This section is from the book "A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol2: Masonry. Carpentry. Joinery", by The Colliery Engineer Co. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction.
(3) (a) When are inverted arches necessary? (b) How are they usually built? (c) What are the objections to their use?
(4) (a) What are retaining walls? (b) State a good proportion of bottom thickness to height, (c) What is the object of stepping the back of a retaining wall?
(6) (a) How are bricks burned? (b) What classes of brick are found in a kiln after burning?
(7) Why should brick not be laid in extremely cold weather?
(8) (a) What are brick-veneered walls? (b) How are they built and bonded?
(9) When the side walls of a building are carried up before the front walls, what should be done at the angles?
(10) Why should floor-joist anchors be attached near the bottom of the joists?
(11) Mention some methods of rendering the outside of brickwork waterproof.
(12) (a) State the requisites of good brick, (b) Would a brick which absorbed 1/15 of its weight of water be suitable for exterior walls? (c) What should be the minimum crushing strength of good brick?
(13) (a) How is brickwork Figured? (b) How are the number of bricks required for different thicknesses of wall generally estimated? (c) What is the usual practice in regard to Figuring openings for common and pressed brick?
(14) What supports the hearths or fireplaces?
(15) (a) What are the intrados and extrados of an arch? (b) What is meant by a rowlock course of brick? (c) What is a block-in-course arch?
(16) How should footings partly on rock and partly on gravel be built?
(18) What are the best methods of protecting the joints in brick belt courses from the action of the weather?
(20) (a) How are piles driven? (b) How should they be capped? (c) What are the sizes of piles? (d) Suppose the last blow of a 1,200-pound hammer falling 15 feet upon a pile causes a settlement of 5/8-inch. What will be the safe load? (e) How are piles protected from wood-boring worms?
Ans. (d) 43,200 lb.
(23) (a) What are party walls? (b) Why should they be thicker than ordinary outside walls?
(24) Why should brick cornices have small projections?
(25) (a) Why should flat arches be cambered? (b) If they are not cambered, what other mode of construction should be adopted?
(27) (a) What is shoring? (b) How is it accomplished?
(28) How are areas drained?
(29) Give descriptions of the three forms of arches most frequently used to span openings in brickwork.
(30) How are floorbeams anchored to walls?
(31) (a) What is efflorescence? (b) What is used for cleaning brick walls?
(32) How should the different brick walls in the same building be carried up, and why?
(33) Why is it necessary that windows in different stories should be placed over each other?
(34) What is the best method of supporting floor joists on brick walls?
(35) How are face brick bonded to common brick in walls?
(36) What is a relieving arch?
(37) State the safe weights that different classes of brickwork will carry to the square foot.
(38) What are some of the causes of cracks in brickwork?
(39) How is terra-cotta furring attached to walls?
(40) When there are window openings in a wall carrying floorbeams, what should be the greatest proportion of width of openings compared with length of wall?
(41) What must be the thicknesses of brick walls for an apartment house 100 feet high, in New York City?
(42) How are hollow walls built and bonded?
(43) How should building excavations be staked out?
(44) (a) Give a description of how footings are proportioned to the weight they have to carry, (b) What is the principal point to be observed in proportioning footings? (c) Why may the pressure on the footings under columns be assumed as less than the calculations require?
(45) What precaution should be taken with brick used in warm weather?
(46) Describe some of the points to be considered in designing chimneys.
(48) The pier footings of a building carry on each of 4 floors a dead load of 75 pounds per square foot and a live load of 100 pounds per square foot. The roof load is 20 pounds per square foot. The area supported by each pier being 15 feet square, what should be the size of the footing, if the soil will support 6,000 pounds per square foot?
Ans. 27 sq. ft., or 5.2 ft. square.
(49) What should be done with the space between the foundation walls and the bank of the excavation?
(50) When should steel or iron lintels be used?
(51) How are hollow brick bonded when used for furring?
(52) What are skewbacks?
(53) In masonry, what is meant by reveal?
(54) Give a description of spread footings, made of iron and concrete.
(55) (a) What are the component parts of brick? (b) What are the different processes used in making brick?
(56) How are area steps built?
(57) When is it proper to use sand piles for foundations?
(58) How are cluster piles connected to form foundations?
(59) What are the functions of mortar in masonry?
(60) (a) What purpose do damp-proof courses in walls serve? (b) How are they made?
(61) How should new walls be joined to old?
(62) (a) How is mortar prepared for use? What are the usual proportions of material (b) in cement mortar? (c) in lime mortar?
(64) What kinds of pavements are usually used in or around buildings? Give a description of each.
(65) How is sewage disposed of when there are no public or private sewers?
(66) How are buildings adjoining a new building braced during the excavation for new work?
(67) By what method is the nature of soil under foundations discovered?
(68) Explain the methods employed to divert water from foundation walls.
(69) What are cribs or caissons?
(70) What precautions can be taken to prevent the percolation of water through cellar walls and floors?
(71) Give the best method of laying (a) common brick; (b) pressed brick, (c) How are mortar joints finished?
(72) (a) What varieties of soil or strata are found in excavating for foundations? (b) Which makes the best foundation? (c) What weight per square foot will different soils carry?
(73) What are groined vaults?
(74) Why are hollow walls preferable to solid ones?
(75) (a) What is grouting? (b) What are the objections to its use?
(76) (a) What are enameled bricks and their uses? (b) How do pressed brick differ from common brick?
(77) What is the safe distributed load on a piece of blue-stone flagging 6 inches thick, 4 feet wide, and 8 feet between supports, taking the safe load as 1/10 the breaking load?
Ans. 2.68 tons.
(78) What materials are generally used for mortar stains?
(79) (a) Explain the different characteristics of cement and lime, (b) Give a brief description of their manufacture.