Vermont, the only entirely inland state of New England, lies west of New Hampshire, with Canada on the N., and Lake Champlain on the W. Its length from north to south is 140 miles, its width 40 to 90 miles; and its area 10,200 sq. m. The Green Mountains (Verd Mont - whence the name of the state) extend its entire length, and in four peaks exceed 4000 feet. The mountains are mostly clothed with trees to their summits. The hills furnish the best of pasturage, and, for the most part, can be cultivated to their tops. Vermont is rich in quarries of granite, marble, and slate, which are extensively worked. Steatite, verd-antique, sulphuret of iron, manganese, kaolin, and iron exist. A larger area is devoted to cereals than in any other New England state. The annual production of maple sugar is nearly one-third of the total production of the country. The butter and cheese are of superior quality. The state is divided into fourteen counties, and returns two representatives to congress. Montpelier is the capital. Samuel Champlain, in 1609, was the first white man who looked upon Vermont. The first permanent settlement was made at Brattle-boro in 1724. Vermont was received into the Union, March 4, 1791, as the fourteenth state. In the civil war it furnished 35,242 soldiers, or one-half of all its able-bodied men. Pop. (1800) 154,465; (1880) 332,286; (1900) 343,641.