Charles X., the seventh and last king of the family of Bourbon, born at Versailles, Oct. 9, 1757, died at Gorz, in Austria, Nov. 6,1836. He was the fourth son of the dauphin, son of Louis XV., and received at his birth the names of Charles Philip, and the title of count of Artois. After being very indifferently educated under the superintendence of the duke de la Vauguy-on, he married, Nov. 16, 1773, Maria Theresa of Savoy, a younger sister of the countess of Provence, by whom he had two sons, the dukes of Angouleme and Berry. Being of a very profligate disposition, he neglected his wife, both tor ladies at the court and common courtesans. Among the latter was Mlle. Duthe, who enjoyed an unenviable celebrity. His scandalous conduct was, however, somewhat restricted by the influence of the dauphiness Marie Antoinette, and his love for Mme, de Po-lastron. On one occasion he rashly insulted his cousin, the duchess of Bourbon, at the opera ball; and his duel with the duke which grew out of this circumstance seriously impaired the favor which his affable and courteous manners had gained for him. He tried to make amends by distinguishing himself at the siege of Gibraltar, but in vain; his levity and inconsistency had destroyed the last vestige of his popularity.

AY hen the revolution broke out he became one of its most uncompromising enemies. But instead of supporting his unhappy brother, Louis XVI., he fled from Paris to Brussels, then to Turin, where he engaged in intrigues, the consequence of which was to increase the danger to which his brother was exposed. On May 20,1791, he had an interview with the emperor Leopold at Mantua, and a few months later was present at the conference of Pilnitz, the only result of which was to give a new impetus to the revolutionary spirit in France. While he was going about begging assistance for the royalist cause, the king was arraigned before the convention, sentenced to death, and executed. The exiled prince, who now assumed the title of Monsieur, repaired to Russia, where Catharine II. presented him with a magnificently ornamented sword bearing this inscription: "Don-nee par Dieu pour le Roi." But this was a useless weapon in such weak hands. The ill-directed efforts of the Bourbons and their allies having proved fruitless on the Rhine, it was thought proper to give encouragement and assistance to the Vendeans or Chouans. Monsieur was consequently sent, in August, 1705, with English ships, to effect a landing on the coast of Brittany. Although supported by a large number of emigrants and some 2,500 English troops, the brave Charette, who was in waiting for him, having gathered nearly 20,000 Vendeans, and engaged his word that 00,000 more would rise in arms on the arrival of a Bourbon, the prince did not dare to land, and his cowardice was the signal of the ultimate defeat of the monarchical party in western France. He afterward lived in obscurity, residing mainly in England, till the fall of Napoleon, when he repaired to Paris, and on April 12,1814, was welcomed there by the provisional government, headed by Talleyrand. A part of the Parisian population hailed his return, while his affability of manners and kind words conciliated the good will of many.

The most popular saying reported of him at the time was: "Friends, nothing is changed in France; there is only one Frenchman more." Notwithstanding this favorable beginning, 11 months had hardly elapsed when Monsieur was again compelled to leave France, after having vainly tried to secure the city of Lyons against the approach of Napoleon. The defeat of the emperor at Waterloo brought him back again to France in the train of the allied armies. During the first years of the restoration he kept aloof from public affairs; but he was the head of the ultra-royalist party, which so seriously interfered with the policy of Louis XVIII. That party at last prevailed, after the assassination of the duke de Berry (1820), by the accession of the Villele cabinet, and the influence of Monsieur became prominent. He succeeded Louis XVIII., Sept. 16, 1824, under very favorable auspices, his brother not having been a favorite with the nation. At first he adopted some popular measures; but soon his government appeared to be ruled solely with a view to the reestab-lishment of the old regime.

A bill to indemnify the emigrants for their losses during the revolution was introduced; this bill, by which the nation was to assume a thousand millions of new debts, in behalf of those who had actually borne arms against it, was adopted in March, 1825. This was a great triumph for the reactionary party. Soon another bill was passed, decreeing the most severe penalty against what was called sacrilege. In the legislative session of 1826 an attempt was made to alter the law of inheritance, so as to reestablish the right of primogeniture; this, however, failed. Another bill, to regulate or rather to destroy the freedom of the press, called lot de justice et d'amour, was not more successful. The public discontent was further increased by the favor shown by the government to the Jesuits, who had reestablished themselves in France under the new appellation of peres de lafoi. At last the popular sentiment broke out during a review of the national guards, held April 20, 1827, by the king himself; he was received by the cries of "Down with the ministers," "Down with Villele." Greatly provoked by these manifestations, his haughty answer was that he "came to receive homage, not lessons." On the same night a decree of dissolution was issued against the national guards.

A few weeks later the chamber of deputies was also dissolved, while the royalist party was reenforced in the chamber of peers by the addition of 76 new members. At the same time the freedom of the press was entirely suppressed by the reestablishment of the censorship. To divert public attention, the government resolved on assisting Greece in her war of independence, but the glory achieved by French arms tailed to restore popularity to the cabinet; and Charles X. at last consented to part with his ministers and choose new counsellors among the most liberal royalists. The Martignac ministry, formed Jan. 4, 1828, was the signal of a kind of reconciliation between the king and the nation. The measures then adopted were hailed with delight by the friends of constitutional liberty, but created the utmost dissatisfaction among the court party. The king, fearing the ascendancy of liberal principles and following the suggestions of the ultra royalists, dismissed the Martignac administration, and intrusted Prince Polignac with the formation of a new cabinet. The prince was the truest representative of that old royalist party which had "forgotten nothing and learned nothing." His mere name was considered as a challenge offered by the king to the nation; every one foresaw the coming struggle.

In vain the government tried to assuage public opinion by the excitement of military success. The expedition against Algiers was undertaken; that stronghold of piracy was stormed on July 5, 1830. But all to no purpose; the interest of the whole nation was engrossed by home affairs. On the opening of the chambers, March 2, the king had made use of threatening language, and to this a majority of 221 deputies answered by voting an address declaring their want of confidence in the ministry. The king declined to receive the address, on which the chambers were adjourned, and on May 1G they were dissolved. New elections took place, and resulted in a still more powerful opposition majority. Incensed at this, and encouraged by the triumph of the French army in Algeria, the king resorted to a coup d'etat. Decrees were promulgated suppressing entirely the freedom of the press, dissolving the newly elected but not yet opened chamber of deputies, and prescribing an essential modification in the mode of election, so as to secure the triumph of the court party.

These ordinances fell like a thunderbolt on Paris. Resistance was immediately organized; barricades were built, and defended by bodies of workmen from the suburbs, and by artisans and printers, under the command of officers and young men from the polytechnic school. The insurrection was emphatically popular, and not confined to any particular class. The royal troops, under Marshal Mar-mont, offered slight resistance, and were driven from the capital in less than three days (July 27-29). Charles X. was so little conscious of the danger of his situation that he remained quietly at the palace of St. Cloud; he learned but gradually the defeat of his troops, being to the last under the impression that he had to deal only with a riot. But it was a revolution, and when he attempted to avoid its consequences it was too late. He recalled the fatal ordinances, appointed a liberal ministry, and even abdicated in favor of his grandson, the duke of Bordeaux, the present count of Chambord, his surviving son, the duke d'Angouleme, equally resigning his rights. But the chiefs of the revolution would not accept such proposals; the king had no alternative but to depart. He retired first to Trianon, then to Rambouillet, under the protection of his guards.

In the latter place he made some show of resistance; but on the appearance of 10,000 volunteers from Paris, he gave up entirely, and, accompanied by commissioners sent by the chamber of deputies, he directed his course toward Cherbourg. There, on Aug. 16, he embarked for England with his family and a few faithful servants, on board of two American ships, the Great Britain and the Charles Carroll. He landed at Cowes under the name of count de Ponthieu, and immediately repaired to the palace of Holyrood, in Scotland, which had been assigned to him as a residence by the English government. In this retreat he devoted his time to field sports, of which he was still very fond notwithstanding his old age, and to religious duties. After four years' residence, he left Scotland for Bohemia, where he lived successively at Buschtierad and the Hradschin of Prague. Finally he resolved to retire to Gorz, and arrived there in October, 1836, but soon died of the cholera, after a sickness of five days.