Language And Literature Of Japan. The Japanese language belongs to the polysyllabic branch of the Mongolian division. In a narrower sense, it has neither common descent with nor family relationship to the Chinese, and it is entirely different in its grammatical structure. Like other languages, it has undergone important changes, as may be seen upon comparison of the language as now spoken with that in the ancient books, which is only intelligible to those who make these books a special study. The native language is the same whether written or spoken, though the colloquial differs in several respects from the best literary style; the latter is more concise, and still retains some of the archaic forms of the verb and auxiliary words. The common colloquial abounds in interjectional and onomatopoetic words and particles, uses a more simple inflection of the verb, and makes a greater use of honorific and polite terms. The dialectical variations in different parts of the country consist mainly in the different pronunciation of some of the syllables, and in the use of provincialisms.
The dialects of some of the more remote regions, as Satsuma, are not easily understood by the people of Tokio (Yedo); but these differences are not greater than are common in all the languages of Europe, and are by no means so great as in China. - The Japanese vocabulary has been greatly enlarged and enriched by the introduction of Chinese words, all taken from the Chinese written language, and not from the colloquial, which has never been spoken in Japan except by a few interpreters at Nagasaki. So extensively have these words been introduced, that for almost every native word the Japanese have an equivalent Chinese word. But in common usage the names of things, family relationships, and the words which express the wants, feelings, and concerns of every-day life, are for the most part native words; while the technical, philosophical, and scientific terms are Chinese. The Chinese words abound most in the higher class of literary composition, in letters, governmental documents, and philosophical works, as well as in the conversation of the higher and educated classes; while native words are more current in the literature intended for the common people, by whom, and especially by the women, the native tongue is spoken in its greatest purity.
The grammatical structure of the language has not been affected by the introduction of Chinese words. The latter retain their integrity, undergoing no change or inflection of any kind, but are woven into a sentence by means of native words, or auxiliary words and particles, which indicate the cases of the nouns, form of the adjective, and moods and tenses of the verb. The Japanese have endeavored to preserve the Chinese sounds of the characters; but, as in transliterating these sounds they of necessity used their own syllables, the pronunciation has in many cases been altered, but with no greater variation from the mandarin sounds of the characters than in many of the dialects of China. Unfortunately for the learner, three systems of pronunciation are used. One, called the Go-on (from that state in China which had the highest political influence at the time), was introduced when the Chinese language first became a subject of study by the Japanese, about A. D. 286. Another, called the Kan-on, was introduced in the 7th century; and another, called the To-on, in more recent times. The Go-on pronunciation is most current among the Buddhists and the common people, while the Kan-on is used mainly by the Confucianists, the government, and the literary classes.
The Japanese have formed or invented many ideographs, after the manner of the Chinese, to designate things or words in their own language for which there were no equivalent characters in the Chinese. They also attach meanings to many of the characters different from the Chinese, and use them in a different way to suit the grammatical requirements of their native tongue. There are three general styles of literary composition in use. One is pure Chinese, in which none but Chinese characters are employed, and the grammatical construction is in accordance with the Chinese idiom. Frequently in this style marks or signs are used along the line of the characters to designate the order in which they should be read in translating the sentences into the Japanese language, or to suit the native idiom. Another, and the most common, is that in which the Chinese characters are used to a greater or less extent, mixed with native words written with their own letters, and where the structure and idiom are purely Japanese. Most of the literature intended for the unlearned and common reader is in this form. There is still another, written almost entirely in the native character, with little or no admixture of Chinese, intended for the use of women and children and uneducated persons.
There is no reason to believe that the Japanese possessed letters or characters with which to write their own language previous to the time of the introduction of the study of Chinese into their country. The weight of evidence as well as of authorities is against the statement of some authors who advocate this opinion, and even produce an ancient alphabet, which however is too artificial in its form and structure to warrant the belief that it is anything more than the invention of some person of modern times. If they ever had an alphabet or syllabary more ancient than the present one, it has certainly not been used for many centuries, and there are no books now extant written in this character. It was after the Japanese had begun to study and read Chinese books that the syllabary now in use was formed, and when we may also believe they began to reduce their native language to writing. This syllabary was of gradual growth, and not the invention of any one person. In their earliest writings the Chinese characters were used, in the same composition, in a double capacity: phonetically, to express merely Japanese syllabic sounds; and signifi-catively, to express in the native language the idea contained in the character.
As phonetics they were first used especially to write the names of persons, places, postpositions, and auxiliary words and particles. The characters were also first used in their entire form, unabridged; but being found too cumbrous and inconvenient, they were simplified in form, and rendered more easy to read and more expeditious in writing, in two ways: one, called hira-kana, by writing the whole character in a very abridged or contracted form and in a cursive style; the other, called kata-kana, by taking a part only of the character, consisting generally of two or three strokes, to express the sound of the whole. These two forms have no resemblance to each other. The hira-kana is the kind of letter commonly used, especially in books intended for the common people and the uneducated classes. The kata-kana has been little used, except in dictionaries to define the meaning of Chinese characters, or in scientific and philosophical works. In the hira-kana there are also several ways of writing the same letter, differing in being more or less contracted, as well as several different letters to express the same syllabic sound, making the acquisition of the written language extremely troublesome. - The Japanese letters are 48 in number.
Each letter represents a syllabic sound, excepting the last or n sound, which is only used as a final consonant, and is not included by the Japanese in their syllabary, which they always speak of as containing 47 syllables. The syllabary or alphabet is called iroha, from the first three letters; and this is also the first word of a series forming three sentences in which the letters have been arranged to facilitate their acquisition. The kata-kana signs of the iroha are derived from Chinese characters, the latter, which are prefixed in the following table, being also used as capitals:
ti, tsi chi
i, wi, yi
e, we, ye
The following is the iroha in hira-kana, with the Chinese characters from which the Japanese are derived prefixed:
i, wi, yi
ti, tsi, chi
e, we, ye
In the transcription the sounds of the consonants are the same as in English, and the vowel sounds as in Italian (a as in father, e like a in fate, i as in machine, u like oo in moon), except in the syllables tsu, su, and dzu, where the u is a close sound, like the french u. The syllabary consists in full of 72 syllabic sounds, including the final n; but excluding this, and several others which, though having different letters to represent them, are really the same sound, and are constantly interchanged with each other by the natives, the number of distinct syllabic sounds is reduced to 68. These are divided by the Japanese into 44 pure (sei-on), and 24 impure (daku-on) syllables. The latter are not included in the syllabary, and are as follows: ba, pa, euphonic changes of ha; to, po, from ho; be, pe, from he; do, from to; ji, from chi or shi; ga, from ka; da, from ta; zo, from so; dzu, from tsu or su; gu, from ku; ge, from ke; bu, pu, from fu; go, from ko; de, from te; za, from sa; gi, from ki; hi, pi, from hi; ze, from se. The impure syllables are represented by the characters for the corresponding pure ones, with diacritical marks added; thus ba is written by the letter ha with two dots over the right shoulder, and pa by the same letter with a small circle in the same place.
In analyzing the Japanese syllables, we find they have 5 vowel, a, e, i, o, u, and 19 consonantal sounds, b, ch, d,f g, h,j, h, m, n, p, r, s, sh, t, ts, w, y, and z. They have not the sounds of l, qu, v, th, or x, and the people find it very difficult to make them. All the syllables of the native words end in a vowel, except the future tense of the verb, which now ends in a final n, though anciently it was written with the character for mu, and there is reason to believe it was so pronounced. In all other cases the final n is only used in spelling Chinese words. The syllables commencing with the weak aspirates h and f, or with y, when preceded by another syllable, for the most part lose their consonants, and their vowels combine with the vowel of the preceding syllable, sometimes forming a diphthong; thus a-hi becomes ai, pronounced like the long English i; a-fu becomes au, pronounced like ow in cow. Sometimes the sound of the first vowel is reduplicated or lengthened; thus nu-fu becomes nun, written nu; i-hi becomes ii; yo-fu becomes yd. In Chinese words, the vowel of the first syllable and the consonant of the second are often both elided in pronunciation; thus chi-ya is pronounced cha; shi-yo, sho.
The syllable tsu, when preceding the consonants k, s, p, and t, is elided, and the consonant of the syllable following is doubled; thus batsu-hun is pronounced bakkun; matsusugu, massugu. Ku, when followed by a syllable beginning with k, loses its vowel; thus bahu-ha is pronounced bakka; koku-ka, kokka. - The Japanese language has no article. The noun has no inflections; case, gender, and number are designated by words or particles either prefixed or affixed to the noun. The case is designated by postpositions, as follows: nominative, wa or ga, as neko wa, a cat; genitive, no or ga, as neko no, of a cat; dative, ni, ye, ni oite, as neko ni, to a cat; accusative, wo, as neko wo, a cat; vocative, yo, ya, kana, as neko yo, O Cat; ablative, kara, yori, de, nite, wo motte; as neko de, by a cat. The number is not designated except when it is emphatic. When the noun is used without any words to mark its number, it is to be taken in a generic or abstract sense; thus kami may mean one god or all the gods; tsuki, one month or many months. If the number is very great and indefinite, it is expressed by sen, 1,000, or ban, 10,000; thus, ban-koku, all countries; ban-motsu, everything. The plural is also designated by su, several, and sho, many or all.
All these are Chinese. The plural is formed by duplicating the word, as ware-ware, we; hito-bito, people; tokoro-dokoro, places; also by the words domo, tachi, ra, nado, nazo, and for Chinese words shu and to, following the noun. Gender is designated, when it must be expressed, by the words otoko, male, and onna, female; as otoko no ko, a male child, boy; onna-gami, a female divinity, goddess; also in Chinese words by nan, niyo; as nan-shi, a boy, niyo-shi, a girl. In the case of animals and birds the gender is designated by prefixing me and o (contractions of mesu, female, and osu, male), as me-ushi, a cow, o-ushi, a bull; men-dori, a hen, o-tori, a cock. By prefixing ko (a child), a class of diminutive nouns is formed; as ko-bune, a little boat; ko-ushi, a calf; ko-ishi, a pebble. Also o (a contraction of okii, great, big) is used as an amplifying prefix; as o-bune, a large boat, o-kaze, a tornado; o-ame, a storm of rain. Nouns expressing abstract qualities are formed by suffixing the particle sa (a contraction of sama, state, condition) to the root form of the adjective; as shiro, white, shirosa, the whiteness; taka, high, takasa, the height. - The root forms of verbs are also nouns; as yorokobi, joy; urami, hatred.
The word te, hand, added to the roots of verbs, denotes the agent of the action expressed by the verb; as kai-te, the buyer, uri-te, the seller. Nouns are also formed by adding the word kata, side, mode, to the root form of verbs; as shi-kata, way of doing, koshi-kata, the past. The attributive form of the adjective is often treated as a noun. Many compound nouns are formed: 1, by joining together two nouns, as karasu-hebi, a black snake (literally, crow-snake); 2, by an adjective and noun, as shiro-gane, white metal, silver; 3, by a noun and verb, as asa-ne, morning sleep; and 4, by a verb and a noun, as hiki-ami, a seine. The Chinese nouns are declined or take the postpositions in the same way as the native words. - The words classed or used as pronouns are numerous, and may be divided into personal, demonstrative, interrogative, reflexive, indefinite, and distributive. There are no relative pronouns; where in English a relative pronoun is used, in Japanese the person or thing is put in direct subjection to the verb, which acts as an attributive adjective; as tegami wo kaku hito, a man who writes letters (literally, letter-writing-man). In conversation as well as in books personal pronouns seem to be carefully avoided, in this respect agreeing with the custom of the Chinese. In books especially it is often difficult to distinguish the speaker, the person spoken of, and the person spoken to.
This is indicated mainly by the style of language employed, which varies with the rank or social position of the person addressed or spoken of. Most of the words used as personal pronouns are such as express humility on the part of the speaker, and honor the person addressed. - The ancient Japanese cardinal numbers are: fto, h'to, one; f'ta, two; mi three; yo, four; t itsu, five; mu, muyu, six; nana, seven; ya, eight; kokonotsu, nine; too, once ten; > , so, termination of tens; momo, hundred; fo, termination of hundreds; tsi, thousand; yorodzu, ten thousand. With the exception of these, the Japanese use the Chinese numerals, as well as the Chinese systems of weights, measures, and notation of time. The adjective is not inflected to indicate either case, gender, number, or comparison. But in order to express its relation to other words as an attributive, predicative, or adverb, it takes as suffixes to its root form the syllables i or ki, shi, and ku; thus, the form samu, cold, as an attributive is samui or samuki; as a predicative, samushi; and as an adverb, sa-muku. In the colloquial the terminal syllable i is used also to express the predicative form; as fuyu ga samui, the winter is cold. The comparative degree is denoted by means of the words yori, from, and nao, more, yet; as yuki wa kami yori shiroshi, snow is whiter than paper, or nao yoi, better. The superlative is expressed by the aid of certain adverbs: mot-, tomo, indeed; itatte, exceedingly; goku or shi-goku, superlatively; hanahada, iio, very; dai-ichi-no, or ichi-ban, number one.
Chinese words take the attributive adjective form by means of the auxiliary words naru and na, as kon-kiu naru hito, a poor man; or when qualifying another Chinese word, merely by preceding it, as guwai koku, a foreign country. Adjectives are formed from nouns by the use of the postposition no; as uso no hanashi, a false story; ishi no iye, a stone house; also by suffixing to them the word rashii or rashiki, like, or gamashii; as onna-rashii, womanlike; oto-ko-rashii, manlike. They are formed from verbs by means of shii (a contraction of shiki, to spread); thus from osore, to fear, is formed osoroshii, fearful. Several forms of the verb act also as attributive adjectives, viz., the indicative present in u or ru, the preterite in ta, taru, and shi, and the negative indicative in nu, earn, and negative preterite in ji. Many adjectives take the substantive verb ari as a suffix to the adverbial form, and are conjugated like a verb; thus samuku, the adverbial form of samu, and ari, to be, becomes samukaru, to be cold; preterite samukatta, was cold; future or dubitative, samukaro; negative present, samukaradzu, is not cold; negative preterite, samukunakatta, was not cold.
In construction the attributive adjective, and also the adverbial form, always precede the noun and the verb which they qualify. - The verb has no inflection to express either number or person; but in polite language, by the use of certain particles or auxiliary words prefixed or joined to the root form, the personal relations of the verb may be distinguished, as well as by the form and kind of verb used. The verb has transitive, intransitive, causative, passive, potential, negative, and desiderative forms; for example: transitive, age, to raise or lift up; intransitive, agari, to rise of itself or go up (contraction of the root age and substantive verb ari); causative, agesaseru, to cause another to raise (by joining saseru, the causative form of suru, to do, to the root age); passive or potential, agerareru, to be raised, or can be raised (from root age and passive of substantive verb areru, which is also a contraction of ari, to be, and yeru, to get, thus literally meaning, get-to be-raised); negative, agenu, not raise (from age and nu, a contraction of naku, not to be); desiderative, agetai, wish to raise (from age and tai, desirous). The verbs are divided into three conjugations, have past, present, and future tenses, and indicative, imperative, conditional, conjunctive, and concessive moods, and present participles.
The action of the verb becomes reciprocal by joining the verb au, to meet, join, to the root; as uchi, to strike, uchi-au, to strike each other. In compound verbs, which are numerous, the first element takes the root form and is subordinate to the last, expressing the manner in which its action is performed; as nusumi-toru, to take by stealth; tobi-odsuro, to jump down. In a sentence the subject as well as the object of the verb always precedes it. - Besides the adverbial form of the adjective, there is a large class of adverbs formed from nouns by the use of the postpositions ni and de, or by duplicating the word; as nichi, day, nichi-nichi, daily; toki, hour, toki-doki, hourly or often. The present participle is frequently used adverbially; as hajimete, at first; kesshite, positively. The adverb and an adverbial clause precede the verb which they qualify. What are called prepositions in English should in the Japanese be classed as postpositions, since they always follow the word to which they are related; as Yedo ye yukita, has gone to Yedo. This relation is also frequently expressed in Japanese by a compound verb; as ido ni tobi-komu, to jump into a well.
Copulative and disjunctive conjunctions are numerous, but they are mostly expressed by the conjunctive, conditional, or concessive moods of the verb. There are a few verbs, such as soro, keri, shiku, and sari, the moods and tenses of which are used only as conjunctions. The colloquial especially abounds with interjectional, emotional, and onomato-poetic words, which, though impossible to define or translate, are very expressive and add grace and life to the language. - The most accessible Japanese grammar is that of J. J. Hoffmann (English ed., Leyden, 1868). - Literature. No means exist for determining the precise age of the most ancient monuments of Japanese literature, but there is little doubt that both prose and poetical compositions existed previous to the introduction of the Chinese method of writing. This is asserted to have taken place in the 15th year of the mikado Ojin (A. D. 284) through the medium of a Corean named Ajiki, who gave some instruction to the heir apparent. The statement occurs in the Nihongi, one of the earliest historical works extant, which was composed about the year 720. The Nihongi contains so much that is evidently fabulous, especially in relation to the ages of the personages mentioned in it, that it cannot be relied on for the accuracy of its dates; and there is very good reason to believe that the introduction of the Chinese language took place considerably later than is usually supposed.
It is stated, on the other hand, that the Japanese possessed from ancient times an alphabet of their own, which they abandoned for the Chinese ideographic writing; but 'this assertion, absurd enough by itself, is denied by the best authorities. It follows therefore that the most ancient compositions, namely, the verses of poetry given in the Kojiki and Nihongi, and the norito or liturgies read at the festivals of the native Shinto gods, were handed down orally. It happens unfortunately that at the period when they came to be written down the Chinese character was preferred to the kana, only recently introduced, and the real text is often difficult to ascertain. I. Standard Histories. Japanese bibliographers make history the first division of their literature. The most ancient historical work, which is at the same time the earliest written document extant, is the Kojiki, in three volumes, composed at the command of the mikado in A. D. 711-12, by Yasumaro. It is said to have been preceded by two similar works which were composed respectively in 620 and 681, but neither of these has been preserved.
The book called Kujiki, which purports to be the former of these, and the work therefore of the celebrated Shotoku Taishi and Soga no Umako, is a forgery of later date, as is shown by the fact that it contains passages from the Kogoshiui, a book composed in 808, and mentions the mikado Saga (809-842). The Kojiki begins by relating the foundation of the heavens and earth, and the first volume is entirely occupied by the events of the mythological period. The second and third volumes contain the history of the mikados from Jimmu Tenno down to the empress Suiko Tenno, whose reign ended in 628. It is written with Chinese characters, some of which represent whole Japanese words (mana), and others merely separate sounds of the syllabary (kana), and in general conformity with Japanese idiom. Old manuscripts of this work are extremely rare, and the earliest printed copy is dated Kuanyei (1624-'42). A most valuable commentary on it was compiled by the learned Motoori Norinaga toward the end of the 18th century, under the title of Kojikiden. The next most ancient work of the kind is the Nihongi or Nihonshoki, which was also composed at the command of the reigning mikado, and completed in 720, by a commission presided over by the prince Toneri Shinno. It differs very much from the Kojiki in being composed in a purely Chinese idiom, and the poetry which occurs here and there is all that it contains of Japanese. This fact explains the abundance of Chinese philosophical notions which are found in it throughout, but notably at the very commencement, where the pure Japanese tradition of the creation is preceded by one of Chinese origin.
Still this book has always been much more read than the Kojiki, and all the ordinary histories are founded on it. The first two volumes contain the mythological period; the remaining bring the annals of the mikados down to the 11th year of the empress Jido Tenno (699). It is somewhat curious that, although the mythological part contains numerous references to "other documents," the remainder is a simple unsupported narration. The Shoku Nihongi, in 20 volumes, contains the history of the mikados from the first year of the reign of Mommu Tenno (672-686) down to the end of the 10th year of Kuammu Tenno (782-806), a period of 120 years. It was composed at the command of the mikado Kuammu, about the year 797, by Sugano no Mamichi, Fujiwara no Tsugunawa, and others. The Nikon Koki, in 10 volumes, was composed in 841 by Fujiwara no Fuyutsugu, at the command of the mikado Nimmio (833-850), and contains an account of the events between the years 792 and 823. About one half of it has been lost. The Shoku Nihon Koki was composed about 869 by Fujiwara no Yoshifusa, Harusumi, and Yoshinawa, at the command of the mikado Seiwa Tenno; it is in 20 books, and contains the history of Nimmio Tenno's reign.
The Montoku Jitsuroku was composed about 879 by Fujiwara no Mo-totsune, Urabe no Yoshika, and Sugawara no Michizane, and contains the history of the reign of Montoku Tenno (850-858). The Sandai Jitsurohu was compiled about 901 by a number of persons, among whom was Michizane, by command of the reigning mikado Daigo Tenno; it consists of 20 volumes, and narrates the history of the reigns of Seiwa Tenno, Yozei Tenno, and Koko Tenno (858-876, 876-884, and 884-887). The above mentioned six works are called by the general name of the Rikkokushi, or " Six National Records." They are all written in the Chinese idiom, and contain no passages in Japanese, with the exception of the speeches ascribed to the mikados, some of which are, however, evidently corrupt. Sugawara Michizane compiled a work based on these original histories called Ruijiu Kokushi, in 200 books, which has never been printed, and the greater part of which has been lost. Of the Honcho Seiki, another history which contained the latter part of the reign of Uda Tenno (887-897), composed by the priest Shinsai Hoshi, all but one book has been lost. This author lived about the middle of the 12th century.
The Fuso Riakki is a history commencing with the reign of Daigo Tenno (897-930) and concluding with that of Go-Toba Tenno (1184-'98); but of the whole 14 books about one third has been lost. The Nihon Kiriaku is a history of the mikados from 884 to 1028, but the reigns of Koko Ten-no and Uda Tenno are wanting. It is moreover uncertain who were the authors of these last two works, and to what period they belong. Hayashi Razan (1583-1657), in conjunction with his son Gaho or Shunsai, compiled a general history of Japan in 273 books entitled Honcho Tsugan, beginning with Jimmu Tenno and ending with the 34th year of Goyo-zei Tenno. A supplement to this work was completed in 1703 by the great-grandson of Razan; it is entitled Kokushi Jitsuroku, and forms 79 books. Both of these works exist only in manuscript. The next historical work was the Dai-Nihonshi, in 243 books, which are bound up in 100 volumes. The first 73 books contain the history of the mikados from Jimmu Tenno to Go-Komatsu Tenno (1393-1413); 12 are devoted to notices of their wives and concubines, 14 to the princes of the imperial blood, 6 to the princesses, 73 to biographies of high officials of the government under different reigns, 8 to the shoguns from Yoritomo to Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, 5 to the relatives of the shoguns, 22 to retainers of the shoguns, 5 to notices of scholars, 4 to poets, 1 to examples of filial piety, 1 to the samurai noted for their loyalty and courage, 1 to celebrated women, 1 to men who retired from the world, 1 to artists, 3 to rebels, 1 to traitors, and the last 12 to the relations of Japan with other Asiatic states, such as various Chinese kingdoms, down to the time of the Mongol and Ming dynasties, Corea, Mantchooria, southern India, and Loo Choo. It is written entirely in classical Chinese, and the composition is said to have been corrected by Chinese scholars who fled to Japan during the troubles in their own country in the 17th century.
The list of works made use of in compiling it contains 663 titles. It was composed by a number of Japanese scholars engaged for that purpose by the second prince of Mito (1622-1700), who was in reality the founder of the movement which culminated in the revolution of 1868. By his express wish the empress Jingo Kogo was transferred from the list of sovereigns to that of the mikados' wives, and Prince Otomo was placed among the sovereigns. He further vindicated the cause of legitimacy by treating the mikados of the nancho or "southern court " as the genuine sovereigns, and those of the hoku-cho or "northern court" as usurpers. It was completed about 1715, but was first printed in 1851. The Nihon Shunjiu (in Chinese), in 50 books, by the Buddhist priest Nissho, is a work compiled on the same principles, but in somewhat different form, the same materials as those which were used for the Dai-Nihon-8hi having been worked up into a continuous narrative. It only exists in manuscript, and copies are extremely rare. Arai Hakuseki (1657-1725) was the author of two valuable historical works.
One of these is the Koshitsu, in 5 volumes, published in 1716; it seeks to explain in a rationalistic manner the legends contained in the Kojiki, Nihongi, and Kujiki. The other is the Tokushi Yoron, in 12 volumes, completed in 1724; a most valuable philosophical view of the different changes which have taken place at various times in the distribution of the governing power in Japan. The latest historical works of importance are those of Rai Sanyo (1780-1833). The Nihon-guaishi, in 22 volumes, was published by him in 1827, after 20 years of continuous labor. It commences with the rise of the Taira (Heike) and Minamoto (Genji) families in the 12th century, and ends with the establishment of the Toku-gawa 8hogunate in the 17th century. The plan adopted is to narrate the history of each of the families which held the reins of power in succession after the decay of the authority of the mikados, a period which may be called that of the domination of the military class. Some of these families possessed not more than a fifth of the country at once, but others extended their sway over the whole.
In the Seiki, published after his death, Rai depicts the history of Japan from the commencement of Jimmu Tenno's conquest in B. C. 667 (an uncertain date) down to the abdication of Goyozei Tenno in 1596, and discusses the character and conduct of each sovereign in turn. Both works are written in classical Chinese. A pupil of Rai's has also published a supplement to the Nihon-guaishi, in which the annals of various prominent military families are presented. All three of these are extremely useful works, and have contributed not a little to the formation of the political opinions which were current in Japan until the year 1868. II. Miscellaneous Historical Works. Most of these are by private authors, and are written either in hiragana, or in a mixture of Chinese characters and katakana or hiragana, and therefore in the Japanese idiom. The earliest of these is the Okagami, in 8 books, by Fivjiwara no Tamchira, a court noble (huge) who flourished in the middle of the 11th century. It contains notices of occurrences at the court between the years 850 and 1035. The Midzu-kagami, in 3 books, by Nakayama Tadachika (1131-'95), deals with the period between the accession of the semi-mythical Jimmu Tenno and the reign of Nimmio Tenno (833-850). The Masu-kagami, in 10 books, by Ichijo Fuyuyo-shi (1464 - 1514), narrates events which occurred at the court between 1184 and 1338. These three works are called by the general title of Mitsu-kagami, or the "Three Mirrors." The Yeigua Monogatari, in 41 books, is a more detailed work of the same kind, extending over the period from 889 to 1092. The name of its author and the date of its composition are both unknown, but it probably belongs to the 12th century.
It is an excellent specimen of the classical form of the Japanese language. The subjects treated are chiefly detached incidents in the lives of the mikados and members of the families allied to them, and the only reason given for not placing the collection among the monogatari properly so called is that the stories related are true. The Shoku Yotsugi, in 10 volumes, is a history of the doings of the court between the years 1025 and 1170, written in pure classical Japanese. Like the Yeigua Monogatari, it contains a large number of Japanese songs. Another name for it is the Ima-kagami, or "Mirror of the Present." The Ho-gen Monogatari and Heiji Monogatari, each in 3 books, relate the strife between the Taira and Minamoto families in the years 1157 and 1159, in which the latter were entirely defeated and crushed for a while. The authorship of these two works is attributed to Hamuro Tokinaga, who must have lived about the end of the 12th century. They were originally printed in hiragana, but in the variorum editions, called Sanko Hogen Monogatari and Sanko Heiji Monogatari, the Chinese characters with katakana have been used.
The Hoken Taihi, in 2 books, is a narrative of the wars of the Taira and Minamoto families between 1156 and 1192, by Kuriyama Gen (1671-1736); it was composed in the Chinese classical style, about the year 1689. The Gempei Seisuiki, in 48 books, is a work of great literary merit, besides being of considerable value as a history of the times. As the title, "Glory and Fall of the Minamoto and Taira," indicates, it is a narrative of the struggle between these two families. It extends over the period between 1161 and 1182. The authorship is ascribed to Hamuro Tokinaga. The Heike Monogatari, in 12 books, is based on the Gempei Seisuiki with some additions. It is said to have been composed by a certain Yukinaga in the reign of the mikado Go-Toba (1184-'98), and therefore not long after the events narrated in it. It is written chiefly in the hiragana, with a small proportion of Chinese characters; but the style is rather difficult, as the rules of grammar are disregarded in order to adapt the composition to music. Several different texts exist. The only annotated edition is the Heike Monogatari Sho, in 12 volumes, without date; from the appearance of the print it must be about two centuries old.
The Adzuma-kagami, in 52 volumes, is a valuable mine of historical information about the period between 1180 and 1206. It relates the history of Yoritomo and his two sons and the three succeeding shoguns, and of their prime ministers the Hojo. The author's name is unknown, and the probability is that it is a mere compilation from the records of the Kamakura shoguns, which after the end of the Hojo dynasty of ministers fell into the hands of the Uyesugi, who were ministers under the Ashikaga. It is written in very bad Chinese, but contains a number of official documents which are useful examples of the current style of writing. The first printed edition appeared in 1605, and a second in 1624, with an interlinear Japanese translation. A valuable work for comparison with the Adzuma-kagami is the Gukuan Sho, in 7 books, by the Buddhist priest Jichin Osho. It contains notices of the mikados from Jimmu to Juntoku Tenno (1211-20), and much information with regard to the existing Buddhist monastenes and the affairs of the Kamakura shogunate. It appears to have been written about the middle of the first half of the 13th century.
The Shokiuki is a record of the rebellion of Hojo Yoshitoki, in 1221, against the ex-mikado Go-Toba, whom, with his son Tsuchi-mikado and the reigning mikado Juntoku, he banished to various parts of Japan. The Horeki Kanki, in 3 books, is an account of events which took place between the years 1156 and 1341, by an anonymous author. The Jinko-shoto-ki, in 6 books, by Kitabatake Chikafusa (1293-1359), contains the history of the mikados from the commencement of the mythological period down to the accession of Go-Murakami Tenno in 1339, which is the date also of its composition. It was written to prove that the "southern emperor" was the legitimate descendant of Tensho Daizin, and his rival, the nominee of the Ashikaga family, a mere usurper. On this account it is very highly thought of by Japanese, but in point of literary execution it is very inferior, and shows the extent to which the language had then been corrupted. It was first printed in 1649. There is a supplement to it in one book, which continues the history down to the reign of Go-Hanazono (1429-'64). Many other narratives of the same period exist, of which the most important is the Taiheiki, in 41 books, containing a minute account of the events between 1318 and 1367. Various authors were engaged upon it, and it was composed at different times between the years 1334 and 1382. About the end of the 14th century a clean copy was made by the order of the shogun Yoshimochi for some Chinese officials on a visit to Japan. There is a variorum edition called Sanko Taiheiki, by two Mito scholars, Imai Kosai and Naito Tei-gen, in 64 books.
The most complete edition is that known as the Taiheiki Komoku, published in 1668 in 60 volumes, with many notes. It contains besides the usual text a list of the mikados and their chief ministers from Jimmu Tenno to Ogimachi Tenno (1558-87), a treatise on the ancient court dress, notes on the division of the provinces at various periods, treatises on the duties of civilians and military men by Fugifusa, a servant of Godaigo Tenno (1319 - '38), a treatise on war by Kusunoki Masashige, and a volume of legends relating to celebrated swords. The literary style of the Taiheiki is no better than that of the Jinko-shoto-ki; it is wanting in unity of design, and is overloaded with references to Chinese and Indian history. The Meitokki, in 3 books, relates the history of the rebellion of Yamana Ugikiyo and Ya-mana Mitsuyoshi in 1390; and the Oyeiki, of the rebellion and destruction of Ouchi Yoshihiro in 1399. The Chinyoki is an account of the raising to the throne of Go-Hanazono Tenno in 1429, written by his father, the prince Dokin Shinno. The Onin-ki is an account of the civil war waged by Hosokawa Katsumoto and Yamana Sozen for the position of chief minister to the shogun Ashikaga Yoshimasa; it raged for six or seven years (1467-73), and only came to an end through the death of both chiefs.
The Kamakura Ozoshi is a collection of historical papers on events which occurred at Kamakura between 1379 and 1479. The style marks the transition from the pure Japanese of the monogatari to the modern language. The author is unknown. The Odai Ichiram, in 7 volumes, is the work of Hayashi Shunsai (1618-'80), and contains the history of the mikados from Jimmu Tenno down to Ogimachi Tenno (1558-'87). It was written about 1652 and printed in 1664. The style of composition is decidedly inferior, and it is scarcely worthy of notice but for the fact that a translation of it into French was published in 1840 by Klaproth. The best history of the life and achievements of Toyotomi Hideyoshi (Taiko-sama) is the Taiko-ki, in 21 books (11 volumes), composed about 1625 by an unknown author; it contains a number of contemporary documents of high value for philology. III. Laws. Closely connected with history is the department of laws of all kinds. These are divided by Japanese writers into four branches, for which exact equivalents cannot easily be found in the English language.
The preface to the Konin Kaku says: "The object of ritsu is to warn and correct; that of rio, to induce and persuade; the kaku are rules made for special emergencies; the shiki supplement the whole." Of these, ritsu seems to correspond to penal law, rio to administrative law; kaku are decrees and notifications explanatory of the ritsu and rio, and the shiki are supplementary directions for fulfilling the objects of the rio. According to native writers, the earliest attempt at framing a code was that made by Shotoku Taishi in the year 604 (12th of Suiko Tenno), who composed 17 chapters of laws, which are preserved in the 5th book of the Shiugai Sho; they are rather a collection of moral precepts than laws. In 668 (1st year of Tenji Tenno) 22 chapters of rio were compiled. In 701 Fujiwara Fubito and others drew up 6 books of ritsu and 11 of rio, which were again superseded in 718 by a new code of both in 10 books each. Of the former but a small portion has been preserved, and the fragments have been published by Hanawa Hokiichi in his great collection entitled Gunsho Ruijiu. The supplement to the ritsu, with a commentary by Nakahara Akito, has also been preserved under the title of Kingioku Shochiusho (date of compilation, 1207). It may here be remarked that the Japanese codes were from the earliest times based on those of the Chinese, and it was on the laws of the Tang dynasty (619-907) that the above mentioned Yoro Ritsu were modelled.
The Ling (pronounced Rio in Japanese) of the chronological period called Kaiyuen (713- '41) are supposed to have been the source of the Yoro Rio. This code consists of 30 chapters divided into 10 books, and has been preserved complete in the commentary prepared in 833 called the Rio no Gige. An excellent annotated edition of the first eight chapters was published in 1864 by Kondo Yoshiki, under the title of Hiochiu Rio no Gige Kohon; it is stated that the remainder is in existence in a manuscript form. A work of equal interest is the Ruijiu Sandai Kaku, containing collections of decrees issued between the years 701 and 907, with commentaries thereon. The first, called Konin Kaku, in 10 books, dates from 819; the second, or Joguan Kaku, was formed in 868, in 12 books; and the third in 907, with the title of Yengi Kaku, in 10 books and a supplement. Of the whole 32 books fragments of only 6 have survived, which were rescued from oblivion in the year 1266. Besides the kaku, compilations of the shiki were made at each of these periods.
The first two, named Konin Shiki and Joguan Shiki, have not come down to us, all that was of any value in them having been preserved in the Yengi Shiki. This compilation occupied ten years in formation, and was completed in 927. Of its 50 books, the first 10 are devoted to matters coming under the cognizance of the Jingikuan, or "office of the gods," and contain directions as to the ceremonies to be observed at certain festivals, the whole of the Norito or liturgies, and a complete list of the Shinto temples then existing in different parts of Japan. The remaining 40 books treat of the miscellaneous duties of the other departments of the government. It appears to have been first printed in 1648. The Gishiki, in 10 books, defines the rites performed at certain festivals, the coronation ceremony, and the general observances of the court throughout the year. The date and author are unknown. The Dairi Shiki, or "Court Ceremonies," is the title of a work in 3 books compiled by Fujiwara no Fuyutsugu early in the 9th century. Of the Hoso Ruiriu, in 230 books, only two have survived; while nine remain of the Seiji Yoriaku, an equally voluminous work on administrative law.
The Saiban Shiyosho, in one book, is a manual of the laws of Tempio (729-'48) and Konin (810-'23), by Sakanoye Akimoto (1138-1210). The Hokuzan Sho, in 11 books, by the Dainagon Kinto (966-1041), is said to be the best authority on the court ceremonies since the reign of Ichijo Tenno (986-1011); but it is surpassed in comprehensiveness by the Goka no Shidai, in 21 books, by Oye no Masafusa (1041-1111). The first 11 books treat of the court business during the whole year; the 12th and 13th of Shinto and Buddhist religious festivals; the 14th and 15th of the coronation; the 16th of imperial progresses; the 17th of the mikado's coming of age, his beginning to learn to write, his marriage, the inauguration of the heir apparent and his education, and the selection of princes of the blood; the 18th of proclamations, the alteration of the chronological period (nengo), and other similar matters; the 19th of archery, horse racing, etc.; the 20th of certain festivals, the appointments of ministers of state, the education of the mikado's sons, etc.; and the 21st of miscellaneous proceedings of the court.
This, as well as the Shingai Sho (1439), in 6 books, by the Sadai-jin Sanehiro, are continually quoted by the historian Arai Hakuseki in his Tokushi Yoron, which is a sufficient guarantee of their value. The Giogi Shikimoku, in one book, by the priest Giogi, who died in 749, contains land regulations, sumptuary laws, an estimate of the population, and of the amount of rice and other cereals produced annually at that period. The Joyei Shikimoku, also called Go Seibai Shikimoku, in one book, was composed under the direction of Hojo Yasutoki, prime minister of the Kama-kura shoguns, and is the code of that period. In later times it has been much used as a copy book for children, but it is of great assistance to the historian as a means of understanding the system of administration which was established by the military power after the decadence of the mikados. A good edition, with a commentary, was prepared in 1534 by Sei Soyu. A very interesting book is the Nitchiu Gioji, by the mikado Go-Daigo (1319-'39), which details the sovereign's manner of daily life and the duties of the palace attendants. There is also a large class of books called Nenjiu Gioji, which describe the festivals and ceremonies of the court for the whole year.
The Seito-tsu, in 13 books, by Ito Nagatane, explains the ancient institutions of Japan by copious reference to those of China, on which they were for the most part based. Its preface is dated 1724. One of the works on offices most widely known is the Shokugen Sho of Kitabatake Chikafusa (1293-1359). It was composed in 1341, without reference to any other work, in bad Chinese, and has been illustrated again and again by various commentators. The best edition is that of Kondo Yoshiki, a Choshiu samurai, entitled Hiochiu Shokugen Sho Kohon, in 6 volumes; the preface is dated 1854. The Kuanshoku Biko, in 8 volumes (1G95), is the most complete account of the constitution of the court and government yet produced, and is one of the few works of the kind not written in Chinese. The Reigi Ruiten, in 510 books, is a work compiled by order of the second prince of Mito, from about 200 private records of noble families, and is concerned with the ceremonies and etiquette of the mikado's court. There are 214 books devoted to the ordinary transactions of the year, the remainder to the kagura, or ancient pantomimic plays performed in honor of the "three divine emblems," praying for rain and fine weather, the accession and abdication of the sovereign, the harvest festival, imperial journeys, the ceremony called gembuku (coming of age) of the mikado, the commencement of his studies, his nuptials, births in the imperial family, the mikado's concubines, the change of style (kaigen), the forms used in imperial decrees and proclamations, appointment of ministers of state, memorials to the throne, and other kindred subjects.
Probably the only copy in existence is that in the public library at Tokio. One president, 15 compilers, 28 scribes, 10 readers, 4 accountants, and 3 overseers were engaged upon it for six hours every other day during 24 years, from 1686 to 1710. Nearly all the works called Kiroku, or (family) records, are in manuscript. That of the five noble families called Sekke begins with the reign of Murakami Tenno (946-67), and occupies 210 volumes. It is called the Huiami no Ki. There are many more, some of even older date, which would be valuable materials for the historian. The Japanese attach great importance to lineage, and there are several large works on genealogy, the earliest of which is the Shinsen Shoji Roku, prepared in 815; the best edition is that published at Kioto in 1807, in 4 volumes. IV. Biography. The earliest specimen of this kind of writing is the Sho-toku Taishi Denriaku, in 2 books, by Taira no Motochika, written in 992. It is the life of M'mayado no Oji, eldest son of Yomei Tenno (573-621), who was the main instrument in the spread of Buddhism in Japan. An annotated edition, called Taishi Denriaku Biko, in 15 volumes, was published in 1678 by the priest Rioi. Of the famous statesman and historian Sugawara no Michizane (845-903), afterward deified under the name of Temman-Gu, many biographies have been written.
The earliest is the Kuanke Godenki, a Chinese work in one volume, by his relative Nobutsune, which is certainly of not later date than 1118. The Dazaifu Temma-gu Kojitsu, in 2 volumes, by Kaibara Tokushin (1630-1714), relates his life, deification, and subsequent history; it seems to have been written about 1685. The Kuanke Jitsuroku, in Japanese, by Matsumoto Guzan (3 vols., 1798), contains much introductory matter about his ancestry, with his life, exile, death, burial, and deification. But the most complete of all his biographies is the Kitano Koso, by Ishida Jihei (1840), containing 4 volumes of engravings from ancient drawings illustrative of events in his life, and 10 volumes of extracts from original documents. The Saigio Monogatari is a life of the poet Saigio Hoshi (died 1198), in Japanese, by an unknown author, and contains a large quantity of the verses made by him on various occasions. It was first printed in 1562.
The Muso Koku (3 vols.) is the life of the Buddhist priest Muso Kokushi (1275-1351), founder of the monastery of Tenriuji at Saga, near Kioto. Eight or nine priests seem to have shared its authorship, one of whom was the third abbot of Tenriuji, so that it cannot be of later date than the end of the 14th century. The Genkio Shakusho, in 15 volumes, is a work in Chinese, containing short biographies of over 400 priests, emperors, nobles, and other persons famous for their devotion to Buddhism, and embraces a period of more than 700 years, beginning with the introduction of Buddhism in the 6th century. It was compiled by the priest Koguan, and presented by him to the mikado in 1322. The Fuso Zenrin Soho-den, in 10 volumes (1675), by the priest Kosen, contains the lives of 117 priests of the Zen sect. Other works of a similarly comprehensive nature are: the Hiakushoden (2 vols.), containing accounts of famous warriors and chieftains from the mythological age down to Shibata Katsuiye and Toyotomi Hideyoshi, by Hayashi Doshun and his sons, Shunsai and Shuntoku; Utsunomiya Yuteki's Nihon Kokin Jimbutsu-shi (7 vols., 1668), containing notices of generals, famous families, faithful retainers, traitors, virtuous and intrepid samurai, Chinese scholars, physicians, women, and artists; the Fuso Initsuden (3 vols., 1664), in Chinese, by the priest Gensho (1623-68), consisting of notices of 75 persons noted for strange and solitary habits; such as Yen no Shokaku, who lived in a cave for 30 years, and made spirits do his bidding; Fushimi no Okina, who lay on the ground for three years with his eyes directed eastward, during the whole of which time he never uttered a word; Kachio no Shonio, who became a monk at the age of seven, and lived for many years tasting food only once in five days, and never spoke; and the Shiradashi no Okina, an old man who was always 70 years of age, and had been so ever since the memory of the living; the Honcho Retsujiden (10 vols., 1655), by Ku-rozawa Hirotoda, in 10 sections, devoted to famous women since the reign of Korei Tenno (290-215 B. C.); the Honcho Hime-kagami, in 20 vols., by the priest Rioi (1661), a collection of lives of famous women, written for his daughter in Japanese; the Sentetsu Sodan (9 vols., 1816), by Tojo Tagayasu, notices of 72 native Chinese scholars and authors of the 17th and 18th centuries, in Chinese; Kinse Kijin-den, lives of about 80 poets and Japanese authors of the 17th and 18th centuries (5 vols., 1790), by Banno Kokei (1733-1806); Shoku Kinse Kijinden (5 vols., 1795), a supplement to the last named work, containing notices of nearly 100 writers, by Mikumi Shiko; and Sentetsu Sodan (4 vols., 1844), by Tokusai Gengi, in Japanese, containing the lives of 20 modern native Chinese scholars and authors.
Besides these, the 9th volume of Tamadasuki, by Hirata Atsutane (1780-1843), is occupied by biographies of the famous Shinto revivalists Kada no Adzumamaro, Mabuchi, and Motoori Norinaga, written in excellent classical Japanese, and conceived on a proper method. The Sanjiurokka-shiu Riakuden, in 2 small volumes, by Kawagita Mahiko (1848), is a handbook of reference for the lives and productions of 36 native authors of the same period. V. Poetry. In poetry the Japanese do not seem to have advanced much beyond the most elementary forms. With few exceptions their so-called poetry consists of songs in five lines of 31 syllables called uta. These songs seem in early times to have been spontaneous compositions, but about the middle of the 8th century they had hardened into a conventional form, and verse making became a mechanical accomplishment, of which dexterity in punning was the most important part. Assemblies were held by the amateurs of versification, at which lots were drawn for a certain number of subjects, and the greater part of the uta which are contained in the numerous selections originated in this manner.
The most ancient songs are no doubt those which are given in the Kojiki and Nihongi, and next to them in point of time must probably be ranked the naga-uta in the Manyoshiu. A naga-uta (or "long song") ought to consist of unrhymed lines of 5 and 7 syllables alternately, terminating in two lines of 7 syllables each; but this rule is by no means inflexibly adhered to. The first naga-uta in this collection will serve as a specimen; the numbers of the syllables are 5, 6, 5, 6, 5, 5, 5, 5, 4, 7, 5, 7, 5, 6, 5, 6, 7. In 'the shorter songs, ordinarily 31 syllables in length, an extra syllable is sometimes admitted; and if we are to believe the native commentators, it is also permissible to insert here and there, to make up the measure, odd syllables without any meaning. Another kind of short song, called sedoka, consists of six lines of 5 and 7 syllables, arranged in the following order: 5, 7, 7; 5, 7, 7. This, however, admits of certain modifications. The actual date of the compilation called the Manyoshiu is disputed; the usual account is that it was commenced in the middle of the 8th and completed early in the beginning of the 9th century. It contains 4,315 of the 31-syllable songs and sedoka, and 250 naga-uta, arranged in 20 books.
The critics classify them as follows:' various songs; songs of the affections, chiefly amatory; pa-ihetic songs; songs involving a simile; and songs of the four seasons. Great difficulties exist with regard to the proper reading of the Manyoshiu, on account of its being written with Chinese characters, which sometimes stand for whole words and at others for single syllables. The first approach to a correct interpretation is believed to have been made by the priest Keichiu (1640-1701). He was followed by Kamo no Mabuchi (1698-1769), whose edition, entitled Manyoko (9 vols.), is highly esteemed, and by Kato Chikage (1734-1808), whose edition in 30 volumes, called Manyoshiu Riakuge, is perhaps the best, though by no means perfect. The earliest of all the songs in the Manyoshiu is that ascribed to Yuriaku Tenno (457-'59); the best are contained in the 1st, 2d, and 13th books; then come those in the 11th, 12th, and 14th. The Kokin Wakashiu, the second of the compilations made by order of the mikado, was commenced in 905 and finished about 922. The preface is one of the oldest specimens of Japanese compositions in hiragana, the Chinese character having been exclusively employed up to that time.
The object of this collection was to preserve for posterity those verses which had not been considered worthy of a place in the Manyoshiu, but it also contains many of later date. The whole number of songs is estimated at 1,099, classified as follows: spring, summer, autumn, winter, felicitations, parting, journeys, names of things, love, pathetic, miscellaneous, naga-uta (5), sedoka (4), haikai, and o-naobi no uta. The best commentary on this collection is the Kokin Wakashiu Uchigiki (20 vols.), by Kamo no Mabuchi; the Tokagami (6 vols.), by Motoori Norinaga, is an explanation of the songs in the common colloquial dialect of Kioto. The Gosen Wakashiu, in 20 books, was compiled about the middle of the 10th century; it contains 1,356 songs, classified much in the same way as those in the Kokinshiu. The Shiu Wakashiu dates half a century later, and contains 1,351 songs, among which are a few naga-uta and kagura-uta. These three together are known as the Sandaishiu. There are innumerable other collections made at the mikado's command and by private persons, besides selections of 100 songs, each called Hiakushiu Kui. The best known of the latter works is the Hiakuninshiu, which is the most popular classic of the Japanese; it was formed about the year 1235 by a court noble, commonly called Teika Kio. The commentaries on it are very numerous, but the best are the Uima-nabi, by Mabuchi, the Hitoyogatari (1833), and the Mine no Kakehashi (1805). A translation of the Hiakuninshiu, with notes, has been made by P. V. Dickins (London, 1866). A better work on Japanese poetry is the An-thologie japonnaise of Leon de Rosny (Paris, 1870), to which is prefixed an excellent treatise on the different kinds of Japanese poetry.
VI. Romances. "The term monogatari is used to denote a class of composition which differs from history in that the author makes no attempt to sift the true from the fictitious, but simply records the current tradition respecting the hero or heroine." This definition, which is that of Mabuchi, is not applicable to all monogatari. In some cases individuals who actually existed at some time or other have been made the heroes of fictitious adventures, while others have not even that slight basis of fact. Certain of the monogatari are collections of verses, with short stories attached, which profess to give the circumstances under which they were composed; while others which bear the title are in reality historical. But the monogatari, properly so called, is essentially a fiction, and the word "romance" is the closest English equivalent. The earliest of these is the Taketori Monogatari, the authorship of which is sometimes ascribed to Minamoto no Shitagau (911-'83), but some writers think it belongs to the first half of the 9th century. An old man finds a little girl only three inches high in a joint of bamboo, whom he adopts and educates.
She grows up into a beautiful young woman, and is solicited in marriage by five noble suitors, upon whom she imposes various labors, in which they all fail to satisfy her. The mikado also falls in love with her, and offers to make her his concubine, but she refuses. Shortly afterward she makes known to her protector that she is an inhabitant of the moon, banished to earth for some offence, and that the period of her penance being about to expire, she must soon return thither. The old man's protestations are of no avail, and she is finally carried off by her father's messengers in a flying chariot, much against her own will, and in spite of 2,000 guards placed around the cottage and on its roof by the mikado. The parting is described in a most pathetic manner. She leaves behind her farewell letters to the old man and to the mikado, and the elixir of immortality. The mikado causes the elixir to be burnt on the top of a lofty mountain in Suruga, which thenceforward is called Fuji no Yama, "the immortal mountain." The Utsubo Monogatari is a collection of 14 stories which fill 20 volumes. It is also ascribed to the author of the previous work, and is evidently one of the earliest extant.
In the Toshikage no Maki, one of these stories, are related the adventures of a young man who is shipwrecked in a strange country, where he falls in with animals who speak, giants, and the like, and he finally returns home with some magic harps. Two of these he bequeaths to his daughter when he dies. A young nobleman, attracted by the strange music which proceeds from her dwelling, passes a night there, and never returns. She bears a son who performs wonders of filial piety, and feeds her with roots which he digs in the mountains. On the approach of winter he removes her to a cave vacated for them by a family of bears, and the apes who inhabit the surrounding hills bring them food and water. At last she is rediscovered by the young nobleman, who is now grown up to ripe manhood, as he is hunting in the mikado's train, and they live together happily for ever after. The Hamamatsu Chiunagon Monogatari is the story of a nobleman who goes to China, has a child by the empress, and then returns to Japan. The Sumiyoshi Monogatari is the story of a young girl, the illegitimate daughter of a nobleman, who has two other daughters by his own wife.
When the heroine is about eight years of age her mother dies, after earnestly praying her lover to send her child to the palace to become one of the mikado's waiting women. He takes her to live in his own house, in separate apartments, and the affection he displays for her excites the hatred of her stepmother. After a while the heroine's foster mother also dies, and she is left alone with her foster sister, a girl two years older than herself, through whom she enters into a secret correspondence with a young nobleman who has fallen in love with her from report of her beauty. The father constantly speaks of sending her to the palace, which excites the jealousy of the stepmother, and her ruin is determined on. With a hypocritical affectation of concern the stepmother tells her husband that she has seen a priest get out of his daughter's window at dawn; and when he refuses to believe this, she conspires with a wicked maid servant and bribes a priest to come to the house and play the part of detected lover. Upon this he is convinced, upbraids his daughter, and orders her to marry a man of rank whom she does not know; but rather than disobey, she is ready to consent.
When the stepmother finds that she has been so far unsuccessful, she plots again to have the object of her hatred stolen away by a horrid old man, whose lust is inflamed by the promise of a beautiful girl for his mistress; but the plan being divulged to the young girl and her foster sister by a friendly female servant, they make up their minds to flee to Sumiyoshi, where the late nurse of the dead foster mother is living as a nun. This they accomplish successfully, and the author takes advantage of this opportunity to introduce some very effective description of seaside scenery. The lover is desperate, and resolves to become a hermit, but the hiding place of the young lady is revealed to him in a dream and he proceeds in search of her. Having found her out, he disguises her as a peasant girl and brings her back to Kioto, where they are secretly married and have two children. The father is disconsolate at the flight of his daughter, but after seven years is invited to a feast by the young noble, and discovers in his wife his long lost favorite. Upon this the wickedness of the stepmother is revealed, and she suffers the penalty of her misdeeds by dying in misery and want.
All the partners of her guilt are duly punished by avenging fate, and the father retires from the world, while all the good people in the story have their reward. The Ise Monogatari is the history of the love adventures of a noble celebrated for his beauty, named Ariwara Narihira (825-'80), and contains a large number of verses written by himself and his numerous sweethearts. It is considered to be a model of good Japanese prose. The precise date of its composition and the name of its author are unknown, but Mabuchi thinks it belongs to the middle of the 10th century. A similar work is the Yamato Monogatari, in two books, the authorship of which is ascribed by some to Shigeharu, the son of Narihira, and by others to the mikado Kuazan-In (968-1008); but the probability is that while both of them had a hand in it, it was brought into its present form by a third person. The Ochi-kubo Monogatari is the story of a young lady of rank who is persecuted by her stepmother, and kept out of sight in a sunken room, but is rescued by a nobleman, who marries her, and has by her a daughter who becomes empress.
Minamoto no Shitagau is said to have been the author; Mabuchi is of opinion that even if this be not the fact, it must have been written about the reign of Reizei-In (967-9). It is inferior to the Su-miyoshi in interest. Of all these romances the most celebrated is the Genji Monogatari, in 54 books, by the poetess Murasaki Shikibu, who flourished at the beginning of the 11th century, the composition of the work being referred usually to the year 1004. It relates the amorous adventures of Hikaru Genji, the son of the mikado's favorite concubine. The titles of the various books into which it is divided are chiefly taken from the names of the women whom he loved. In point of style it is considered to be far superior to all the other monogatari, being far more ornate; but the plot is devoid of interest, and it is only of value as marking a stage in the development of the language. The best edition is that entitled Kogetsusho, by Kitamura Kigin, a scholar of the 17th century. The Sagoromo, in 8 books, is a love story which takes its name from the hero.
The author was Daini no Sammi, daughter of Murasaki Shikibu, and nurse to Ichijo-In (born 986), and it is thought to have been composed about 40 years later than the Genji Monogatari, The Idzumi Shikibu Monogatari is a diary of the amours of Idzumi Shikibu and the fourth son of Reizei-In, and contains all the verses which they sent to each other. Its date is about the end of the 10th century. The Torikaibaya is of later date than the Sagoromo, but the name of its author is unknown. A somewhat involved plot is founded upon the following incidents. A noble has two children, a girl and a boy, each of whom from a very early age displays the characteristics of the opposite sex, the boy being fond of playing with dolls and painted shells, averse to women, and of a retiring modest disposition, while the girl constantly seeks the society of young men, with whom she plays at foot ball, practises archery, blows the flute, and sings songs. The father is much troubled by the double perverse-ness of his children, and exclaims, "If I were to change them," which is the title of the romance. He puts this idea into execution, and brings up his daughter as a boy and his son as a girl.
The consequences are of the same kind as those which follow upon Don Juan's introduction into the seraglio as a female slave. Of the Ima Monogatari, which was originally a large work, only one book now remains. It contains a number of uninteresting stories, invented no doubt to serve as settings to certain songs of no great value. The authorship is ascribed to Nobuzane, who flourished at the end of the 12th and beginning of the 13th century. The Konjaku Monogatari is a collection of Japanese, Chinese, and Indian stories by Minamoto no Takakuni (died in 1077), in 60 volumes, divided into customs, wonders, crimes, retributions, Buddhism, and miscellaneous. The Uji Shiui Monogatari, in 15 volumes, is a supplement to the above. The Tsutsumi Chiunagon Monogatari, in one volume, is a collection of ten short tales, ascribed to Fujiwara no Kane-suke (877-933); and if this be correct, it is one of the earliest specimens of purely Japanese composition. The AM no Yonaga Monogatari recounts the loves of a priest named Keikai and a young prince, the consequence of which was a war between the monasteries of Miidera and Hiyeizan, in the reign of Go-Horikawa (1222-'33). The boy drowned himself and the priest became a hermit. ,The style is overloaded with Buddhist terms, and it is evidently the composition of a priest.
The Matsuho Monogatari is a similar love tale with a tragic ending. Among these romances are many which still remain in manuscript, and of those which have been printed no copies older than the 17th century exist. The consequence is that the text of many is extremely corrupt, or at least doubtful; but in spite of this defect they are of great value for philological as well as for other purposes. VII. Miscellanies. There is a small class of books called soshi or miscellanies, which belong to the classical period. The earliest of these is the Makura no Soshi, by Sei Shonagon, a daughter of Kiyo-wara Motosuke, and waiting woman to Joto-Monin (988-1077). It is a medley of autobiographical fragments, observations on society, descriptions of natural objects, court ceremonies, and scattered notes of all kinds, impregnated with wit of the highest order. The Boroboro no Soshi, in one book, by Mioye Sho-nin (1174-1233), who is said to have first introduced tea into Japan, is the history of the two sons of a Kioto woman who was never seen except at night; after her death they become mendicant priests. This composition ought no doubt to be classed with the monogatari.
The most famous of the miscellanies is the Tsuredzure-gusa of Kenko Hoshi (1282-1350). It contains 244 short chapters on morals, offices, ancient customs, the seasons, the proper use of words, society, and anecdotes. In form it is an imitation of the Makura no Soshi, and its style is modelled on that of the Genji Monogatari, which in the 14th century was becoming obsolete. The commentaries on it are numerous, but that of Kitamura Kigin, entitled Mondansho, is the best. The Shosho Daisei is a variorum edition, and clumsily arranged. The Otogi Zoshi, in 23 volumes, is a collection of stories which belong to different periods, the latest being of the 17th century, and it ought properly to be classed with the monogatari. The Oriorigusa, by Tate Riotai, a pupil of Mabuchi, is a collection of notes made by the author on his travels. VIII.
Journals. The earliest of these is the Mura-saki Shikibu Niki, composed by her after she was left a widow. It contains descriptions of various events at the court, written in a highly ornate style, and the title is scarcely appropriate. The Kagero Niki, by the mother of Michiami, is a record of her connection with Michikane, beginning with the year 954, and coming down to 974. The Ben no Naishi Niki is a record of events beginning with the abdication of Go-Saga no In in 1246, and ending with 1252, also by a woman. The Hojoki, by Kamo no Chomei (beginning of the 13th century), contains accounts of the great fire in 1177, the hurricane of 1180, the removal of the capital to Kioto in the same year, the famine of 1181, and the great earthquake of 948. The Fuji Goran no Ki is the journal of a visit made by the shogun Yoshinori (1429-'41) to Fuji no Yama. The Saiokuken Sochoki and the Socho kuku no Ki are autobiographical notes by the priest Socho (born 1447, lived beyond 1526). IX. Travels. The Tosa Niki, by Kino Tsurayuki, is a diary of his journey back from Tosa to Kioto in 935. The author conceals his personality by writing in the style then supposed to be exclusively employed by women.
The Suma no Ki purports to be the diary of Sugawara Michizane on his way to exile in Chikuzen; but although its style is exactly that of the older literature, it is a manifest forgery, for it speaks of the heroine of the Taketori Monoga-tari, a book written some time after the death of Michizane. The Matsushima Niki, attributed to Sei Shonagon, is also condemned by the best judges as a recent forgery. The Sarashi-na Niki, by the daughter of a descendant of Michizane, is the record of a journey from Shimosa to Kioto by the tokaido in the year 1021, and a second journey from Kioto to Sa-rashina, in Shinshiu, a few years later. The Izayoi Niki is the journal of Teika Kio's widow on a journey to Kamakura to obtain justice for her son Tamesuke against his elder brother Tameuji. It is written in good style, and appears to be merely a vehicle for introducing verses made by the way at each post town. The Fujikawa no Ki is the journal of Ichijo Kaneyoshi (1402-81) as he was fleeing from Kioto to avoid the civil war of Onin (1467). The Shoko Niki is a diary of a journey from Kioto to Suruga in 1473. The Shirin Ikoshiu, in 6 volumes, is a collection of journeys by different persons, made by Miyagawa Issuishi. All these works belong to the purely ornamental literature.
A magnificent collection of fragments of this kind is the Fuso Shiuyoshiu, in 36 volumes, compiled by order of the second prince of Mito. There exists a supplementary collection called Shiui Goyoshiu, in 26 volumes, by Eda Seikio, which ranges over nearly eight centuries, from the beginning of the 10th down to near the end of the 17th. It has not been published. X. Dramatic. The Japanese drama is of three kinds: the no, a kind of historical play, generally of a tragical cast; the kiogen, or low comedy; and the joruri, a mixture of the two. The former have been collected, and are known as utai; they date from the time of the shogun Ashikaga Yoshimasa (1449-'90), and are still played with the costumes of that period. There are five editions which slightly differ among themselves, a fact which is due to their having been separately preserved by as many families of hereditary actors, named Kanze, Hosho, Komparu, Kongo, and Kita. The kiogen are in the colloquial language of the same period, and possess great philological value. Fifty of them were printed in 1662, under the title of Kiogenki. The Mai no Hon, also called Kowaka Zoshi, is a collection of 36 ancient plays which are no longer acted, but recited with musical intonations by a single performer, without scenery or costume.
The joruri are the modern plays, which are either acted on the stage by actors and a chorus, or recited by a single person to the accompaniment of the three-stringed lute or sha-misen. XI. Dictionaries and Works on Philology. The earliest dictionary is the Wamio Ruijiu-sho, in 20 books, by Minamoto no Shi-tagau (911-'83). It contains a number of Japanese words, with the corresponding Chinese characters, definitions, and quotations from five or six works. The whole is divided into the following categories: 1, heaven; 2, earth; 3, water; 4, divisions of the year; 5, demons and gods; 6, social relations; 7, relatives; 8, parts of the body; 9, arts and accomplishments; 10, music; 11, offices; 12, provinces and departments; 13, dwellings; 14, ships; 15, vehicles; 16, kine and horses; 17, treasures; 18, scents and drugs; 19, lamps, etc.; 20, woven fabrics; 21, clothing; 22, utensils, weapons, instruments of punishment, etc.; 23, household utensils; 24, eating and drinking; 25, grain; 26, fruits; 27, vegetables; 28, winged tribe; 29, hairy tribe; 30, scaly tribe; 31, insects; 32, trees and plants. It is said to have been prepared at the command of one of the princesses.
The Shinsen Jikio is a dictionary of Chinese characters, arranged according to the radicals, with the Chinese pronunciation according to the system of spelling called hansetsu (fan tsieh), and the Japanese equivalents, completed by the priest Shojiu in 892. Only one volume remains out of twelve. At the end there are collections of double characters and onomatapceiae. As a general rule, however, the Japanese have contented themselves with reprinting the best known Chinese dictionaries, such as the Yu-pien, Kanghi's great lexicon, and the Wache-yun-suy. Of these the first has also been translated into Japanese. There is a useful dictionary in two volumes called Shinso Jibiki, with the Chinese characters in the square and cursive forms, and the Japanese equivalents in hiragana. Dictionaries of the Japanese language came to be made only after the revival of learning in the 17th century. The first of these is the Nihon Shakumei (1699), by Kaibara Tokushin (1630-1714), in which an attempt is made to give the etymologies of words, arranged under 23 categories. The Toga, by Arai Hakuseki (1657-1725), is an etymological and explanatory dictionary of Japanese words, in 20 books, arranged according to categories.
The author has abstained from attempting to give any derivations of which he did not feel sufficiently certain. The most valuable dictionary of the Japanese language is the Wakan Shiori of Tanigawa Shisei, who flourished during the latter part of the 18th century. The first portion (45 vols.) contains about 18,000 words, among which are to be found the greater part of those which occur in the ancient literature, with examples. The second portion (30 vols.) contains about 12,000 words, many of which are of Chinese origin. A third part was promised, but has never been published. The arrangement is according to the 50 sounds, which is a great improvement on the old arrangement according to categories. The Gagen Shuran (21 vols., of which only 9 have been printed), by Ishikawa Masamochi, is a dictionary of Japanese words, with multitudinous examples, but few etymologies or explanations. In 1872 the educational department of the mikado's government commenced the publication of a gigantic dictionary, which was to contain all the words in use from the earliest periods down to the present, with examples. Only 5 volumes, containing the words beginning with A, have appeared as yet, and it is feared that the project has been abandoned.
The Wakan Gorui Osetsuyoshiu, in 13 volumes, is an excellent dictionary of Japanese words with their corresponding Chinese characters, arranged first by categories, and then according to the iroha; but it contains neither definitions nor derivations. Owing to the Japanese generally writing their own language with Chinese characters, using the kana only for terminations and particles, they have as a general rule been always very ignorant of spelling. The earliest attempt at rectifying the mistakes which were committed by those who used the kana, chiefly for writing poetry, was the Kana-moji-tsukai, by Gioa, founded on the spelling of Teika Kio. A fuller edition of this was published in 1666 by Arakida Moriaki, under the title of Ruiji Kanadzukai. Neither of these works is a trustworthy guide. Keichiu (1640-1701) compiled the Waji Shoransho (5 vols.), a spelling book, with examples from the Rik-kokushi, Kujiki, Kojiki, Manyoshiu, and other classical writings. The Waji Tsureisho, in 8 volumes, is an attack on the last named book, by Tachibana Narikazu. The Kogentei (1765), by Katori Nahiko, is an alphabetically arranged list of words showing the correct ancient spelling. It is considered a very good authority on the subject.
The Jion-kana-dzukai, by Mo-toori Norinaga, treats of the proper spelling of the pronunciation of Chinese characters, a subject about which there seems to be much difference of opinion among scholars. The Kanji Sanonko, by the same author, discusses the origin of the kan-on, go-on, and to-on. Hi-rata Atsutane's Koshi Honji Kio (4 vols.) is a most elaborate treatise on the sounds of the Japanese language, and the various kinds of transformation which they undergo. The Do-bun Tsuko (4 vols.), by Arai Hakuseki, is a valuable work on the origin of Chinese characters and the two kana. The Watoku Yorei, by Dazai Shuntai, is a similar work. A large number of grammatical works have been the result of the great impulse given to Japanese studies by the revival of learning, chiefly produced since the beginning of the 18th century. As-ton's "Grammar of the Written Language" contains a pretty complete list of the more important writings of this class. It may be observed that the efforts of native grammarians do not go beyond the accidence of the language.
XII. Topography. In the year 713 orders were despatched to the governors of all the provinces to give lucky names to the departments and villages, and to record the names of the metals, plants, trees, birds, beasts, fishes, and insects produced in each department; the quality of the land, whether fertile or otherwise; the origin of the names of mountains, rivers, plains, and moors; and the local legends. The last volume was completed in 734. It is a constant subject of regret with Japanese scholars that so much of this great work should have perished, for out of 66 volumes, only the volume on Id-zumo and fragments of 44 others have survived the ravages of time and civil war. From this time up to the 16th century the subject seems to have been completely neglected. About 1580 was produced the Nihon Kokubun Ki, in 10 books, by an unknown author; it is an account of the productions of each province, with maps. Kaibara Tokushiu compiled a "History of the Province of Chikuzen" (Chikuzen no Kuni Shoku Fudoki), in 28 books, and "Travels in various Provinces" (Shoshiu Meguri, 7 vols.). Other works of this class are Yoshiu Fushi, in 10 books, by Kurokawa Doyu, a history of Yamashiro in the Chinese language (1684); Sanshiu Meisekishi, by Hakuye, a description of Yamashiro (25 vols., 1702); Yamashiro Meishoshi, compiled from 713 works, all of which are quoted literally (30 vols. and 12 maps, 1705); Yamashiroshi (9 vols.), Yamato-8hi (7 vols.), Kowachishi (3 vols.), Idzumishi (2 vols.), and Setsushi (4 vols.), by Nabikawa Nagashi, early in the 18th century; Yamato Meishkoi by Hayashi Soyu (15 vols., 1681); Setsuyo Gundan, a description of Setsu, by Okada Keishi (17 vols., 1698); Shinsen Kama-kurashi, by order of the second prince of Mito (12 vols., 1685); Dankaishi, a description of Omi, with local legends, by an unknown author; and the Shinano Chimeiko, a history of the province of Shinano, by Yoshizawa Ko-ken (3 vols.). Besides these more serious works, there is a large class of illustrated topographical works of a popular nature, such as the Tokai-do Meishodzuye, Nikkozanshi, Kiso Meishodzuye, Yedo Meisho, Kioto Meisho, Kii Meisho, and he Sangu Meishodzuye, which are in general repute for their accuracy and the excellent wood engravings in which they abound.
XIII. Literature of the Shinto Religion. The best sources of the study of pure Shinto are the Kojiki, the Nehongi, and the Norito, already mentioned, with the works of Motoori Norinaga and Hirata Atsutane on the same subject. The Kojikiden of the first is a monument of learning and industry; it contains the Naobi no Mitama, or "Spirit of Good," a summary of Motoori's view. This having been attacked by an anonymous author in the Maga no Hire, he replied to his antagonist in the Kuzu-hana, with further developments of his position, namely, that mankind are born with a capacity for distinguishing right from wrong, the test of which is the will of the mikado, and that the Chinese system of morals, which is an invention of immoral men for an immoral age, has corrupted the original perfection of the Japanese heart. The Kenkio-jin (" The Madman Fettered ") is a polemic against the author of a book called Shoko Hatsu, who had maintained that the age of the gods was a barbarous age, and had spoken disparagingly of the mikados. It is a pity that so much acuteness and erudition as Motoori possessed should have been thrown away in defending views of which the logical effect would be to enslave the whole Japanese nation.
His Jindai Shogo is the mythological part of the Kojiki, with additions from the Nihongi, in a mixture of Chinese characters and kana, with kana at the side, for the use of the young. The Rekicho Shoshi-kai is a collection of the speeches and proclamations of the early mikados, with a commentary, which from his point of view are part of the sources of Shinto. Mabuchi had already explained the liturgies in his Norito-kai and Norito-ko. Hirata Atsutane followed Motoori's lead with the Koshi Seibun, which presents the whole of the mythylogical books worked up into a continuous and consistent form, and he added a commentary in 100 volumes, entitled Koshiden. This work is distinguished by an almost painful elaboration of details, both mythological and philological, but is of great value to the student. In his Zoku Shinto Taii (4 vols.) Hirata has given an account of the various sects of corrupt Shintoists, which number 15 or 16. Besides the works of these men, there are certain collections of ancient Shinto books which are still considered orthodox.
The earliest is the Shinto Gobusho, containing five separate works: 1. Yamato-bime no Seiki, said to have been composed in the reign of Temmu Tenno (672-'86), and afterward enlarged in that of Tenchi (765-70). This princess was in the year 30 B. C. appointed guardian of the sacred emblems of Tensho-kodaijin, with which she travelled about in order to find a location for them. In 4 B. C. she settled down in Ise, and is said to have lived about 400 years after this. 2. Gochinza Shidaiki, an account of the establishment of the two temples at Ise; date of composition unknown. 3. Go chinza Honki, an account of the establishment of the Geku, ascribed to the reign of Keitei Tenno (507-31). 4. Gochinza Denki, a work similar to the second, said to date from the reign of Yuriaku (457-79). 5. Hoki Honki, an account of the manufacture of the divine emblems, composed in the reign of Shomu Tenno (723-'49). There is a commentary on these five works entitled Shinto Gobushosho, by Okada Masanori (1721). The Daijin-gu Gishikicho (804) describes the ceremonial at these two temples throughout the year.
The Tenchi Reiki no Ko, in 18 books, contains a mixture of Buddhism and Shinto; it is ascribed by some to Shotoku Taishi, by others to Kobo Daishi, who invented what is known as the Riobu Shinto, a harmony of that religion and Buddhism. This work, and two others of the same nature, the Jim-betsuki and Tenshoki, are now asserted to be modern forgeries by Buddhist priests. The Kogoshiui, by Imube no Hironari (807), professes to have been written to preserve fragments of ancient traditions which had not been recorded in any of the earlier books; but the author's main object was to prove the descent of his own family from the gods. Nevertheless, the work is of great value, and was largely used by Hirata in compiling the Koshi Seibun. The Yuiitsu Shinto Mioho Yoshiu (2 vols.) is a work designed to prove that Shinto and Buddhism are identical in their essence. The majority of treatises on Shinto prior to the 17th century maintained this view. An exception is the Gengenshiu (8 vols.), by Kitabatake Chikafusa. It treats of the origin of the world, of the coming into existence of the two races of gods, the heavenly and the terrestrial, the creation of Japan, the delivery of the sacred emblems by the sun goddess to her grandson before his descent upon earth, the foundation of the temples of Ise, and other articles of the Shinto faith.
The Nijiu-isaha Ki is an account of 21 principal Shinto temples, by Fujiwara no Korechika (Gidosanshi, 973-1010). The Koro Kojitsuden contains information about the ceremonial at the temples of Ise, the old costumes preserved therein, the messengers of the gods (the fox, crow, common cock, serpents), etc. These two works are also considered good sources of information by rigid Shintoists. The Shinto Shiu (8 vols.) is one of those now condemned on account of its confusing the two religions; it treats of the origin of Shinto, the gods of Hachiman, Shinto archways (torii), etc, and gives a list of the Shinto gods in various provinces who were disguised under Buddhistic names. The Riobu Shinto Koketsusho, by Minamoto no Yoshiyasu (6 vols., 1716), is a defence of the sect called Riobu against those who maintain that it is the same as the Yuiitsu, the latter being infected with Confucian-ist doctrines. The Shinto Miomoku Ruijiusho (6 vols., 1699) is a description of the accessories of Shinto worship, such as robes and utensils, and the functions of the ministers, by Watarae no Nobuyoshi. The Honcho Jinjako, by Ha-yashi Doshin (6 vols.), contains the names of all the chief Shinto temples and of the gods worshipped therein; it is considered a good authority on these matters.
The Mosoki, in one volume, describes burial according to Shinto rites. In the Jiuniku Ron, Kenko Hoshi has shown that there is no reason why the flesh of wild boars and deer should not be offered up to the gods, and that down to the reign of Seiwa Tenno (858-'76) such meats ordinarily formed part of the mikado's own diet. It was owing to the influence of Buddhism that they came in the middle ages to be looked upon as forbidden food. The Nakatomi no Harai is a liturgy ascribed to Tokiwa no O-muraji (middle of the 6th century); but Nobuyoshi and Suiga (the latter of whom has given his name to a separate form of Shinto) assign it to Amenotaneko no Mikoto, a person belonging to the mythological age. However this may be, it seems to have received its present form in the reign of Mommu Tenno (696-707). To Tokiwa no O-muraji is also ascribed the Rokkon-shajo no Harai, a work which is repudiated by the pure Shiatoists as bearing the distinct traces of Buddhist influence. XIV. Buddhist Literature. Buddhism first gained a sure footing in Japan in the reign of the empress Suiko (593-628), and the whole canon has been imported at various times and reprinted. The native works on Buddhism in the Japanese vernacular are not very important.
The Shasekishiu (10 vols., 1279) is a book on morals by the priest Mujiu, in which he endeavors to make his subject more palatable to the vulgar taste by introducing funny stories. This is a general characteristic of Buddhist teaching in Japan. The Hosshinshiu, by Kamo no Chomei, is a collection of stories of converts. The Sambu Kanasho (7 vols.), by Koa Shonin of the Jodo sect (1265-1345), consists of three works entitled Kimei Honguansho, Saiyo-sho, and Fushi Sokosho. Most of the Japanese Buddhist literature, of which there is a considerable quantity, is in the Chinese language, and therefore not easily accessible. The Shingaku Michi no Hanashi, Kino Dowa, and Teshima Dowa are collections of sermons by priests who belong to a modern eclectic sect, which professes to derive its doctrines from Confucianism, Shinto, and Buddhism. Three of Kiuo's sermons have been translated by A. B. Mitford ("Tales of Old Japan," London, 1871). XV. Modern Fiction. This is divided into three classes: kesaku bon, which may be called standard novels; ninjo bon, or novels of an erotic cast; and kusa zoshi, which are popular romances printed in the hiragana, and form the chief reading of women.
The most famous author of the first kind of fiction is Bakin. His works are 20 in number, ranging from 5 to 40 volumes each. Bakin was a man of great learning, and his style is almost classical. Among the ninjo ton the most celebrated are the Hiza Kurige (90 vols.), containing the history of the travels of Yajirobei and Kida-hachi, and the Misawo Tsuge no Ogushi (9 vols.), by Jippensha Ikku; and the Musume Setsuyo, which describes the love of Kosan and Kingoro, with its tragical ending, by Kiokusanjin. Riuti Tanehiko wrote the Inaka Genji (76 vols.) and Irohabunko (45 vols.), belonging to the class of kusa zoshi. A short romance by the same author, entitled Ukiyo Rokumai Biobu, has been twice mistranslated, into German by A. Pfitzmaier (1840), and into English by S. C. Malan (1871). To the class of kesaku ton may be added such works as the Yofu Kogiden (10 vols.), the Yehon Chiushingura (20 vols.), the Yehon Sangoku Yofuden (15 vols.), the Yehon Ko-kanden (10 vols.), and the Honcho Kiushiku Dandzuye (5 vols.); all of which, though purporting to be founded on historical facts, are in reality pure romances.
XVI. Miscellaneous Literature. There are many works which cannot be classed under any of the foregoing categories, and the Japanese therefore mass them together in their library catalogues under this heading. The following are the principal bibliographical works on the native literature: Honcho Shojaku Mokuroku (1 vol., 1294); Nihon Shojakko (1 vol.), by Hayashi Doshin, containing notices of 120 works by different authors from the earliest times; Wa-kan Shojakko (5 vols., 1702), by Kojima Soi, a list of Japanese and Chinese books printed in Japan between 1595 and 1702, giving the authors' names, and notices of the contents; Bengi Sho Mokuroku (3 vols.), on books with the same title, books with two titles, and those which only exist in manuscript, and containing various other information for the book hunter; Gorui Shojaku Mokuroku Taizen (12 vols., 1801), containing lists of books printed in Japan, beginning with those engraved by Muso Kokushi (1275-1351), and ending with the period Meiwa (1764-'7); Kokucho Shomoku (3 vols., 1787), containing the titles of books arranged under different headings, partly chronologically and partly according to the iroha; Wakan Gunsho Sakusha Mokuroku (4 vols.), containing the names of Chinese and Japanese authors and their works, beginning for the latter with the period Yoro (717-'23), and ending with Kuansei (1789-1808); and Kindai Meika Chojutsu Mokuroku (1811), containing the works of the most famous authors of the 17th and 18th centuries arranged according to the iroha.
The Wakan Sansaidzuye is a cyclopaedia in 105 books, each of which treats of a separate class of subjects, with an index arranged according to the iroha. The Teijo Zakki, in 16 books, is a work of the same nature, arranged in categories, but extending over a narrower field. Being written in the Japanese language, it is more useful to students than the Sansaidzuye. The author was Ise Sadatake, and it was published after his death in 1843. The Gioku Sekizasshi (1843), and its supplement (1848), in 20 volumes, by Kurihara Nobumitsu, contain much antiquarian information not to be found elsewhere. The Shiuko Jisshiu is a magnificent collection of engravings of antique objects, in 80 folio volumes, arranged under the following headings: copper utensils, seals, inkstones, musical instruments, armor, saddlery, swords, bows and arrows, flags, inscriptions on bells and on tombstones, pictures, and autographs. The Shincho (6 vols.), Monshiu, kanzen Yawa (5 vols.), and Inaka Chawa (5 vols.) are collections of modern tales. The Sozan Chomon Kishiu is a work on ordinary Japanese superstitions. The Honcho Rigen (10 vols., 1714), by Izawa Nagahide, and Kotowaza-gusa (7 vols., 1700), by Kaibara Koki, are collections of proverbs and common sayings, with explanations and derivations.
The Wajishi and Kanjishi (6 vols.), by Kaibara Koko (1697), are works of reference for the introduction of inventions, the origin of customs, etc, in Japan and China respectively. The Zokusetsu-ben (1715 -'22), by Izawa Nagahide, which with its supplements extends to 51 volumes, is a work on popular errors with respect to mikados, princes, nobles, samurai, women, priests, modern times, houses, topography, persons, offices, arts and accomplishments, books, utensils, music, pictures, seasons of the year, Buddhism, plants and trees, animals, fishes, and insects. Most worthy also of notice is the collection of rare books formed by Hanawa Hokiichi (1746-1821), containing 636 separate works in 530 volumes. These consist of works connected with the Shinto religion (28), history of the mikados (15), appointments of officials (16), genealogies (4), biographies (6), offices (5), laws (4), court ceremonies (35), costumes (10), prose (16), letters (8), Japanese poetry (16), romances (13), diaries (7), travels (14), music (12), foot ball (3), hawking (2), games (6), eating and drinking (5), wars (30), history of the military class (25), Buddhism (21), and miscellaneous (84). Hanawa restricted his labors to works of not over three books each.
Thirty years were occupied in collating manuscripts and in the engraving of the blocks, which number about 40,000, and the cost was over $10,000. In addition to the collections already printed, he got together about as many more books, making a total of about 1,300. So great a work was perhaps never achieved before by any private individual, under similar circumstances. He was blind from infancy. - The history of Japanese literature may be divided into four periods. The first will commence far back in the age which preceded the introduction of Chinese literature and writing, and extend down to the end of the 9th century A. D. During this period the only purely Japanese literature consisted of poetry and sacred liturgies, the Chinese language being adopted as the vehicle of all other forms. The beginning of the second period is marked by the preface to the Kokinshiu, and ends with the later romances, extending thus from the early years of the 10th to the end of the 13th century. This is the age of classical prose. The Tsuredzure-gusa, though composed in the 14th century after earlier models, belongs properly to this period. Up to this time learning was confined to the immediate vicinity of the court.
During the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries the domination of the military class put an effectual stop to its cultivation except by a few priests. This was the dark age of Japan. With the 17th century begins the fourth and modern period of general culture, inaugurated by Iyeyasu, the first of the Tokugawa shoguns, who, after firmly establishing the power of his family, and reducing the other military chiefs to the position of vassals, devoted his later years to collecting manuscripts. Though the art of printing seems to have been introduced in the 13th century, it had not yet been turned to much use, and the rapid multiplication of books by its aid dates from his time. Chinese literature began to be ardently cultivated by a succession of scholars, of whom Hayashi Razan (also called Doshin, 1583-1657) and Ishikawa Jozan (1583-1672) were the earliest. Among their successors the most distinguished were Hayashi Shunsa (1618-'80), Hayashi Shuntoku (1624-'61), Nakaye Tojiu (1608-'48), Yamazaki Ansai (1618-'82), who under his other name of Suiga is known as the founder of a separate school of Shinto, Kumazawa Banzan(1619-91),Ito Jinsai (1627-1705), Nakamura Tekisai (1629-1702), Kaibara Tokushin (1630-1714), Arai Hakuseki (1657-1725), Ogiu Sorai (1666-1728), Miwa Shissai (1669-1744), Ito Togai (1670-1736), Dazai Shuntai (1680-1747), Hattori Nankuaku (1683 -1759), Ando Toyu (1683-1719), Yamagata Shiunan (1687-1752), Hirano Kinkua (1688-1732), Usami Junsui (1710-'76), and Rai Sanyo (1780-1832). These writers all belong to the class called jiusha, or Chinese scholars, but they also wrote in the Japanese language.
Arai Hakuseki's Tohushi-Yoron, Toga, Goji-rialcu, Koshi-tsu, Seiyo Kibun, Sairan Igen, and Seiyo Dzusetsu, Sorai's Seidan and Keizai-ron, and Dazai's Keizai-roku, are all works of great merit in the vernacular. Sorai also did great service by translating Chinese standard works, not the least important of which is the penal code of the Ming dynasty. About the same time the ancient literature of Japan began to be studied with great attention by men who received little countenance and encouragement from the shoguns. The leaders in this movement were the priest Keichiu (1640-1701), Shimokawabe Choriu (1622-'84), and Kada-no Adzumamaro (1669-1736), the last of whom may be fairly regarded as the founder of the modern school of pure Shinto. Keichiu is the first who made any real progress in interpreting the ancient poems of the Manyoshiu, but he made no original contributions to the literature of his country. To these men succeeded Kamo no Mabuchi, whose commentaries on the Manyoshiu, on the Norito, and the Ise Monogatari, and lexicon of Makura-kotoba (entitled Kuanji-ko), are most valuable. His original works are the Niimanabi, on the study of Japanese literature, and various archaeological essays.
From his time the study of Shinto and philology went on hand in hand under the name of koku-gaku, "national learning," in antithesis to kan-gaku, "Chinese learning." Mabuchi's mantle fell on the shoulders of Mo-toori Norinaga (1730-1801), whose greatest work is the commentary on the Kojiki, already mentioned. His original contributions to literature are: the Giojiu-gaigen, against the Chinese philosophy; the Tama-kushige, a work on the philosophy of government, written for the prince of kishiu; the Uiyama-bumi, a treatise on the art of study, with special reference to Shinto; the Tama-arare, an essay on the faulty composition of common writers; the Tama no Ogushi, a critical work on the Genji Monogatari; and the Tama-katsuma, a collection of miscellaneous papers, which contains some interesting fragments of autobiography. His style is a model of clearness and ease, and shows what the Japanese language might have become if it had not been deformed by the introduction of Chinese words and idioms. That of Mabuchi, on the other hand, though equally correct, is painful on account of his close imitation of the ancient classic literature, which is not a convenient medium for argument.
Mo-toori was succeeded as the leader of modern Shintoism by Hirata Atsutane (1776-1843), whose principal writings have already been named. His Shutsu-jo Shogo (7 vols.) is an extremely amusing attack upon Buddhism, written in a style closely approaching the colloquial, a style which if it were universally adopted would be an immense relief to the intellectual powers of the Japanese; for the ability to translate thought into the literary style requires years of patient study to acquire, and is a barrier to all freedom of expression. Other writers of the same school as these men are Fujitani Nariakira (1735-76), Ozawa Koan (1723-1801), Kato Chikage (1734-1808), Tachi-bana Tsuneki (1704-'62), Murata Harumi (1746-1811), Arakida Hisaoye (1746-1804), Katori Nahiko (1723-'82), Motoori Haruniwa (1763-1828), Ozaki Masayoshi (1752-1827), Hashimoto Keirio (1760-1806), and Shimidzu Hamaomi (1776-1824). Most of them confined their efforts to poetry, but Fujitani is known as the author of two celebrated works on grammar, the Ayui-sho and the Kazashi-sho. Motoori Haruniwa produced the Kotoba no Yachimata, a valuable treatise on the Japanese verb.
Ozaki Masayoshi is the author of the Hiakunin-shiu Hitoyo-gatari, which, besides explanations of the poems in that collection, contains a large number of biographical notices of eminent persons of the second age of literature, written in the very best style. - Of contemporary Japanese literature little is to be said. The 20 years following 1853 have been a period of political disturbance and of the influx of European ideas; and original composition has been abandoned for translations of foreign elementary works, chiefly on scientific subjects. Translations of such works as Smiles's "Self-Help" and Mill's "Essay on Liberty" have found an immense sale. Together with this rage for foreign books has grown up a corrupt literary dialect, formed on Japanese word-for-word translations of the Chinese, which bids fair to become permanent, in spite of its awkward inelegance.