I. Jean Baptiste Henri, a French Roman Catholic divine, born at Recey-sur-Ource, Cote d'Or, May 12, 1802, died in So-reze, Nov. 22, 1861. He was the son of a physician who had served in America under Rochambeau, was educated at Dijon, followed the prevailing impulse that was animating young men against the tendencies of the restoration, distinguished himself alike by the earnestness of his liberal opinions and by a peculiar obstinacy of character, and graduated in 1819 with the highest university honors. While studying the law at Dijon, he continued to attract notice by his intellectual power and anti-Catholic enthusiasm, especially as an orator in the literary societies. In 1821 he went to Paris to practise as a stagiaire, and for 18 months was employed as assistant to an advocate at the court of cassation. He also pleaded several cases with great success. But suddenly he abandoned the bar to enter the seminary of Saint Sulpice as a student of theology. He explains this change by saying that the soul of a young man " demands only a great cause to serve with great devotion." His social theories.
doubtless, prepared his return to the Catholic faith, his aim being to revive society by the instrumentality of religion and the church. While in the seminary his ardent piety was alike dissatisfied with the Cartesian philosophy and the Gallican liberties, the former granting too much to human reason, the latter verging to schism, neither being absolute enough. Yet he preserved in his new calling all the love of liberty which had animated his youth, linking it with the vital idea of Christianity, and his peculiar tendencies attracted the notice of his superiors both before and soon after he was ordained to the priesthood in 1827. He was appointed successively chaplain in a convent, in the college of Juilly, and in that of Henry IV. At Juilly he formed the acquaintance of Lamennais, who then advocated extreme ultra-montanism in religion and radicalism in politics; and his doctrines had such an influence on Lacordaire, that he has been called "one of Lamennais's best works." In 1830 Lacordaire and Montalembert associated themselves with Lamennais in founding L'Avenir, a journal whose motto was Dieu et la liberte, and which was devoted to the maintenance of the absolute authority both of the pope and the people.
The bold theories and violent tone of this journal caused the editors to be brought before the civil courts, where Lacordaire's eloquence obtained a verdict of acquittal. He thereupon demanded that his name should be placed on the list of advocates; but the court decided that this was not consistent with his priestly functions. With Montalembert and De Coux he immediately opened a free school without the authorization of the government. The school was closed by the police, and Montalembert, happening just then to become by his father's death a peer of France, was summoned together with his associates before the chamber of peers, to answer for their infraction of the law. They spoke each in his own defence, and were sentenced to pay a fine. The political and religious reforms advocated by L'Avenir were condemned by Gregory XVI. in September, 1832. Lamennais, who had gone to Rome with the other editors for the purpose of averting this blow, replied to it shortly afterward by publishing his Paroles d'un croyant. But the others submitted to the papal sentence, and Lacordaire, separating himself for ever from Lamennais, wrote a pamphlet declaring his unqualified obedience to the Roman see.
In 1834 he began his first course of lectures (conferences) in the chapel attached to the college Stanislas. Though severely censured by many, their impression on young men particularly was so great that Archbishop De Quelen invited the preacher to deliver the Lenten course in the cathedral of Notre Dame in 1835. His sermons were admired not less for their literary excellence and a sort of romantic tone than for their religious fervor. "He knows more of literature," said a severe critic, "than of history, more of history than of philosophy, and more of philosophy or even politics than of religion;" and in his conferences all the social questions which had recently agitated France were discussed with an ability and splendor of style that attracted the most eminent men of letters. After two years of success, he again went to Rome in 1836, for the purpose, as was said, of studying theology, and there wrote his Lettre sur le saint siege, a solemn argument and protest against the doctrines of L'Avenir. He had already conceived the plan of reviving or founding a religious order in France, and after preaching in 1838 in Notre Dame he returned again to Rome, entered the order of the Dominicans and the convent of the Minerva, passed his novitiate in the convent of Quercla, wrote his Vie de Saint Dominique (Paris, 1840; new ed., 1858; translated into Spanish, Polish, and German), and in 1841 resumed his chair at Notre Dame, a friar preacher with shaved head and white robe.
He preached afterward in the principal cities of France, reestablishing the order of Dominicans, and displaying a new style of eloquence, which excited at once surprise and enthusiasm. On the outbreak of the revolution of 1848, being elected to the constituent assembly, he appeared there in his Dominican habit, and took his place on "the mountain," two benches from Lamennais, but soon gave in his resignation when he found that his reconstructive theories would have little chance in the conflicts of partisan politics. On Feb. 10, 1853, he preached a charity sermon in the church of St. Roch in behalf of the city poor schools. His theme was the formation of true manhood by education. He said toward the conclusion: "He who uses base means even for a good purpose, even for the salvation of his country, is still a scoundrel. There is no need of an army to stop my speech; a single armed man is sufficient. But God has given me, for defending my words and the truth that is in them, a something which can withstand all the empires of earth." He was commanded forthwith to quit Paris. He resigned shortly afterward his office of provincial of the Dominicans in France, ceased to preach in public, and devoted himself exclusively to the direction of the college of So-reze, which belonged to himself.
He wrote in 1858 that the new provincial and the general of his order had completely set him aside, and were laboring to ruin his influence among the French Dominicans. After the death of Alexis de Tocqueville, Lacordaire was elected his successor by the French academy; and in his inaugural discourse, Feb. 2, 1860, he made a glowing panegyric of American free institutions. Till the end of his life he united with Montalembert and Bishop Dupanloup in denouncing Louis Veuillot's manner of defending the interests of the Roman Catholic church. Among his works are: Considerations jyhiloso-phiques sur le systeme de M. de Lamennais (1834); a Memoire pour le retablissement en France de l'ordre des freres precheurs (1840); Conferences de Notre Dame de Paris, 1835-'50 (4 vols., 1844-'51; those on "God" and "Christ" translated into English by Henry Langdon, New York, 1871); Lettre a un jeune homme sur la vie chretienne (1858); De la li-oerte de l'ltalie et de l'Eglise (1861); and Let-tres d des jeunes gens (1862). His complete works have appeared in 6 vols. (Paris, 1858). Count de Falloux has published Correspondance du pere Lacordaire et de Madame Swetchine (1865). - See Montalembert, Lepere Lacordaire (8vo, Paris, 1862); Chocarne, "Inner Life of Pere Lacordaire" (8vo, London and New York, 1867); Villard, Correspondance inedite et biographie dupere Lacordaire (Paris, 1870); De Lomenie, Galerie des contemporains illus-tres; and Sainte-Beuve, Lacordaire orateur, in Causeries du Lundi.
II. Jean Theodore, a French naturalist, brother of the preceding, born at Recey-sur-Ource, Feb. 1, 1801, died in Liege, Aug. 31,1870. He studied law in Dijon, but from his love of natural science made four different voyages to South America between 1825 and 1832. He visited the Argentine republic, Chili, the Brazilian provinces of Per-nambuco and Rio de Janeiro, and French Guiana, and afterward travelled through the interior of Senegal. Toward the close of 1832 he was attached to the editorial staff of the Temps in Paris, and wrote for several scientific periodicals. In 1835 the Belgian government appointed him professor of zoology in the university of Liege; in 1838 he became professor of comparative anatomy, and in 1850 dean of the faculty of sciences. Among his numerous publications are: Introduction a l'ento-mologie (2 vols., Paris, 1834-'7); Faune ento-mologique des environs de Paris (1835); and Histoire naturelle des insectes: genera des coleopteres (8 vols., 1854-'68).