Somali-land (Somah-lee), an eastern projection of Africa, between the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean. The Juba, its southern frontier, is the chief river. The country is an undulating plateau, in very many places parched and barren; though in the rainy seasons swampy in parts. Game and wild animals - elephant, hippopotamus, lion, leopard, crocodile, antelopes - abound. The Somal are mostly a warlike and pastoral people of the Hamitic stock, akin to the Gallas (but with Arab and Negro admixture), and Moslems. The western and central portions belong to Abyssinia; the remainder falls into three sections: British Somali-land, with a coast-line of about 450 miles on the Gulf of Aden, extending south to lat. 8° N., has an area of 68,000 sq. m. and a pop. of 300,000. It was created a British protectorate in 1884; the chief towns are Ber-bera, Zeyla, and Bulbar. The French Somali Coast protectorate, including Obock, situated round the Bay of Tajura, has an area of 46,000 sq. m. and a pop. of 200,000. Its railway from Jiboutil to Harar (1902) has absorbed much of the traffic that used to penetrate from Aden into the interior by way of Zeyla. Italian Somali-land, on the coast of the Indian Ocean, extends from Cape Guardafui to the equator, with an area of 100,000 sq. m. and a population of 400,000. See works by James (1888), and Lord Wolverton (1894).