effects of climate on the animal economy, the laws of contagion, the development and metamorphoses of parasites, etc.

I. Epizootic Influenza

This is a specific typhous fever, occurring epizootically and complicated with inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the air passages, or less frequently of the lungs, pleurae, pericardium, liver, bowels, muscles, or joints. It is described as seen in horses, A. D. 330, by the Greek veterinarian Absyrtus, and in the course of the last two centuries has occurred simultaneously in man and horse no less than 20 times. Less frequently it has attacked other animals as well, particularly dogs and cats, while in the great majority of cases it has confined its ravages to a single genus. It was formerly thought to fall on a whole continent or country instantaneously, but a careful study of its outbreaks generally discloses a steady advance over a continent for a period of months or even a year. The American epizootic of 1872 advanced from place to place with a rapidity varying according to the celerity of communication, extending along the lines of railroad, and attacking first the large cities, later the smaller ones, and finally the villages and isolated farms, and frequently pursuing a retrograde course from the cities and railroads into the adjacent country. The whole country finally suffered, excepting such places as were protected against the introduction of strange horses.

Thus La Paz was saved by the gulf of California, Vancouver island by a rigid exelusion of horses and mules, Prince Edward island from its being unapproachable by reason of ice, and Key West, Hayti, and Jamaica by their insular position, while Cuba suffered because of imported American horses. The disease was finally arrested at Panama, where the state of the country forbids the use of horses. It reached the Pacific coast not at San Francisco, but at Santa Barbara by the line of stages from the mining regions of Nevada. It took nine months to travel from Toronto to British Columbia, and eleven to reach San Salvador. Nothing but contagion will account for the manner in which the epizootic spread, though a considerable latitude must be allowed for the conveyance of the germs through the atmosphere. The alleged propagation by ozone is incompatible with its severity in cities, where this agent is usually absent. The origin of the epizootic is very obscure. The only peculiarity of the month preceding the outbreak at Toronto was an unusual number of thunder storms. - Incubation extends from one to three days. The attack is usually remarkably sudden; hence the names Blitzkatarrh, la grippe, etc.

A horse which half an hour before seemed in robust health may suddenly droop his head, ears, and lips, partially close his eyes, and stand with one or two legs semi-flexed to find relief from his weariness. He maintains one position, or moves unsteadily and reluctantly with arched back and cracking joints. The hair is erect, the skin tender, the nose and extremities cold, and there may be trembling or even nervous jerking. Sometimes the prostration is much less marked, and a cough may be the main or only symptom for a time. It is dry, husky, and frequent, attended with accelerated breathing, increased temperature of the body, hot clammy mouth, rapid compressible pulse, scanty high-colored urine, and hard mucuscovered dung. The membranes of the nose and eye are reddened, often with a tinge of brown or yellow (pinkeye); and the ear placed over the lower end of the windpipe detects an unusually loud blowing murmur. In slight cases a watery discharge from the nose changes into a white muco-purulent one, the cough becomes loose and easy, fever subsides, and recovery ensues.

More frequently, toward the third or fifth day the cough becomes deep, painful, and paroxysmal, pulse and temperature rise, appetite becomes fastidious, eyes swollen, red, and watery, nose livid, with spots or patches of brown or yellow or of bloodstaining; swallowing is painful, water being returned through the nose, and the throat tender to the touch. The chest is involved, and if the lungs are implicated there is a want of resonance on percussion over the affected part, and a fine crepitation when the ear is applied; if the pleurae suffer, there is extreme tenderness when that part of the chest is touched, and a low rubbing sound, which soon gives place to silence and dulness of percussion up to a certain level. If the abdominal organs are attacked, there is great torpor and stupor, tense tender belly, with dusky mucous membranes, and yellow, brown, or red urine, with small weak pulse, quick catching breathing, weak painful cough, and costive bowels, one or two balls being passed rather frequently but with much straining and coated with mucus. In fatal cases prostration becomes extreme, breath fetid, anus puffy and relaxed, dung soft, bloody, and slimy, pulse imperceptible, eyes sunken, limbs deathly cold, and debility extreme.

Rheumatism, dropsy, paralysis, and inflammation of the eyes are occasional complications. In the treatment a warm, airy box, comfortable clothing, and laxative and easily digested food are essential. Relieve costiveness by copious injections of warm water or two or three drachms of aloes, and follow up with mild febrifuge diuretics (liquor of acetate of ammonia 3 oz., extract of belladonna 1 dr.), repeated twice daily. In case of severe sore throat, mix the belladonna with chlorate of potash, vinegar, and honey, and smear on the back teeth, to be swallowed at leisure. In extreme prostration, or after the fever subsides, use stimulants (aromatic ammonia, carbonate of ammonia) and tonics (tincture of gentian). The inflamed region may be fomented, wrapped in warm sheepskins, or rubbed with a mixture in equal parts of strong ammonia and olive oil. If the bowels are involved, give a mild laxative (olive oil, ½ to 1 pt.), with mucilaginous drinks and anodynes (opium ½), the last two being continued twice a day.

The other complications must be met as they appear, and according to their indications.

II. Strangles Or Distemper

This is a fever of solipeds, attended with nasal catarrh and swelling and abscess between the bones of the lower jaw, or less frequently in groups of lymphatic glands elsewhere, or in some internal organ (lungs, kidneys, brain, &c). It especially attacks the young, though no age is exempt, and is largely precipitated by change of feeding, work, heats and chills, hot impure stables, emigration to a new locality and climate, and other results of domestication. The irritation attendant on teething and shedding the coat is not to be forgotten. Contagion is a further cause. Second attacks are unusual unless the subject has been removed into a new district in the interval. The disease usually sets in slowly, the animal appearing to be thriving badly for a time, and losing his accustomed energy. Then a cough sets in, with redness of the nasal mucous membrane, watery discharge from nose and eyes, slavering, fever, costiveness, scanty, high-colored urine, and thirst. Then a uniformly smooth, hot, painful swelling rises between the branches of the lower jaw, or beneath the ear, gradually softens in the centre, and bursts, discharging a white creamlike matter.

The nasal discharge has meanwhile become thick, white, and abundant, and swallowing and even breathing may be difficult until the abscess bursts. The rupture of the abscess is the signal for improvement, the sac gradually contracts and heals out, the general health is restored, and the animal thrives better than before the illness. In treatment the aim must be to support the strength, and favor the formation of matter between the jaws. Feed liberally on boiled oats or barley or warm bran mashes, to be eaten from a nose bag, and poultice or assiduously foment the swelling until nearly ready to burst, when it may be opened with a lancet, and the fomentations continued at intervals. Medicine is rarely wanted. When the matter forms in unwonted situations the treatment will not differ, and the danger to life will depend on the importance of the parts involved. (See also Bots, and Glanders.)

III. Diseases Of Bones

Some of the most important maladies of the horse originate in inflammation of bony tissue. As types the familiar bone spavins, splints, and ringbones may be referred to. All are alike due to some injury of the bone or of its fibro-vasoular covering, causing exudation of lymph from the vessels and the hardening of this lymph by the deposition of earthy salts. All bone is permeated by minute blood vessels, around which and between the concentric bony plates are rows of microscopic particles of soft animal matter (nuclei), which preside over the nutrition of the part. The vessels are mainly derived from the fibrous membrane investing the bone. When inflamed these vessels throw out lymph, but most abundantly on the surface, where swelling can take place most readily, and this, raising the fibrous covering, drags out the vessels and nuclei somewhat from the bony canals, so that when these latter resume their normal functions they transform the lymph into a bony material. This is the explanation of the development of most of these bony swellings.

Where sinews are attached to bones, undue traction upon them tends equally to draw out the vessels and nuclei from the surface and to build up new bony tissue, while earthy salts are at the same time deposited in the substance of the tendon to some distance from the attached end. - Spavins are bony deposits on the antero-internal aspect of the lower part of the hock joint, where the great strain and compression come in rapid paces and in heavy draught. The joint is here provided with an extra tier of bones and two additional layers of elastic cartilage to ward off injury; but too often these prove insufficient; the nutrition in the small bones and on their surfaces is deranged; lymph is exuded, and finally consolidates two or more of the small bones into one solid mass, and abolishes the slight gliding movements and resiliency naturally resident in the joints between them. Then if the inflammation is allowed to subside, the new structure becomes firmly consolidated, and lameness disappears. Spavins occur mainly in joints that are narrow at their lower part, alike when viewed from before backward and from side to side, in overworked young horses, and in such as suffer from impaired health, faulty nutrition, or rheumatic taint.

The swelling is generally best seen by standing about two feet to one side of the shoulder and looking across the lower part of the inner side of the joint. It should also be compared with that of the opposite limb, examining with eye and hand. The sudden catching up of the limb, or the imperfect bending of it in progression, the stiff awkward movement in turning, and the improvement in most cases after the animal has been driven for some distance, are familiar to every horseman. In the early stages of spavin with heat and tenderness, soothing measures should be adopted to subdue inflammation and check deposit, thereby obviating the danger of fixing the joint. Hot fomentations, cold wet bandages, or astringent and arnica lotions, with a dose of physic and rest, are often sufficient, though if lameness is very great a high-heeled shoe will keep the joint easier. Later, when local inflammation has greatly moderated, active blistering and rest may remove the remaining irritation and secure consolidation of the exudate. As a blister, Spanish flies or iodide of mercury (one part to four of lard) will usually serve a good purpose.

When there is little or no external swelling or tenderness? but ulceration of the opposing surfaces of the small bones in the interior of the joint, nothing succeeds so well as firing followed by a long rest. - Splints have a similar origin with spavins, but appear on the inner side of the shank bones of the fore limbs, as being nearest the centre of gravity, and the point where concussion especially tells. They usually begin on the inner splint bone, which extends from the knee down for about three fourths of the length of the canon. Inflammation is set up, and the resulting exudate becoming ossified usually binds the two bones together and remains as a permanent enlargement, but without inducing lameness after it is consolidated throughout. But if the animal is kept at work, renewed injury is inevitable; the structures being now soft, irritable, and susceptible, new layers of lymph continue to be exuded and consolidated into bone, and thus a splint, like a spavin, may increase to almost any size. While thus growing lameness is almost necessarily present, and is greatly aggravated by trotting on hard ground, whereas it may not be shown at all on a soft surface.

By standing in front of the patient, the enlargement on the inner side of the limb is easily seen, and by passing the finger or thumb down the slight groove between the shank bone and the splint, it is distinctly felt. It is usually warm and tender. Splints are treated exactly like spavins, by rest and soothing applications in the early stages, followed by blisters and even firing. In both the recent deposit which is still soft may be largely removed, but old standing bony enlargements are permanent. In each the lameness is often greatly aggravated by the tension of the fibrous membrane over a rapidly growing swelling, and in spavin by the increased strain thrown on a sinew which passes over the seat of enlargement; in such cases a skilful division of these structures with a narrow-bladed knife, which will make little more than a puncture in the skin, is followed by the best results. - Ringbones, which appear as hard swellings on the bones between the fetlock and hoof, generally take their origin at points where the lateral ligaments of the joints are attached, though they may arise from concussion and injury to the front as well.

In these, as in splints and spavins, the inflammation may subside, the exudate harden into bone, and all lameness disappear, so that the swelling remains only as an eyesore and not a real injury. But from the constant strain on the lateral ligaments, when standing as well as at work, the inflammation is far more likely to be kept up, and the enlargement to go on increasing, making ringbones more dangerous than splints or spavins. Again, if they extend over the joints, as they often do, they give rise to a permanent stiffness and lameness, by abolishing the considerable movements normally effected in these. The treatment of ringbones is therefore far less satisfactory than that of splints and spavins. It proceeds on the same principle, first by soothing and antiphlogistic applications when inflammation is acute, and later by blistering or firing when its severity is somewhat moderated. The counter irritation must usually be more severe and repeated than in the other affections, and deep firing in points must often be resorted to. - Any of the above named forms of bone disease may be primarily dependent on a constitutional infirmity with impaired nutrition of the skeleton, and in such cases an improvement of digestion and general tone must first be secured.

Such general infirmity is usually betrayed by the coexistence of several such causes of unsoundness in the same animal (splints, spavins, ringbones, navicular disease, sprains, &c), by the passage of an excess of earthy salts (phosphates) in the urine, and by a general lack of energy and endurance.

IV. Shoeing And Diseases Of The Feet

A great majority of diseases of the feet take their origin in faulty modes of shoeing. The hoof is made up of horny tubules, all excepting some of those of the frog running from above downward and forward. Near the quick these are wide and open, filled with liquid, and surrounded by a soft, moist, horny substance; but in approaching the surface they become finer, closer, and encircled by horn of almost flinty hardness. The tubes of the hoof wall extend from the coronet to the lower wearing border, where they are closed by attrition. Those of the sole are covered by thick horny scales or flakes, with a fine powder between them and the tough elastic horn, and effectually protecting the latter from desiccation and mechanical injury. In the healthy state therefore the whole hoof is well provided against evaporation, drying, and shrinking. But the case is altered when the tubes of the hoof wall are laid open with the rasp, and those of the sole and frog with knife and buttress. Then the moisture is rapidly exhaled, the horn dries and shrinks, the heels curl inward, and the sole becomes more arched, drawing in the lower border of the hoof wall.

The sensitive parts beneath are absorbed under the pressure, and distortion and weakness are inevitable results, even if active disease is for a time escaped. A free use of hoof ointments will to some extent obviate the evil, though they make but a poor substitute for nature's admirable protection. The preservation and preparation of the foot is of far more consequence than the form of shoe. The hoof should be interfered with as little as possible, save where the shoe is to rest. This part should be pared or rasped until the elastic horn is reached, and so as to leave a smooth bearing surface, extending on the sole to a distance of perhaps half the thickness of the hoof wall. The two sides, inner and outer, should be of uniform height at all corresponding points, and the heel and toe left of an elevation according with the natural form of the particular foot. Usually the cutting must be almost entirely confined to the toe. While avoiding the paring of the tough elastic horn of the heel, we must equally avoid leaving hard thick flakes of dead horn, which can only act as foreign bodies and bruise the part. The outer edge of the hoof wall may be slightly rounded with a file, to obviate splitting.

The foot having thus been prepared with corresponding height on both sides, and in a way to prevent any distortion of the bones and joints of the limb from their natural direction, the next point is to adapt the shoe to the wearing surface. The upper surface of the shoe should be perfectly level, unless a very gentle curve is given from heel to toe, and the bearing on the hoof should be uniform throughout, as unequal pressure will tell sooner or later on the foot, or on the bones and joints above. Fitting the shoe at a dull red heat is hurtful to the horn, but of two evils it is preferable to unequal bearing. For perfect fit it is better to have the shoe coarsely fullered, and to drive the nails rather low as tending to injure less horn, and the hold taken should be gradually less in approaching the heel, especially on the inner side. The nails should be drawn up so as to hold the shoe firm, but no more; and in riveting, the transverse groove usually made with the rasp should be avoided, though a slight notch may be made with the knife beneath each nail, to receive the clench. In filing off any roughness of the clinches, avoid touching the hoof.

Finally, remove the shoe before the hoof grows over it, and especially before the growth of the toe has drawn it forward so that it sets in on the heels. - Navicular Disease. This is a disease of a small bone situated beneath the coffin joint, and serving as a pulley over which plays the flexor tendon of the foot. This tendon and its synovial sheath also participate in the disease. These structures lie directly above the anterior part or body of the horny frog, which thus serves as a protecting cushion or pad. Besides the general faults of nutrition predisposing to bone disease, rheumatism, hard work, faulty shoeing, and neglect of or injury to the feet contribute to its development. It is particularly liable to complicate injuries of the heel, the inflammation extending by proximity to the bursa of the flexor tendon and the navicular bone. Hence rapid paces and the system of shoeing are largely chargeable with the disease. In France, where the shoeing generally is good and protective, the affection is comparatively rare; in England the rapid paces and the systematic weakening of the feet in shoeing render it exceedingly prevalent; but in America, through the fondness for trotting, poor shoeing, and rough, uneven roads, there are incomparably more cases than in either.

The continued idleness of horses during our rigorous winters, broken by occasional fast drives, and the general disorder caused by an overfeed of grain, or a drink of iced water when hot and exhausted, are not to be overlooked. The affected foot may be pointed eight or ten inches in front of the other, with the heel slightly raised, for months before actual lameness appears. The horse steps short, stumblingly, and on the toe when first brought out, but the lameness diminishes or disappears after he has gone a mile or two. It is worse again when cooled down after a long or hard drive. It may also appear at work as an occasional stumble, or a temporary dropping on the sound foot. The shoe is worn at the toe, and the foot is warm at its posterior part, and steadily shrinks so as to be visibly smaller than its fellow. There is flinching when the sole is tapped with a hammer on each side of the body of the frog or on the wall in the region of the quarter. The same results from pressure of the thumb over the flexor tendon, behind the pastern, as far down as can be reached in the hollow of the heel. The wasting of the muscles of the limb and shoulder from disuse deludes many with the idea that the lesion is resident there. Treatment is not often satisfactory, except in recent cases.

To soothe inflammation, give a dose of physic, remove the shoe, shorten the toe, leaving the heel of its full height, keep the horse standing throughout the day in cold water or a puddle of wet clay reaching to the top of the hoof, and apply a mild blister to the front and sides of the pastern, repeating it when the scab from the first has come off. Obstinate cases will sometimes recover under the action of frog setons and a long run in a wet pasture, while for those that are otherwise useless the sensitive nerves going to the foot may be divided, when all pain and lameness will cease. But this is only advisable in chronic cases, when the best system of shoeing can be secured, when the feet can be cleaned and examined on each return from work, and when they can be kept covered with wet swabs while standing indoors. - Founder is an inflammation of the secreting structures of the foot, but especially of the laminae which connect the hoof wall with the sensitive parts anteriorly. It results from direct injury, as over-exertion on hard roads, blows, bruises, freezing, pricks or binding with nails, unequal pressure of the shoe on different points, or the long strain on the feet during a sea voyage; or it may result from a sudden chill, a drink of cold water when heated and fatigued, an overfeed of grain, especially if new or only partially ripened, an overdose of purgative medicine, or as a sequel of disease of the lungs or other internal organ.

When not caused by direct injury to the foot, it is usually introduced by fever, staring coat, or shivering and general stiffness and soreness, without at first any great tenderness of the feet. Soon the disease concentrates itself in the anterior part of the fore feet (rarely the hind), and the patient leans back, rests on his heels, and brings his hind feet forward to bear as much weight as possible. If urged to move, he sways back, dragging the fore feet on the heels, or lifts both at once and comes down on the heels only. The feet are hot and extremely tender to the hammer or pincers, and the patient resists all efforts to lift them. The pulse is rapid and hard, the breathing hurried, and the skin often perspiring. In the mild forms there is less fever and local suffering, but in all cases the walking on the heels and the heat and tenderness of the feet are characteristic. The preliminary stage of general stiffness may often be cut short by a free perspiration induced by wrapping in a blanket wrung out of hot water and closely covered by several dry ones, or by heavy dry clothing and full doses of aconite, lobelia, or tobacco. Others attain the same end by walking the patient, barefoot or with broad-webbed bar shoes, on a newly ploughed field.

But if some inflammation has set in, the feet must be unshod, and enveloped in large, soft, warm poultices; a laxative should be given if the bowels are not too irritable, followed by sedatives and cooling diuretics, and the patient coaxed or even compelled to lie down. When nearly well, a slight blister round the coronet, and a moist clay paddock, or hoof ointments, may perfect the cure. - Corns are common as simple bruises of the heel (Usually the inner), often resulting in high strong heels, from accumulation of dry hard flakes of horn when the shoes have been left on too long; in weak ones from undue paring of the sole between the wall and the bars; and in all from the pressure of stones or hardened earth or clay, or the setting in of the shoe when drawn too far forward by the growth of the toe. If of old standing, there is often a horny swelling in the seat of the bruise, pressing inward on the quick. Other results are distortion of the heels of the coffin bone, ossification of the lateral cartilages which prolong that bone posteriorly, navicular disease, and the formation of matter which tends to burrow in different directions, forming fistulae and causing extensive destruction of the soft parts.

Corns cause marked lameness, pointing of the foot, with slight elevation of the heel, and a short, stilty, stumbling gait. Testing the affected heel with pincers or hammer elicits signs of tenderness, and the horny sole in the angle of the heel is marked with red points and patches, from extravasated blood. If matter has formed, the patient will often hesitate to touch the ground even with the toe, and soon there is swelling and tenderness at the coronet where the pus is about to escape. Should the injury not exceed a simple bruise, it may be allowed to grow out. A bar shoe may be applied so as to rest on the frog, and remove the pressure from the diseased heel, while the patient is allowed to stand in water, or with wet swabs and linseed stuffing for the sole, until inflammation subsides. The shoe must be removed before it settles down, and reapplied so as to protect the heel as before. If matter has formed, pare down the sole until it escapes, remove all horn detached from the quick, thin the edges of the adjacent horn, apply a poultice for a- few days, then apply a bar shoe with leather sole over an abundant stuffing of tar and tow.

In low weak heels with extensive disease of the posterior part of the coffin bone, and above all with ossification of the lateral cartilages, the recurrence of corns can hardly be prevented, although careful shoeing with bar shoes, resting very lightly on the heels, will do much to mitigate their severity.

V. Breaking And Training Of Horses

In careful hands the colt should be led and handled while still with his dam, but should not be made a general pet and plaything. Many of the most incorrigible horses have been pets as foals, and learned at this early age to retaliate in their play. To halter a colt, he should be driven into a narrow place in stable or yard between two old steady horses, that will virtually hold him until the halter or bridle has been got on. All sudden movements are to be avoided. - Training to bring a horse into condition for hard work consists in the removal of all superfluous fat, and the development and hardening of the muscles. The best condition is not to be attained by a training of a few weeks or months, and trotters rarely reach their high*est speed until years after they are matured. The colt intended for this training should be fed on grain from the time he leaves his dam, and should have free scope for exercise and development. The final treatment is by sweating, physic, and graduated exercise. Sweating is employed mainly to get rid of superfluous fat, and may be secured by active exertion, by clothing, or by the Turkish bath.

The duration and frequency of the sweats must vary with the subject, but the liquid should always be scraped off, and the horse rubbed dry, and walked out in light clothing until he cools. A dose of physic is useful in reducing fat, counteracting plethora, and cooling the limbs, but is especially beneficial in clearing away irritants and accumulations from the intestines, and improving appetite and digestion. But it is always dangerous in injudicious hands, and should never be repeated unless the state of the limbs or of the general health demands it. Exercise should gradually increase from walking to trotting, and cantering or galloping, according to the development of condition and the use to which the animal is to be put. Feeding must be liberal upon hay and oats, the latter being steadily increased and the former diminished as the more active work is demanded. In perfectly sound horses with clean limbs, brans may be added with good effect. - See Bouley, Traité de Vorganisation du pied du cheval (Paris, 1851); Bouley and Reynal, Dictionnaire de medecine veterinaire (vols. ix., Paris, 1856-'73); Key, Traite de marechalerie vétérinaire (Paris, 1865); Chauveau, Traité d'anatomie des animaux domestiques (Paris, 1871; translated into English by George Fleming, "Comparative Anatomy of the Domesticated Animals," London and New York, 1873); Colin, Physiologie comparee des animaux (Paris, 1871); Saint-Cyr, Traite d"obstétrique véterinaire (Paris, 1874); Tabourin, Matiére médicate (Paris, 1875); Hering, Handbuch der thierdrzlichen Operationslehre (Stuttgart, 1866); Roll, Lehrbuch der Pathologie und Therapie der nutzbaren Hausthiere (Vienna, 1869); Rohlwehs, Allgemeines Vieharzneibuch (21st ed., remodelled "by H. Renner and M. Rothermel, Berlin, 1874); FinlayDun, "Veterinary Medicines, their Actions and Uses" (Edinburgh, 1864); and George Fleming, "A Manual of Veterinary Science and Police " (2 vols., London, 1875).