Gerard De Lairesse, a Flemish painter, born in Liege in 1640, died in Amsterdam, July 28, 1711. At the age of 16 he was a successful painter, and received large prices for his pictures; but dissipation kept him in poverty until he removed to Amsterdam, where he rose to fortune and reputation. At the age of 50 he became blind, but he dictated his discourses on the theory and practice of painting, which were published under the title of Groot schil-derboeh (Amsterdam, 1707). He excelled in subjects drawn from mythology, particularly bacchanalian scenes.
See Gérard de Nerval.
Gerard Lake, viscount, an English general, born July 27, 1744, died Feb. 20, 1808. He successively served in the seven years1 and the American war, and under the duke of York in Holland, became general, and was commander-in-chief during the Irish rebellion of 1797-8.
In 1800 he went to India in the same capacity, and achieved victory after victory during the Mahratta war (1803), storming Alighur, occupying Delhi and making the old and blind Mogul emperor Shah Allum the vassal of England, capturing Agra, and winning a decisive battle near Laswaree (Nov. 1), which brought the districts N. of the Chumbul into British possession, and for which he was made a baron (Sept. 1, 1804). Subsequently he was engaged in warfare against Holkar (1804-'5), and after his return to England he was made a viscount, Oct. 31, 1807. The third viscount, Warwick Lake, dying June 24, 1848, without male issue, the title became extinct.
Gerard Mercator, a Flemish geographer, born at Rupehnonde, March 5, 1512, died in Duisburg, Dec. 2,1594. He learned engraving, and ( harles V. employed him on maps. In 1559 he was appointed cosmographer to the duke of Juliers and Cleves. He published descriptions and maps of Europe, France, Germany, the Kritish isles, and the world. His method of laying down charts and maps, by a projection of the surface of the earth in piano, is still in use. The most important of his works are: Chronologia a Mnndi Exordio ad 1508 (Cologne, 1569); Tabula Geographical ad Mentern Ptolcmad restitutm (1578); Be Creatione ac Fabrica Mundi, a treatise prefixed to the uniform edition of his maps (1594); and Atlas, sive GeographicalMeditationes deFabricaMun-di etfabricati Figura (Duisburg, 1595).
Gerard Terburg, a Dutch painter, born in Zwolle in 1608, died in Deventer in 1681. He painted cabinet size conversation pieces, musical parties, and ladies at their toilets. In 1648 he painted a picture of the plenipotentiaries assembled at the congress of Minister, which led to his being invited to Madrid by Philip IV. He excelled in color and the finishing of his draperies, especially white satin.
Gerard Troost, an American chemist and geologist, born in Bois-le-Duc, Holland, March 15, 1776, died in Nashville, Tenn., Aug. 14, 1850. He was educated at the university of Leyden, and in 1809 was sent by Louis Bonaparte, king of Holland, on a tour of scientific observation in Java. The capture of the vessel by a privateer interrupted this undertaking, and in 1810 he settled in Philadelphia. He was one of the founders of the academy of natural history, and its first president from 1812 to 1817. In 1814 lie established the first alum works in the United States; and in 1825, having held for a short time the professorship of chemistry in the college of pharmacy in Philadelphia, he joined Robert Owen's community at New Harmony. In 1828 he was appointed professor of chemistry, mineralogy, and geology in the university of Nashville, and in 1831 geologist of the state of Tennessee. He published reports on the geology of Tennessee, and memoirs on geology and mineralogy.