Solovetsk, a great monastery on an island of the White Sea, bombarded by the British in 1854.
Solway Firth - in its upper part best regarded as the estuary of the river Esk, in its lower as an inlet of the Irish Sea - separates Cumberland from the south of Scotland. Its entire length, until lost off Balcarry Point in the Irish Sea, is 36 miles; its breadth for the upper 13 varies from 1 1/3 to 8 1/2 miles, but afterwards it gradually, although irregularly, increases to 22. The principal rivers flowing into it, besides the Esk, are the Annan, Nith, Dee, and Urr from the Scottish side, and the Eden and Derwent from the English. Its most striking feature is the 'bore,' which in spring-tides rushes in from 3 to 6 feet high, and at the rate of 8 to 10 miles an hour, occasionally inflicting serious damage on the shipping; while after it has retreated great stretches of the bed of the firth are left bare, and in some places one can even cross over from the English to the Scottish shore. The salmon-fisheries are valuable. Near Annan the Solway is spanned by a railway viaduct, 19(50 yards long, which, originally constructed in 1866-69 at a cost of £100,000, was almost destroyed by floating ice in January 1881, but was reopened to traffic in 1884. Scott paints the scenery of the Solway Firth in both Guy Mannering and Redgauntlet.
The Solway Moss is a district of Cumberland about 7 miles in circumference, lying west of Longtown, and immediately adjoining Scotland. As its name implies, it was once a bog, but is now drained and cultivated. Here, in November 1542, a Scottish host was routed by a handful of English borderers. In 1771 the boggy ground, swelling after heavy rains, burst like a torrent and destroyed some thirty small villages.