Berwick-on-Tweed (Ber'rick), at the mouth of the Tweed, 58 miles ESE. of Edinburgh, and 67 N. by W. of Newcastle. The liberties of the borough, called 'Berwick Bounds,' have an area of 8 sq. m., and with Spittal and Tweed mouth, form the 'county of the borough of Berwick-on-Tweed.' Though long boasting to be neither in England nor Scotland, and still possessing separate quarter-sessions and commission of the peace, it is to all intents and purposes part of the county of Northumberland (the adjoining parts of which formed till 1844 a detached portion of Durham); especially since by the Redistribution Act of 1885 Berwick ceased to return two members, and was for election purposes merged in Northumberland. The town is engirt with ramparts of Elizabeth's time, and has large barracks (1719). Tweedmouth and Spittal (the latter a favourite watering-place), on the south side of the Tweed, have since 1835 both been included within the municipality. They are reached by a narrow stone bridge (1609-34) of fifteen arches; and the river is also spanned by Robert Stephenson's magnificent viaduct (1850) of 28 arches, 136 feet high and 2160 long. The public buildings include the town-hall (1760), with a belfry 150 feet high, the corn exchange (1858), and several churches, Presbyterian outnumbering the Anglican. The harbour has been improved by the construction of a wet-dock (1873-76), at a cost of £40,000; there is a considerable coasting trade, but the salmon-fishing, has fallen off. For the manufacture of agricultural implements Berwick stands high, and in Spittal there are sevei-al large artificial-manure works. Pop. (1841) 12,689; (1901) 13,437. Berwick, in the 12th century, was the chief seaport of Scotland; was captured by Edward I. in 1296, was annexed to England in 1333, after the battle of Halidon Hill, and was finally ceded by Scotland in 1482. See J. Scott's History of Berwick (1888).