Cumberland, the name of eight counties in the United States. I. A S. W. county of Maine, bordering on the Atlantic, and bounded N. E. by the Androscoggin river; area, about 990 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 82,021. The coast is indented by a number of bays, the principal of which, Casco bay, affords facilities for navigation and the fisheries hardly surpassed on the Atlantic coast. The surface of the county is diversified by several small lakes. From Seba-go pond, the largest of these, a canal has been opened to the ocean. The soil is fertile and well cultivated. It is the most populous county in the state, and is traversed by the Portland division of the Grand Trunk railway of Canada, the Portland, Saco, and Portsmouth, the Maine Central, the Portland and Rochester, and the Portland and Ogdensburgh railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 11,719 bushels of wheat, 510,207 of potatoes, 154,360 of Indian corn, 77,406 of oats, 31,656 of barley, 88,461 tons of hay, 69,844 lbs. of cheese, 1,060,811 of butter, and 48,295 of wool. There were 5,985 horses, 13,354 milch cows, 4,890 working oxen, 8,775 other cattle, 13,413 sheep, and 5,201 swine. There are numerous manufactories, of which the greater part are in Portland, the county seat.

II. A S. W. county of New Jersey, bounded S. W. by Delaware bay, and E. by Tuckahoe creek; area, 480 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 32,898. With the exception of some ranges of hills, the surface is generally level. East of Cohansey creek the soil is light, sandy, and overgrown with pine forests; west of the creek it is composed of clay and sandy loam. Marl is obtained in this part, and Greenwich township has some iron mines. The West Jersey railroad, Bridgeton branch, and the Vine-land railroad traverse it. The chief productions in 1870 were 140,549 bushels of wheat, 507,539 of Indian corn, 98,079 of oats, 203,886 of Irish and 216,987 of sweet potatoes, 27,712 tons of hay, and 209,140 lbs. of butter. There were 3,439 horses, 4,444 milch cows, 3,372 other cattle, 3,821 sheep, and 5,369 swine; 6 manufactories of iron, 4 of glassware, 1 of cotton goods, 1 bleaching and dyeing establishment, 4 for canning fruits and vegetables, 8 flour mills, 10 saw mills, 1 woollen factory, 6 of wood work, 1 of straw goods, 8 of bricks, 3 of boots and shoes, and 6 ship-building establishments.

Capital, Bridgeton. III. A S. county of Pennsylvania, lying chiefly within the Kittatinny or Cumberland valley between Blue and South mountains; area, 545 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 43,912. The Susquehanna river flows along its E. boundary, and the Conedogwinit creek intersects it. Superior limestone exists here in profusion, and iron ore has been found. The soil is rich, and agriculture flourishes. It is traversed by the Cumberland Valley, the South Mountain Iron Company's, the Pennsylvania Central, and the Northern Central railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 809,046 bushels of wheat, 1,106,633 of Indian corn, 1,131,724 of oats, 160,688 of potatoes, 57,761 tons of hay, 858,471 lbs. of butter, and 28,139 of wool. There were 10,178 horses, 11,423 milch cows, 11,118 other cattle, 7,861 sheep, and 23,680 swine; 22 manufactories of carriages and wagons, 9 of iron, 5 of paper, 13 tanneries, 34 flour mills, 8 manufactories of agricultural implements, (3 of boots and shoes, 10 establishments for currying leather, 1 distillery, and 3 planing mills. Capital, Carlisle. IV. A central county of Virginia, bounded S. E. by the Appomattox and N. by the James, and intersected by Willis river; area, 310 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 8,142, of whom 5,433 were colored.

The surface is uneven, and the soil was originally productive, but is now in some places worn out. The chief productions in 1870 were 72,082 bushels of wheat, 64,257 of Indian corn, 42,945 of oats, and 956,855 lbs. of tobacco. There were 684 horses, 851 milch cows, 1,416 other cattle, 1,005 sheep, and 3,329 swine. Capital, Cumberland Court House. V. A S. central county of North Carolina; area, about 1,680 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 17,035, of whom 7,515 were colored. It is intersected by Cape Fear river, and in great measure occupied by forests of pitch pine. Turpentine and lumber are exported by means of steamboats down Cape Fear river. The soil is generally good, and the surface considerably diversified. About half of the county lies within the hilly and granite region of North Carolina; the remainder is low and level. A railroad runs from Fayetteville to the coal fields in Chatham county. The chief productions in 1870 were 142,-203 bushels of Indian corn, 13,491 of oats, 57,-361 of sweet potatoes, and 484 bales of cotton. There were 743 horses, 2,025 milch cows, 4,235 other cattle, 4,724 sheep, and 12,695 swine; 3 cotton factories, 2 carriage factories, 2 flour mills, and 23 turpentine distilleries.

Capital, Fayetteville. VI. An E. central county of Tennessee, drained by Emery's river and Caney fork of the Cumberland; area, 700 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 3,461, of whom 98 were colored. The surface is hilly or mountainous. The chief productions in 1870 were 42,377 bushels of Indian corn, 9,115 of oats, 12,357 of potatoes, and 57,679 lbs. of butter. There were 527 horses, 964 milch cows, 2,105 other cattle, 4,466 sheep, and 10,311 swine. Capital, Crossville. VII. A S. county of Kentucky, bordering on Tennessee, bisected by Cumberland river; area, about 375 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 7,690, of whom* 1,509 were colored. The surface is hilly near the river, and the soil moderately fertile. There is a remarkable oil spring near the river. The chief productions in 1870 were 20,523 bushels of wheat, 243,840 of Indian corn, 43,300 of oats, 64,948 lbs. of butter, and 1,304,366 of tobacco. There were 1,427 horses, 1,075 milch cows, 2,381 other cattle, 6,789 sheep, and 16,883 swine. Capital, Burksville. VIII. A S. E. county of Illinois, intersected by Embarras river; area, 310 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,223. It is diversified by forests and prairies, and the soil is fertile.

The St. Louis, Vandalia, Terre Haute, and Indianapolis railroad passes through it, and the Chicago division of the Illinois Central intersects the N. W. corner. The chief productions in 1870 were 85,247 bushels of wheat, 403,075 of Indian corn, 171,880 of oats, 9,372 tons of hay, 68,653 lbs. of butter, and 34,421 of wool. There were 3,570 horses, 2,328 milch cows, 3,645 other cattle, 12,132 sheep, and 10,058 swine; 10 sawmills, and 1 woollen factory. Capital, Prairie City.