See Chapter 16. also Thorns, Chapters 18. and 9. Special mention was made of the beautiful evergreen thorn, C. Pyracantha and its variety Lalandii, as splendid plants for low walls, not least because they hold their berries all through the winter and do well in town gardens; another variety called crenulata is also offered. These evergreen Thorns are splendid for walls with a north or east aspect. Of the deciduous species, coccinea, Crus-Galli (Cockspur Thorn) and Oxyacantha are the most important. Azarolus, Carrierei, cordata, Douglasii, flava, heterophylla, Korolkowii, melanocarpa, nigra, orientalis, punctata and tanacetifolia are also met with. Coccinea has white flowers and bright red fruit; corallina, corallina nova and maxima are garden varieties of it. Crus-Galli has long, curved thorns; arbutifolia, Layi, ovalifolia, prunifolia, pyracanthifolia and splendens are garden varieties of it. Douglasii is an early species with white flowers.

Oxyacantha is the common Hawthorn or Whitethorn; there are many good garden varieties of it, notably aurea, yellow berries; coccinea plena (Paul's double scarlet), one of the best for a small standard tree; foliis-argenteis, silvery leaves; fructu-luteo, yellow fruit; multiplex, double white; pendula, drooping; praecox, early (the Glastonbury Thorn); punicea, scarlet; and rosea, pink. A selection of these should be grown in every garden. Standards three or four years old should be set among shrubs. The Thorns are not fastidious as to soil. For hedge Quick, see Chapter 24. The Blackthorn is not a Crataegus but a Prunus, species spinosa. The lover of Thorns may soon have a selection of the best American Hawthorns, introduced through the Arnold Arboretum in America, at his service, such as Arnoldiana, Baxteri, coccinoides, Dunbari, Durobrivensis, Ellwangeriana, ferentaria, formosa, Holmesiana, Laneyi, pedicillata, Pringlei and spissiflora.