Prince Edward Island, since 1873 a province of Canada, is situated in the Gulf of St Lawrence, and is separated from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia by Northumberland Strait. Its greatest length is 130 miles; its breadth varies from 4 to 34 miles, and it has an area of 2133 sq. m., or 1,365,400 acres, nearly all of which are occupied. Pop. (1871) 94,021; (1901) 103,259, or 48 to the sq. m. It was discovered by the Cabots, but annexed by France; still, little was done towards its settlement until 1715, when its fertility attracted some Acadians from Cape Breton. It was finally ceded to Britain in 1763. At first a part of Nova Scotia, in 1768 it was made a separate province. The pop. in 1763 was 4000; but emigration set in, and the Acadians were expelled, so that in 1768 it had sunk to 1300. Until 1799 called St John's Island, it was then renamed Prince Edward Island, in compliment to the Duke of Kent, who paid it a visit. The local government passed a measure in 1875 giving them powers to buy out the landlords, most of them absentees, and to sell the land thus acquired (843,981 acres) to the tenants or others on easy terms. The surface is undulating, but never exceeds 500 feet; the soil is very fertile. All kinds of cereals, roots, and vegetables are raised. Oats and potatoes from the island enjoy a special reputation, as do also its sheep and horses. A natural manure, called mussel mud, and made of decayed oyster, clam, and mussel shells, is found on the coasts. Coal is known to exist, but not worked. The climate is milder than that of the mainland, and freer from fogs. Prince Edward Island is the best fishing-station in the Gulf of St Lawrence, but the habits of the inhabitants are so decidedly agricultural that the fisheries have been neglected. Mackerel, lobsters, herring, cod, hake, and oysters are taken, besides salmon, bass, shad, halibut, and trout. The coastline is a succession of bays and headlands; the largest bays are Egmont, Hillsborough, and Cardigan, which by penetrating into the land from opposite directions divide the island into three distinct peninsulas. The rivers are short, but the province is well watered. Charlottetown is the capital, and has a pop. of 12,000. Other towns are Summerside, Georgetown, and Souris. A railway traverses the island, which is connected by telegraph with the mainland. The settlers are largely of English, Irish, and Scotch descent, besides French, Germans, and Scandinavians. Free education has prevailed since 1853.