Guildford, the county town of Surrey, lies in a break of the chalk-ridge of the North Downs, on the navigable Wey, 30 miles SW. of London. In Cobbett's phrase a 'happy-looking' place, it wears an air of order and cleanliness, and mainly consists of one street, running up the steep east side of the river, which here is crossed by an old five-arch bridge. Its houses are still rich in quaint gables, projecting fronts, and long latticed windows. The square Norman keep of its royal castle (c. 1150) is 70 feet high with walls 10 feet thick ; on St Catharine's Hill is a ruined chapel (1313); Trinity Hospital, founded in 1619 by Archbishop Abbot for twelve brethren and eight sisters, is a picturesque red-brick pile ; and other buildings are the churches of St Nicholas, St Mary, and the Holy Trinity, the guildhall (1G87), county hall (1862), county hospital (1868), and grammar-school (1509-50). A railway junction of some importance, Guildford now is chiefly famous for its grain market. From Edward I.'s reign till 1867 it returned two members to parliament, then till 1885 one. Since 1874 it has been the seat of a bishopric suffragan to Winchester. Pop. (1851) 6740; (1901) 15,937. Bequeathed in 901 by Alfred the Great to his nephew Ethelwald, Guildford in 1036 was the scene of the decimation by King Harold's men of the Norman followers of Alfred the Atheling - a crime that led up to the Norman conquest. The Dauphin Louis took the castle in 1216; and in 1685 Monmouth was temporarily confined in Trinity Hospital.