This section is from the book "A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol2: Masonry. Carpentry. Joinery", by The Colliery Engineer Co. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction.
(1) (a) State how changes of temperature affect the durability of stone, (b) Why is granite better than limestones and sandstones for damp situations? (c) Why should stone be laid on its natural, or quarry, bed? (d) What effect upon stone has rain falling through a smoky atmosphere?
(2) (a) What is ashlar? (b) State some of the points to be observed in laying it. (c) What are coursed and broken ashlar?
(3) (a) Describe porous tiling, and state in what way it is superior to dense tiling, (b) Where is dense tiling preferable?
(4) (a) In what respect does dolomite differ from ordinary limestone? (b) Mention some of the uses of marble, (c) Give a description of onyx.
(5) (a) Describe the method of applying the scratch coat of plaster, (b) Whence is its name derived?
(7) (a) What are plaster boards? (b) Name some of their advantages.
(8) (a) What is the advantage in using slip sills? (b) How should the top bearing surfaces at the ends of lug sills be cut? (c) Why is the method referred to in (b) preferable to a pitched top surface the entire length of the sill?
(9) (a) What are screeds? (b) Describe the method of applying the brown coat of plaster.
(11) A sandstone lintel is 9 inches in depth, 6 inches in breadth, and 5 feet between the supports. What safe uniformly distributed load will it sustain? Ans. 2,268 lb.
(13) (a) What are some of the advantages of terra cotta for exterior work? (b) How should pieces of terra cotta be tested before use? (c) How are cornices of terra cotta held in place?
(15) (a) What should be the qualities of sand for plastering purposes? (b) What is the object of using hair in plaster?
(16) (a) Name some of the principal parts of an arch. (b) Why are the ring stones sometimes made of greater height near the springing line than at the crown?
(19) (a) In cases where two arches spring from one column, what precaution should be made to prevent the lower voussoirs from becoming displaced? (b) About what should be the smallest distance allowable between the extra-dos of an arch and the corner of a wall?
(20) (a) How should the ring stones of an arch be cut? (b) What thickness of joint is allowed for different kinds of work?
(22) (a) What advantages have tiled partitions over those made of brick or iron? (b) Why is porous tiling preferable?
(23) (a) How is the direction of the joints found for a three-centered, or false, elliptic arch? (b) Give the simple method for finding the direction of the joints of a true elliptic arch.
(24) (a) What are the best proportions of lime paste and sand for plastering mortar? (b) Give the quantities of materials necessary for 100 square yards of the first two coats of plaster.
(25) (a) Why should soft stone be hammered as little as possible in dressing? (b) State the order of building stones in regard to fire-resisting qualities.
(26) (a) What is the object of plastering? (b) To what two kinds of bases is plaster applied?
(27) (a) Why is brick backing for ashlar better than stone? (b) When very thin ashlar is used, how is it held in place? (c) In laying ashlar, should it all be of the same thickness (not height) or of different thicknesses, and why?
(29) Describe the process of making staff.
(30) (a) In what way does an end-method arch differ from a side-method arch? (b) Name some of the objections to the first mentioned arch.
(31) (a) What is the carton pierre? (b) How is scagliola made?
(32) (a) How can stonework be cleaned? (b) Describe Sylvester's process of protecting stonework, (c) How should linseed oil be applied for this purpose?
(33) (a) Name some of the advantages of the Roebling floor. (b) How is the ceiling under this floor held in position?
(35) (a) What is the objection to using a light-colored stone in a city where the atmosphere is very smoky? (b) What are the best stones to use in such cases?
(36) (a) Describe the Columbian floor, arranged for level ceilings, (b) About how much does it weigh per square foot?
(37) (a) How are stone or brick arches supported during construction? (b) Why are wedges used?
(38) (a) Describe some of the different kinds of arches deriving their names from the curves of the intrados. (b) What is a stilted arch?
(39) Give the safe strength of different kinds of masonry.
(40) (a) Mention some of the methods of testing stone. (b) How can the absorptive power of stone be determined?
(41) (a) When are segmental tile arches used? (b) What are the advantages of the Fawcett ventilated floor?
(42) Describe (a) the Venetian-Gothic arch; (b) the Moorish arch.
(43) What is the Ransome system of concrete construction?
(44) What is rough cast, and how should it be applied?
(46) (a) How is rubble masonry usually measured? (b) How is ashlar measured? (c) How are moldings, etc. measured?
(47) (a) Mention some advantages of natural wall plasters over lime plaster, (b) What is Keene's cement?
(48) Mention some points in connection with plastering requiring the inspector's attention.
(49) (a) Name the constituents of granite, and mention some of its valuable qualities, (b) What are the differences between granite, syenite, and gneiss?
(50) What is whitewash, and why is it valuable?
(51) (a) How are girders and columns fireproofed? (b) Give some requirements of the Chicago building law in regard to column protection.
(52) Give the weight per cubic foot of the several kinds of building stone.
(53) Mention some uses of metal lath in wood construction.
(54) (a) What is "coarse" stuff? (b) Why should not sand and hair be added to the lime directly after the latter is made into paste?
(55) (a) Describe the plumb and how it is used.
(b) What are floats used for?
(56) Describe the method of laying floor tiling.
(57) Describe (a) the crandall; (b) the patent hammer;
(c) the bush hammer, (d) Mention some of the different kinds of chisels.
(58) (a) What are some of the defects in building stone to be guarded against by the inspector? (b) What is patching?
(59) (a) What is quartzite? (b) Why is a stone containing iron pyrites objectionable for outside construction?
(60) (a) Describe the manner in which a good rubble wall should be built, (b) What is coursed rubble?
(61) (a) What is a draft line? (b) What is the difference between drove and tooled dressing? (c) What is meant by "vermiculated "?
(62) Describe (a) the Roebling lath, and (b) the expanded metal lath.
(63) (a) How should pointing mortar be made? (b) How should it be applied, and how are the joints finished?
(64) (a) What is an entablature? (b) What is a pilaster? (c) In setting the pieces composing a column, what precautions should be taken?
(65) (a) Mention three classes of stone masonry. (b) What are the objections to convex and concave bed joints in stonework?
(66) Describe the construction of the Metropolitan floor.
(67) (a) What are plaster grounds, and what is their usual thickness? (b) Mention some reasons why the plasterer should examine the walls before applying the plaster.
(68) (a) Name some of the advantages of metal lath. (b) How is metal lath applied to woodwork?
(69) (a) Mention some methods of strengthening stone lintels, (b) What is a relieving lintel?
(70) (a) What is gauged stuff? (b) What is stucco?
(71) (a) Describe the process of machine mixing of concrete. (b) What are good proportions of cement, sand, and crushed stone for concrete walls?
(72) (a) What are quoins? (b) How should jamb stones be arranged?
(73) (a) Mention some things to be considered in putting on lath, (b) What is the objection to setting laths vertically on a wall?
(74) (a) What are templets? (b) What should be their least thickness?
(75) How should coping on gables be secured in place?
(76) (a) What are some of the qualities of a good lath? (b) What is the usual size of laths? (c) What is sheathing lath?
(77) (a) How is plastering measured? (b) What is the average cost of plastering?
(78) (a) How is plaster of Paris made? (b) Why is it used in plastering mortar?