Treves (Treevz; Fr. Treves; Ger. Trier), a city of Rhenish Prussia, on the Moselle's right bank, between low vine-covered hills of ruddy sandstone, 69 miles by rail SW. of Coblenz and 111 SSW. of Cologne. The river is crossed here by an eight-arch bridge, 623 feet long, whose Roman piers date from 25 B.C. 'A quiet, old-fashioned town, Treves,' Freeman says, 'has a body of Roman remains far more numerous and varied than any other place north of the Alps can show.' These include the 'Porta Nigra,' 118 feet long and 95 high; the so-called Roman baths (more probably part of an imperial palace); and a basilica built of Roman brick by Constantine, but partly demolished to make room for an electoral palace in 1614. This, however, was removed, and the basilica fitted up for a Protestant church in 1856. Beyond the walls are the ruins of an amphitheatre that could seat 30,000 spectators; and 6 miles off is the 'Igelsaule' or 'Heidenthurm,' a monumental column, 71 feet high, sculptured with bas-reliefs of the 2d c. The cathedral is an interesting structure, chiefly of the 11th c. Its 'Holy Coat,' which consists of 'connected fragmentary particles of material,' is said to have been brought to Treves by the Empress Helena, but is first referred to in 1106, and was not a source of revenue till 1512. It was visited by nearly two million pilgrims in 1891, the first time of exhibition since 1844. Connected with the cathedral by a cloister is the beautiful Liebfrauenkirche (1243); and there is a library of over 150,000 volumes and many MSS. A university (1472) was suppressed in 1798. The manufactures comprise woollens, cottons, and linens. Pop. (1871) 21,442; (1900) 43,506.
Treves, which claims to be 1300 years older than Rome, derives its name from the Treviri, who in CAesar's time dwelt between the Meuse and the Rhine. Their capital, Augusta Trevirorum, seems to have become a Roman colony under Augustus, and ultimately was a frequent residence of the emperors, especially Constantine. Sacked by Attila in 451, it passed to the Franks in 463, to Lorraine in 843, to Germany in 870, and back to Lorraine in 895, and was finally 2s united to Germany by the Emperor Henry I. Its archbishop was an Elector of the Empire. The last elector removed to Coblenz in 1786; and Treves was the capital of the French dep. of Sarre from 1794 till 1814, since then belonging to Prussia. See Freeman's Historical Sketches (1876) and Clarke's Pilgrimage to Treves (1892).