Pine (Lat. pinus), the most numerous genus among coniferous trees, distinguished from all others by its foliage, which consists of needle-shaped leaves in clusters of two to five, surrounded at the base by some of the withered bud scales which form a sheath around them. Some authors include in the genus pinus the trees known as firs, spruces, hemlock spruces, cedars, larches, etc. (which most botanists place in separate genera), making so large a genus that these rank as subgenera; in this case the subgenus including the pines is characterized by the arrangement of the leaves just referred to. American botanists keep the genera distinct, and include in pinus only those which have the clustered leaves, a character accompanied by others of more botanical importance. These needle-shaped leaves, which make up the foliage of the pines, are not the first leaves produced upon the stem; if the young growth of a pine be examined, it will be found clothed with thin chaff-like scales, the primary leaves of the stem, from the axils of which appear the clusters of green, needle-like leaves, which are really suppressed branches, as may be seen more distinctly in the larger clusters of the larch.
When there are but two leaves in a cluster they are semi-cylindrical, and when there are three or more they are triangular. The male catkins are clustered at the base of the shoot of the season; the flowers are reduced to a single stamen, having a very short filament with its connective (or part of the filament to which the anther cells are attached) expanded to form a scale, and the sterile catkins really consist of numerous overlapping anthers, crowded on an axis; the two anther cells open lengthwise and discharge an abundance of pollen, which consists of three united grains. The fertile or female catkins are immediately below the terminal bud, or lateral on the young shoot, solitary or several together, consisting of numerous imbricated capillary scales (or open pistils), each in the axis of a persistent bract; at the base of each scale is a pair of ovules which are inverted, i. e., have the foramen or structural apex pointing downward. In ripening to form the cone the scales of the catkins become hard and woody, and with some exceptions thickened at the apex; each has at its base two nut-like seeds, which are more or less sunk in cavities at the base of the scale; when the seed leaves the scale it usually carries away a portion of the lining attached to it as a wing, much more conspicuous in some species than in others.
The cones do not mature until the autumn of the second year after flowering; when perfectly ripe and dry the scales spread apart to liberate the seed, after which in some species the cones themselves fall, but in others they are persistent. The embryo has more than two cotyledons, sometimes as many as 12; some botanists regard these as two cotyledons divided. - The pines, with the exception of one species in the Canaries, are confined to America, Europe, and Asia, and are more abundant in the temperate and cooler portions of these, where they form large forests. No trees are so useful to the arts of civilized life as these, as they not only furnish in abundance kinds of wood for which there is no proper substitute, but their other products are of great utility; the abundant juice of some species, which consists of a resin dissolved in a volatile oil, affords turpentines of various-kinds, spirits of turpentine, rosin, tar, pitch, and other minor products. In several species the nuts are edible, and are not only eaten by wild animals but collected for food.
In ornamental planting pines are exceedingly useful, as they present a great variety of habit and foliage, from species which never rise above a few feet up to those with trunks large enough for a ship's mast. - In arranging the species of the Atlantic states according to the number of leaves in a cluster, but one is found with its leaves in fives, viz., P. strobus, the common white pine; in England, from its having succeeded admirably at the seat of Lord Weymouth, who planted it largely, this is universally known as the Weymouth pine. It extends from about 54° N. to the mountains of Georgia, and from Nova Scotia to the Rocky mountains, and in the north it reaches nearly to the Pacific. Along our northern borders it once formed extensive forests, but the few of these which still remain yearly diminish before the lumberman's axe; it is the tallest tree of the eastern states, specimens of 120 to 150 ft. being common in the primitive forests, and some have been felled which measured 223, 250, and 264 ft.; growing in the dense forest where nature does her own pruning, a clear trunk of 70 to 90 ft. without a branch was formerly not rare; the forests of Maine have furnished many masts of these lengths.
The bark, except upon old trunks, is quite smooth; the cones, which are cylindrical and narrow and often curved, are 4 to 6 in. long, and fall soon after shedding their seed; they are unlike the cones of all other species of the same region in having their scales scarcely if at all thickened at the apex, and wholly destitute of any point or prickle; these characters of the cone and the five leaves in the cluster readily distinguish it from any other species. In some specimens the wood of the white pine is quite free from resin, while others contain a considerable quantity; for these peculiar differences the lumbermen have distinguishing names, such as pumpkin pine, bull sapling, etc, which are not known elsewhere; the wood, though lacking in strength and decaying readily when exposed, is so easily worked, and receives paint so well, that it is adapted to a wide range of uses, and is in more general demand than any other wood, especially for interior work; its lightness and the great length of clear trunk it affords make it suitable for masts, and for the framework of bridges and buildings. While the' trunk soon decays when exposed, the roots are remarkably durable, and in clearings remain perfectly sound after those of trees with much more durable wood have disappeared.
As a tree for planting for timber, it has great value, as it is of very rapid growth, instances being known in which the annual increase of the trunk in diameter was nearly an inch; besides this, its timber is increasing in value as the native forests rapidly disappear. It is much prized as an ornamental tree, being perfectly hardy and succeeding in any location not too damp; its light open top makes it less majestic than some other pines, but it has a grace and beauty not possessed by them; its color is in fine contrast with that of other species, and its long leaves, always kept in motion by the air, make a pleasing sound. There are varieties with silvery foliage, and a dwarf variety which forms a broad flat top. - In the section of pines with three leaves in a sheath we have four species, the most valuable of which is the long-leaved or southern yellow pine (P. aus-tralis), which for usefulness ranks next to the white pine; it is readily distinguished from all our other pines by the great length of its leaves, which measure from 10 to 15 in., are bright green, from a long light-colored sheath, and are crowded at the ends of the branches; the cones, often 10 in. long, are of a fine brown color and have thick scales, each of which bears a small recurved prickle.
This species, which extends from North Carolina southward, often forms the entire growth on large tracts known as pine barrens, which are especially abundant in Georgia and Florida; it is rarely found over 120 m. from the coast; its average height is about 75 ft.; the naked trunk shoots up 50 or 60 ft., dividing at the top into a few spreading branches; the trunks for two thirds of their height have an average diameter of 15 to 18 in.; the scales of the bark are very thin. The trunk has a remarkably small proportion of sap or new wood, the greater portion being heart, with the concentric circles of very equal width, and the wood very evenly charged with resin; the quantity and color of the wood is much modified by the character of the soil; it is very strong, compact, and durable, and being close-grained takes a fine polish; under the name of Georgia pine, it is in great demand for ship building, flooring, and other uses, and is sometimes used for interior work, simply varnished, and in time it takes on a warm reddish brown color.
As with other very resinous pines, whenever the tree is injured and vegetation ceases, the wood in a few months becomes surcharged with resin, and is then called "fat pine;" this often takes place where a branch is broken off, the resinous deposit continuing to the heart of the tree and forming a pitch knot. Besides the great value of the wood, still more important are the products known as naval stores, turpentine, rosin, tar, and pitch, the preparation of which is described under their proper titles. Among the minor uses to which the tree is put is that of a substitute for brooms, the tuft of long leaves at the end of a branch of a young tree serving when tied for that use, whence it is sometimes known as the broom pine. The fat wood, especially the knots, are very generally used by the poorer classes in the pine districts for illuminating purposes. The seeds, which in all the rest of our pines are black, have a white skin, and the kernel has a pleasant flavor; they are not produced every year, but in fruitful seasons they are shed in great abundance in October, and are greedily eaten by swine, wild turkeys, and other animals.
The fallen leaves, which cover the ground in immense quantities, are known as pine straw; it has been proposed to compress them into blocks for fuel, and attempts have been made to convert them into a fabric. - Another southern species of the three-leaved section is the loblolly, or old-field pine (P. tceda), which occurs from Delaware to Florida, growing in less sterile soil than the long-leaved pine. One of its common names expresses the fact that it springs up in old fields; the land, having been cultivated until it is no longer profitable, is thrown out to be taken possession of by this tree and numerous weeds. The tree grows 80 or 100 ft. high, with a diameter of 2 or 3 ft., and has a wide-spreading top; the bark is thick and furrowed; the light green leaves 6 to 10 in. long; the elongated-oblong cones 3 to 5 in. long, the scales tipped with a stout incurved spine. The trunk has a very small heart, and the timber is of very poor quality; though it shrinks, warps, and cracks badly, it is considerably used in the southern states for building.
This species is hardy at Philadelphia. - The pitch pine (P. rigida) ranges from Maine to Georgia, and is found in a great variety of situations and under very different forms; while in some northern localities it is only 12 or 15 ft. high, in other places it forms a large tree 70 ft. high; the trunk has a very rough dark-colored bark; the leaves are 3 to 5 in. long, very dark green, with short sheaths; the cones, often in clusters, are ovate, 1 to 3 1/2 in. long, the scales with a stout recurved prickle. Sometimes the tree forms a clear trunk, and the wood is soft and nearly free from resin, but generally the wood contains a large amount of resin, and consequently is very hard; when vigorous growth ceases the wood becomes fat, or pitch wood, as in the long-leaved pine; the wood is much used in ship building, for water wheels, pump and water logs, and many other uses; formerly, when more abundant, tar and lampblack were made from it. The dark green of the foliage is pleasing, but there are so many other pines superior to it that it is not to be commended for ornamental planting.
The pond pine, which some botanists rank as a species (P. serotina), is probably only a variety of the pitch pine (P. rigida, var. serotina), the principal difference being that it has somewhat longer leaves and more rounded cones; its wood is of little value. - Among our pines having the leaves two in a sheath, only two species are of much economical value. The yellow pine, or, to distinguish it from the southern yellow pine, the short-leaved yellow pine (P. mitis), grows from New Jersey to the gulf of Mexico, and is usually from 50 to 60 ft. high, though specimens have reached 90 ft., with a straight trunk, and, where it can develop, a handsome conical head, which has caused it to be called in some localities spruce pine; the slender leaves from long sheaths, 3 to 5 in. long, sometimes occur in threes, connecting this section with the preceding; the ovate cones are barely 2 in. long, the scales with a minute prickle; the wood is finegrained, and, when deprived of the readily perishable sap wood, remarkably durable; it is used for ships' masts and spars, and for flooring, and is in demand for various purposes at home and abroad; that grown upon poor soil is more durable than that grown on a more fertile one.
The fine shape of this tree, and the peculiar bluish green of its foliage, make it one of the most ornamental of our native pines. The red pine (P. resinosa) is found from Canada to Pennsylvania in dry localities; in New England it is often incorrectly called Norway pine, a name which belongs to a European spruce. The tree seldom forms forests, but is scattered among other species, and in favorable localities reaches 80 ft., with a trunk of very uniform diameter; the bark, much less rough than that of the pitch pine, is red; the leaves, 5 to 6 in. long, are of a rich dark green and much crowded at the ends of the branches, giving the tree a distinct character, unlike that of any other northern species; the cones, about 2 in. long, are ovate, terminal, and fall after shedding the seed, the scales without any prickles; the wood is less resinous than that of the pitch pine, and is in strength and durability intermediate between that and white pine. The young trees are especially handsome and worthy of a place in large plantations. - The Jersey or scrub pine (P. inops) occurs in poor sandy soil from New Jersey westward and southward, rarely growing more than 30 or 40 ft. high, and is of a straggling habit; the old bark is dark and rough, while that on the young branches is covered with a purplish or violet bloom; the leaves 2 to 3 in. long; cones 2 to 3 in. long, oblong conical, the scales tipped with a recurved or straight, awl-shaped, rigid prickle; the tree is of little value.
The gray or northern scrub pine (P. Banhsiana) is found along our northern border, and extends further northward than any other of our pines, growing within the arctic circle; it sometimes reaches 20 or 30 ft., but is usually much lower, frequently straggling over the ground and only 3 to 5 ft. high; its leaves are an inch long, grayish green, and the usually curved Cones not over 2 in. long; the wood, said to be very light and tough, is used by the Indians in constructing canoes. The spruce pine (P. glabra) is a little known and very local species in South Carolina and Florida; it is 40 to 60 ft. high, with leaves 3 to 4 in. long, and cones about 2 in. long; it branches from the ground, and has a smoothish bark and a soft white wood. The only remaining eastern species is the Table mountain pine (P. pungens), which is restricted to the mountains of North Carolina, Virginia, and a few localities in Pennsylvania; it grows 40 to 50 ft. high; the leaves, which are stout, are about 2 1/2 in. long, of a bluish color; the ovate cones 3 in. long, the scales with a very strong hooked spine. This is distinguished from all other pines by the length of time the cones remain upon the tree; they may often be found attached to branches of 20 years' growth.
The species has no especial value. - The pines of the Rocky mountains and westward to the Pacific are more numerous than in the eastern region, and, especially those accredited to Mexico, are in much botanical confusion, from which the monograph on the genus in preparation by Dr. Engelmann is expected to extricate them. Only the more important species are enumerated, and these are grouped, like the others, according to their leaves. Among the species with quinate leaves, or five in a cluster, the awn-coned pine (P. aristata) is noticeable for its truly alpine character, it being found on the higher peaks of the Rocky mountains, never at less than 9,000 ft. altitude; it occurs as a straggling bush, or as a tree of 40 or 50 ft., according to situation; its leaves are from 1 to 1£ in. long, and remarkably persistent, remaining on the tree in some cases for 16 years; the oval cones, about 2 1/2 in. long, have each scale terminated by a slender, incurved point; the tree is of very slow growth and long life, a branch about an inch in diameter showing 50 annual rings, and the wood of the larger trees shows an age of about 500 to 800 years.
The American Cembran pine (P. flexilis), so called because it is the representative in this country of the Cembran pine of the old world, is also an inhabitant of the alpine regions of 'the Rocky mountains at from 7,000 to 11,000 ft.; it has much the appearance of the eastern white pine, with white, hard, slowly grown wood; it rarely grows over 50 ft. high; has cones 4 or 5 in. long with edible seeds. The sugar pine (P. Lambertiana) is found from the Mexican border, along the mountains, to the Columbia river; this is one of the grand trees of the Pacific region, in groves growing 200 ft. high and 10 ft. in diameter, and isolated specimens reach 300 ft. with a diameter of 20 ft.; the leaves, about 3 in. long, are bluish green; the cones are from 12 to 18 in. long, 3 to 4 in. in diameter, slightly curved, and with thin scales; seed edible. The wood, much like that of the white pine, is preferred for inside work to all others of the region; the resin is clear, and that which exudes from partly burned trees loses all terebinthinate taste, and becomes sweet; it is used as a substitute for sugar, but oftener for its slightly cathartic properties, in which as well as in appearance it resembles manna. The tree promises to be valuable in cultivation in the eastern states.
The mountain pine (P. monticola) is another species much resembling our white pine, and common in the mountains of northern California and Oregon. - Among the prominent species with three leaves is the great-hooked pine (P. Coulteri, Don; P. macrocarpa, Lindl.), about the identity of which there has been some discussion, some regarding it as only a variety of Sabine's pine. . It is found in the mountains of various parts of California, where it grows 80 to 100 ft. high; its leaves are 9 in. long, and the cones, which are the largest of any in the genus, are a foot or more long, 6 in. in diameter at the middle, and weigh about 4 lbs.; the scales terminate in a recurved and compressed spine 3 or 4 in. long; the large and flat seeds are edible. Sabine's pine (P. Sabi-niana), also called nut pine in California, is another species with enormous edible-seeded cones; it is found very generally in California and extends into Oregon. It has a more spreading habit than most pines; leaves 10 to 14 in long; cones 8 to 10 in. long, the scales ending in a sharp curved point; the wood is not especially valuable, but the seeds are of great importance to the Indians, who depend upon them for a large part of their food.
The western yellow pine (P. ponderosa) is the most abundant and most widely distributed of the pines of California and Oregon, and often grows 100 ft. high; its leaves are from 9 to 12 in. long and much tufted at the ends of the branches; the ovate cones 3 1/2 in. long; the wood is heavy and resinous, but less valuable than that of the sugar pine. The New Mexican nut pine (P. edulis) is abundant in parts of New Mexico, Arizona, and northern Mexico; its usual height is about 30 ft.; its foliage short and curved; the cones, scarcely 2 in. long, contain large edible seeds, which the Mexicans call pinones; these are collected in large quantities and sold at fairs and festivals as peanuts are with us. - Several extra-American pines are common in cultivation; of those with the leaves in fives are the Bhotan and Swiss stone pines. The Bhotan pine (P. excelsa) is from the Himalaya at elevations of 6,000 ft. and upward; it is so like our white pine as to have been considered a variety of that species; it has much longer leaves and a denser habit; it is not altogether hardy, but where it will succeed it is one of the most ornamental of pines.
The Swiss stone pine (P. Cembra) is from the Alps at elevations of 4,000 ft. and over, where it forms large forests; its height is about 50 ft.; its leaves are 2 to 3 in. long, and its ovate erect cones 3 in. long; these, when full grown and yet unripe, are of a bright purple color and very ornamental. The tree is well suited to our climate, being perfectly hardy, forming a handsome cone of foliage, with branches quite to the ground; its chief objection is its very slow growth; its variety pygmcea seldom grows higher than 3 ft. The remaining exotic pines cultivated for ornament belong to the two-leaved division;,the best known of these is the Scotch pine (P. sylvestris), more commonly but incorrectly called Scotch fir; it is widely distributed over northern and central Europe and Russian Asia; it is indigenous to the highlands of Scotland, and is naturalized in parts of England; it occupies a similar position as to usefulness to that of the white pine with us, and besides its supplying timber, large quantities of tar are made from it in northern Europe; it is a very rapid grower; its leaves, from 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 in. long, are bluish green, and twisted; the cones from 2 to 3 in. long, curved at the point.
It adapts itself to a great variety of situations, but, being more picturesque than beautiful, is not suited to small places. The Austrian pine (P. Austriaca), from the mountains of Lower Austria and neighboring countries, grows in its native localities 120 ft. high, and is much valued for its timber; its leaves, from 3 to 5 in. long, are straight, rigid, and dark green; the cones about 3 in. long, conical, of a rich glossy brown. The tree has an exceedingly robust expression, which makes it very effective, and it is generally hardy and successful in all situations. Among the other exotic pines desirable for cultivation are the Corsican (P. laricio), the Mugho pine (P. Mu-gho), a dwarf, the stone pine (P. pinea), the dwarf pine (P. pumilio), and the Pyrenean pine (P. Pyrenaica), an account of which, and of numerous other less known species, and their adaptability to our climate, will be found in " The Book of Evergreens," by Josiah Hoopes (New York, 1868). - Pines are usually propagated from seeds, which should always be kept in the cones until sown; young pines, like other seedling conifers, are very delicate the first year, and need shading and protection from excessive moisture.
Pines can very seldom be raised from cuttings, but the rarer kinds are sometimes grafted upon seedlings of the commoner species, it being important to choose as stocks those which have the same number of leaves in a cluster with the. one to be grafted. Our nurserymen have the seedlings which are to serve as stocks potted, and insert the scion by means of a side graft, keeping the pots under glass until the union is well established. In France the herbaceous graft is practised, grafting young and succulent wood upon a stock in a similar condition. Pines which have been raised in a nursery and frequently transplanted, may be removed with as much certainty as other trees, provided their roots are properly packed; if the resinous sap in the roots is once allowed to dry, no care can save the tree..
Pine - Flowers and Seed. - 1. Staminate aments. 2. Anthers, front and rear view. 3. Pollen. 4. Pistillate ament. 5. Open pistil, the left-hand figure showing the back with attached bract, the other the front with ovules. 6. Ripe pistil or cone scale, with the ovules developed into seeds. 7. Seed. 8. Germinating embryo with several cotyledons.
White Pine (Pinus strobus).
Cone of Sugar Pine (Pinus Lambertiana).
Cone of Great-hooked or Coulter's Pine (Pinus Coulteri), about one quarter natural size.
Western Yellow Pine (Pinus ponderosa).
Cone of New Mexican Nut Pine (Pinus edulis).
Cone of Scotch Fine (Pinus sylvestris).
Pine, an E. county of Minnesota, separated on the S. E. from Wisconsin by the St. Croix river; area, about 1,450 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 648. It is watered by Kettle and Snake rivers and other tributaries of the St. Croix, and is traversed by the Lake Superior and Mississippi railroad. The land is rolling, elevated, and productive. Capital, Chengwatana.