New Brunswick, an eastern province of Canada, washed on the E. by the Gulf of St Lawrence, and on the S. by the Bay of Fundy. It has an area of 27,322 sq. m. - rather smaller than Scotland. Its coast-line, with many fine harbours, is 500 miles in length, interrupted only at the point of juncture with Nova Scotia, where an isthmus 11 miles broad connects the two provinces. The surface is generally undulating. There are low hills skirting the Bay of Fundy and the rivers of St John and Restigouche. These two rivers are 450 and over 200 miles long ; the Miramichi River is 220. The lakes are numerous but small, the largest being Grand Lake, 30 miles long and 3 to 7 miles wide, communicating with the St John River. Pop. (1881) 321,233 ; (1901) 331,120, of whom nearly one-third were Catholics. The principal towns are St John (with Portland, 40,711), Fredericton (the capital), and Moncton. The climate is subject to extremes, ranging between 80° and - 15°. Except in a strip of country adjacent to the Bay of Fundy, the soil is very fertile, and every kind of grain and roots produced in England is grown, as well as others; live-stock is raised. The province, which has cheap coal, manufactures sawn lumber, leather, cotton and woollen goods, wooden-ware, paper, iron-castings, nails, mill machinery, bolts and nuts, railway engines and carriages. A number of mines are worked. Shipbuilding is prosecuted. Timber is the chief export. Land is cheap, and sport excellent. New Brunswick, as a part of Nova Scotia, was ceded by France to Great Britain in 1713, but the boundaries were not settled until 1763. The first British settlers emigrated from Scotland to the Miramichi district in 1764; and in 1783, at the close of the American revolution, a large body of the loyalists from the United States settled near St John.
New Brunswick, capital of Middlesex county, New Jersey, is at the head of navigation on the Raritan River, 31 miles by rail SW. of New York. It contains a Roman Catholic cathedral, and is the seat of Rutger's College (1771), connected with which is the theological seminary of the Dutch Reformed Church, as well as an observatory and a state agricultural college and model farm. New Brunswick is noted for its great india-rubber factories, and has also iron and brass foundries, and manufactories of hosiery, lamps, needles, paper-hangings, etc. Pop. 20,000.