Adolf Hermann Schlagintweit, and Robert, German travellers, the first born in Munich, May 13, 1826; the second born Jan. 9, 1829, killed in Kashgar, Aug. 26, 1857; the third born Oct. 27, 1833. While at the university Hermann and Adolf made explorations of the Alps, and published the results in their Unter-suchungen über die physikalische Geographie der Alpen (Leipsic, 1850). After spending some time in England and Scotland, they renewed in 1851 their explorations of the Alps, visited Piedmont and Savoy, and devoted themselves especially to observations and measurements in the vicinity of Monte Rosa. They were the first to ascend the highest peak of this mountain (Aug. 23, 1851), and to make an accurate measurement of its elevation; and they remained for 14 days on its S. W. slope, at a height of 10,000 ft. In 1852 they explored the Bavarian Alps, where in 1853 also Adolf made geological observations. The results of their researches were published in Neue Unter-suchungen über die physikalische Geographie und die Geologie der Alpen (illustrated, Leip-sic, 1854). In the same year they produced two maps in relief of Monte Rosa and of the Zugspitze, the highest peak in Bavaria. At the suggestion of Bunsen and Humboldt, Hermann and Adolf were invited by the East India company to make an expedition for magnetic and other scientific observations in India; and they sailed from Southampton, Sept. 20, 1854, in company with their brother Robert, reaching Bombay Oct. 26. The most important result to magnetic science was the discovery that the isodynamic lines, which run due E. with little variation from the Arabian sea to the Indian archipelago, are violently deflected in central and southern India, and make a sharp southward curve.
On March 25, 1855, Adolf and Robert started for the Himalaya mountains. After examining the glacier of Milum, more than 10 m. long and 3,000 ft. broad, they entered Thibet, and investigated the glaciers of Ibi-Gamin, one of its highest mountains, ascending to an elevation of 22,260 ft. Returning, the three brothers explored the country in different directions, and met at Simla in the spring of 1856. They set out together for new researches in the Himalaya, but soon took different courses, Adolf reaching Lanskar in Thibet on June 26, while his brothers proceeded across the Karakorum and Kuenlun ranges. They met at Serinagur, separated once more, and again came together on Nov. 17 at Rawal-Pindi. Robert then returned to Europe by way of Mooltan, Bhooj, and Bombay, and Hermann by way of Nepaul and Calcutta. Adolf decided to pursue his researches a year longer in Thibet and Tur-kistan, and proceeded to Kashgar, whence he intended to penetrate into Siberia, but was slain there, for some unknown reason, by the inhabitants. His journal, containing 135 pages of closely written notes, was recovered in September, 1861, by Lord William Hay, civil commissioner in Cashmere. The whole extent of the travels of the brothers Schlagintweit was about 18,000 miles.
Hermann and Robert arrived safely in Berlin, and settled at Jägers-burg near Forchheim, where they have deposited their valuable collections of about 2,000 minerals and fossils, a large herbarium, zoological and ethnographical specimens, embracing 275 casts of the faces and 37 of the hands and feet of the tribes which they visited, and an atlas of 750 original views. Reports of their travels were published during their absence in the principal geographical journals of Europe. The surviving brothers are preparing a complete narrative in English entitled "Results of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia, undertaken between the Years 1854 and 1858; with an Atlas of Panoramas, Views, and Maps." Five volumes of this work have been published: the first giving astronomical determinations of latitudes and longitudes, and magnetic observations (Leipsic, 1861); the second, the general hyp-sometry of India, the Himalaya, and western Thibet, edited by Robert (1862); the third, a route book, with geographical glossary, edited by Hermann (1863); and the fourth and fifth giving the meteorology and physical conditions of India (1866 and 1873). Hermann, who received in 1864 from the emperor Alexander II. the surname of Sakänlunski (Transkuen-lunian), is now (1875) writing an elaborate work based on the results of his travels and those of his brothers, under the title of Reisen in Indien und Hochasien, of which 4 vols. have appeared (Jena, 1869-74). Robert pub- lished in 1869 a collection of poems from various German poets, entitled Poetische Bilder aus alien Theilen der Erde; and after extended travels on the American continent, he wrote Die Pacific-Eisenbahn in Nordamerika (1870), and Californien, Land und Leute (1871). - Eduard, another brother (born March 8, 1831,. died in the battle of Kissingen, fighting in the Bavarian army, July 10, 1866), published a work based on his observations in the Spanish-Moroccan campaign of 1859-'60, entitled Der spanish-marokkanische Krieg (Leipsic, 1863). - Emil, a fifth brother (born July 7, 1835), has devoted himself to oriental studies, and written "Buddhism in Tibet" (in English, Leipsic, 1863), Die Gottesurtheile der Indier (Munich, 1866), and Die Könige von Tibet, von der Entstehung königlicher Macht in Yálung bis zum Erlöschen in Ladák (or about 50 B. C. to 1834 A. D.), published by the royal Bavarian academy in 1866.