Rosa gallica,

Linne.

The dried petals, collected just before the expansion of the flower.

Habitat. W. Asia, S. Europe; cultivated (England, Holland, France, United States, etc.).

Syn. Rosa Gall., French Rose, Provins Rose; Br. Rosae Gallicae Petala, Red Rose Petals, Flores Rosarum Rubrarum; Fr. Rose rouge - de Provins, Roses rouges; Ger Franzosische Rose, Essigrosen-(blatter), Zuckerrose.

Ro'sa. L. fr. Gr.

Rosa Gallica Red Rose 371

Eng. rose, fr. Celtic rhos, red - i. e., the prevailing color of the flowers.

Gal'li-ca. L. gallicus, of or pertaining to Gaul, now France - i. e., country where once it flourished extensively - French rose.

Plant. - Bushy shrub, .6-1 M. (2-3°) high, stems numerous, covered with prickles and a few sharp spines; leaves alternate, imparipinnate, 2 pairs opposite leaflets, these nearly sessile, ovate, rounded at base, acute at apex, serrate, stiff, keeled, rugose, with veins, pale, hairy below, leaf-serratures not edged with glands; flowers large, on long stalks, petals 5 in the wild state, more when cultivated, rich-crimson; fruit (hip) scarlet to orange-red, oblong, containing many 1-seeded achenes, calyx persistent. Petals, either separate or imbricated in small cones, broadly ovate, summit rounded, deeply notched, margin entire, somewhat recurved, base obtuse, purplish-red except the light brown claw; texture velvety; when dry brittle; odor agreeable; taste astringent, slightly hitter. Powder, reddish-brown; microscopically - epidermal cells with purplish-red content (sap), fragments of fibro-vascu-lar bundles, spiral tracheae, rectangular cells with purplish content (sap). Solvents: boiling water; diluted alcohol. Dose, gr. 15-00 (1-4 Gm.). Commercial. - Plant, in its many species and varieties, very largely cultivated domestically as well as commercially; petals are obtained by circumcising with a sharp knife the unopened corolla-buds, leaving the stamens behind on the calyx; or the entire blooms are cut off with knives or scissors, dried carefully but rapidly by stove heat (in order to preserve astringency and color), sifted, if necessary, from stamens, etc., and marketed; early collection is more astringent and of better color, qualities impaired by slow drying. It is claimed that 1000 flower-buds yield 50 pounds (23 Kg.) of fresh petals, which when dried become 5 pounds (2.3 Kg.). Adulterations. - Petals of various red roses. Constituents. - Volatile oil (trace), mucilage, tannin (querci-tannic acid?), gallic acid, quercitrin, quercetin (astringent and coloring), sugar, ash 3.5 p. c.

Preparations. - 1. Fluidextractum Rosae. Fluidextract of Rose. (Syn., Fldext. Rosae, Fluid Extract of Rose; Fr. Extrait fluide de Rose rouge; Ger. Essigrosenfluidextrakt.)

Manufacture: Similar to Fluidextractum Ergotae, page 60; 1st menstruum: alcohol 50 Ml. (Cc.), water 40, glycerin 10; 2nd menstruum: diluted alcohol. Dose, xv-60 (1-4 Ml. (Cc.)).

Prep.: 1. Mel Rosae. Honey of Rose. (Syn., MellitumRosatum; Fr. Mellite de Roses rouges, Miel Rosat; Ger. Mel rosatum, Rosenhonig.) Manufacture: 12 p. c. Mix fluidextract of rose 12 Ml. (Cc.) with clarified honey q. s. 100 Gm. Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 Ml. (Cc.)). Prep.: 1. Massa Hydrargyri (33 p. c.) - 32 p. c. 2. Aqua Rosae Fortior. Stronger Rose Water. (Syn., Aq. Ros. Fort., Triple Rose Water, Aqua Rosae; Fr. Eau distillee fort de Rose; Ger. Starkeres Rosenwasser.)

Manufacture: The saturated aqueous distillate from fresh flowers of Rosa centifolia. It is colorless, clear, strong, pleasant odor and taste of fresh rose blossoms, free from empyreuma, mustiness, or mucoid growths; neutral, slightly acid; evaporate 100 Ml. (Cc.) - residue .001 Gm.; no reaction with hydrogen sulphide T. S., or sodium sulphide T. S. (abs. of metallic substances). Should be kept cool, dark, in bottles stoppered with a pledget of purified cotton. Dose, 3ij-8 (8-30 Ml. (Cc.)).

Preps.: 1. Aqua Rosas. Rose Water. (Syn., Aq. Ros., Aqua

Rosarum; Fr. Eau distillee de Rose; Ger. Rosenwasser.) Manufacture: Mix, immediately before using, stronger rose water, and distilled water, recently boiled, each 1 volume. Dose, 3 ij - 8 (8-30 Ml. (Cc.)). 2. Unguentum Aquce Rosae. Ointment of Rose Water. (Syn., Ung. Aq. Ros., Cold Cream; Fr. Creme froide; Ger. Unguentum leniens - emolliens.)

Manufacture: Melt, in fine pieces, spermaceti 12.5 Gm., white wax 12 Gm., add expressed oil of almond 56 Gm., stir, heat until uniform; add gradually stronger rose water 19 Gm., previously warmed and having dissolved in it sodium borate

.5 Gm., stir rapidly and continuously until congealed and uniform; must be free from rancidity, and if chilled should be warmed slightly before incorporating other ingredients.

Unoff. Preps.: Confection, 8 p. c. (red rose 8, sugar 64, clarified honey 12, stronger rose water, heated, 16), dose, 3ss-l (2-4 Gm.).

Infusion, 3-5 p. c. Compound Infusion, 1.5 p. c. (+ diluted sulphuric acid 1, sugar 4.5, water q. s.), dose, ℥ ss-2 (15-60 Ml. (Cc.)). Infusum

Rosae Acidum (Br.), 2.5 p. c, + diluted sulphuric acid 1.25 p. c., water q. s. Syrup, 12.5 p. c. (fluidextract, + diluted sulphuric acid 1, sugar 75, water q. s., dose, 3j-2 (4-8 Ml. (Cc.)).

Properties. - Similar to tannin; tonic, mild astringent, carminative.

Uses. - Uterine and other hemorrhages, aphthae, ulcers of mouth, ears, anus, inflamed eyes, chapped hands, burns, flavoring vehicle, perfumery; ointment - soothing, emollient application to the skin, chapped hands and lips, abrasions, ulcers, frost-bite, etc.

Allied Plants: