Martin Dobrizhoffer, a Jesuit missionary, born at Gratz, Styria, in 1717, died in Vienna, July 17, 1791. He was sent to South America in 1749, and passed 18 years among the Indians inhabiting the W. bank of the Paraguay river and the interior of Parasruay. When the Jesuits were expelled from the Spanish colonieshe went to Vienna, where he enjoyed the favor of Maria Theresa. His principal work is a history in Latin of the Abipones (Vienna, 1784), of which a German translation appeared in Pesth in the same year, and an English translation by Miss Sara Coleridge in London in 1822.
Martin Heinrich Karl Lichtenstein, a German naturalist, born in Hamburg, Jan. 10, 1780, died on board the steamer between Kor-sor and Kiel, Sept. 3, 1857. He studied at Jena, graduated in 1802 as doctor of medicine at Helmstedt, and accompanied the Dutch governor Janssens to the Cape of Good Hope. At the end of 1802 he made a tour of exploration in the interior of Cape Colony, and collected the materials for his scientific work, Reisen im sudlichen Afrika (Berlin, 1810 - '11; English translation by Anne Plumptre, London, 1812). In 1804, on the outbreak of the war with England, he served as surgeon in a regiment of Hottentots, and in 1805 was sent on a mission to some of the native tribes. In 1811 he became professor of zoology at the university of Berlin, and in 1813 director of the zoological museum. He wrote many zoological works.
Martin Opitz, a German poet, founder of the first Silesian school, born in Bunzlau, Silesia, Dec. 23, 1597, died in Dantzic, Aug. 20, 1639. He studied at Frankfort-on-the Oder and Heidelberg, travelled with a rich Danish friend, and lived subsequently at various petty courts of Germany, officiating also for a time as professor of philosophy and belles-lettres at Weis-senburg in Transylvania (now Carlsburg). He was ennobled by the emperor Ferdinand II. in 1629 under the name of Opitz von Bober-feld; and having fled before the horrors of the thirty years' war to Poland, he there became historiographer of King Ladislas IV., and fell a victim to the plague. Owing to the fear of contagion, his papers and manuscripts were put awray and lost. He rendered important service to German literature, especially in refining the language. A good edition of his poems is in the first volume of Wilhelm Müller's Bibliothek deutsclier Dichter des 17. Jahrhunderts (Leipsic, 1822).
Martinsburg, a town and the capital of Berkeley co., West Virginia, on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, at the terminus of the Cumberland Valley line, 210 m. E.N. E.of Charleston, and 65 m. W. N. W. of Washington-pep. in 1870, 4,863, of whom 476 were colored; in 1874, about 6,000. It is lighted with gas, supplied with water at a cost of $90,000, and has handsome agricultural fair ground-, a commodious court house, a town hall, and a market house. The Baltimore and Ohio railroad has here extensive shops, and employs about 600 persons. The principal manufactories are a foundery, a planing mill, three grist mills, and a large distillery. There are three banks, with an aggregate capital of $200,000, six school houses, a female seminary, a daily and two weekly newspapers, and 11 churches.