Cadiz. I. A S. Province Of Spain, being the part of Andalusia bounded N. by Seville, E. by Malaga and the Mediterranean, S. by the straits of Gibraltar and the Atlantic, and W. by the Atlantic and the Guadalquivir, which separates it from Huelva; area, 2,806 sq. m.; pop. in 1867, 417,346. It is hilly and mountainous, being traversed by the Sierra Nevada. Only a part is under cultivation. About 24,000 acres are vineyards, and the finest wines of Spain are produced near Jerez. The principal rivers are the Guadalquivir, the Salado, and the Guadalete. The railway from Seville to Cadiz traverses the western part of the province. The principal towns are Cadiz, Puerto de Santa Maria, San Lucar de Barameda, Jerez de la Frontera, Arcos de la Frontera, and Al-geciras. II. The capital of the province, situated upon a promontory which extends N. W. into the Atlantic from the Isla de Leon, in lat. 36° 81' N., Ion. 6° 17' W., 310 m. S. W. of Madrid; pop. about 72,000. The Isia de Leon is separated from the mainland by a narrow channel, the Rio de Sahti Petri, at the entrance of which from the ocean is the fort of Santi Petri. On the right of the railway from Seville as it approaches the city are the forts of San Luis, Puntales, and Matagorda. The railway passes over a low and narrow isthmus to the rocky point on which the city is built.

On the opposite side of the bay enclosed by this isthmus and point are Puerto de Santa Maria, at the mouth of the Guadalete, and the fort of Santa Catalina. The city is surrounded by walls, and is one of the most strongly fortified places in Spain. The lighthouse of San Sebastian, on the W. or ocean side, is 172 ft. high from its base, and may be seen 20 m. out at sea. On the east, outside of the ramparts, is the principal promenade, the Alameda. The city has a clean appearance on account of the white stone used in building. Many of the houses are surmounted by observatories called miradores. The streets are narrow, but regularly laid out; the finest is the calle Ancha, which contains the lolsa, or exchange, and is connected with the principal square, the plaza San Antonio. The city is divided into four quarters, containing 6 great and 23 smaller squares, and 260 streets. It has 2 cathedrals, 7 churches, 13 convents, 2 theatres, and a hull ring. There are some fine paintings in the city. Mu-rillo fell from the scatfold while painting a picture which is in the convent of San Francisco, and died from the effects of the fall. The casa de misericordia is a large hospital, and there are other charitable institutions. There are also a custom house, colleges, a drawing academy, and an observatory.

The climate of the city is hot, and it is at times rendered uncomfortable by the winds from Africa. The manufactures are not of much importance, but fans, mantillas, gloves, guitars, and sweetmeats are made. Its chief importance is commercial. The harbor is excellent, although changes produced by the action of the river Guadalete and other causes tend to obstruct its entrance. Upon the discovery of America Cadiz attained great commercial importance. It was the port from which the trade with the Spanish colonies was carried on; but when these colonies became independent Cadiz lost much of its commerce. Its position, however, at the entrance of the Mediterranean and at the southern end of the peninsula renders it still commercially the most important port of Spain. Its business has been increased by the opening of the railway from Seville, and by improvements which have been made in the harbor. Merchandise destined for Seville is commonly unloaded here. The principal articles of import are sugar, coffee, cocoa, spices, indigo, rice, wheat, salt fish, butter, cheese, hides, cotton, wool, linen, iron, brass, glass, and earthenware. Among the exports are fruits, brandy, barilla, cork, lead, quicksilver, raw silk, paper, silk and woollen manufactures, and lace.

Wine is, however, the main article of export; the value shipped from Cadiz and the other ports around the bay in 1864 was $6,300,000. Cadiz is the starting point for Spanish mail steamers for the colonies in America, Africa, and the East; there are also lines of steamers to England, Gibraltar, Lisbon, Marseilles, Havre, Amsterdam, and Hamburg. - Cadiz was founded about 1100 B. C. by the Phoenicians, who called it Gadir. Before the second Punic war it belonged to the Carthaginians, but in 206 B. O. surrendered to the Romans, who changed the name to Gades. The remains of a temple of the Phoenician Her cules, and some other edifices of the ancient city, are still visible at low water. It fell into the hands of the Goths, from whom it was taken in 711 by the Arabs, who held it till 1262, when it was taken by the Spaniards. It was long known by the name of Cales to the English, by whom it was taken and sacked in 1596; the booty was immense; 13 ships of war and 40 huge treasure galleons were destroyed, causing almost universal bankruptcy in Spain. It was unsuccessfully attacked by the English in 1625, was blockaded by Admiral Blake in 1657, and was again unsuccessfully attacked by the English in 1702. From 1810 to 1812, when it was the seat of the central national junta, it was invested by the French, who raised the siege upon the approach of Wellington. In 1823 it surrendered to the duke of Angouleme, after a siege, which was the closing operation of the French intervention in favor of Ferdinand VII. It has since been conspicuous for its liberalism in several crises of Spanish affairs.

The first movement in the revolution which overthrew the throne of Queen Isabella took place at Cadiz, Sept. 17, 1868.

The Alameda at Cadiz.

The Alameda at Cadiz.