The alayo-Polynesians are the light-complex- ioned, olive-colored, and straight-haired inhabitants of the islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans, from the Andamans in the bay of Bengal in the west to Easter island on the east, and from Formosa and the Hawaiian islands in the north to New Zealand in the south. They occupy also the Malay peninsula on the Asiatic continent, and partly also the island of Madagascar adjacent to the African coast. Ethno-logically and linguistically they form two great divisions, Malayans proper and Polynesians. The former chiefly occupy the western islands, and the latter the groups E. of the Philippines and Booro, subdivided into Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia (in the narrower sense). The original inhabitants of all thi islands were the Papuans, a dark race, with woolly hair growing in tufts. (See Papuan Races and Languages.) The Malayo-Polynesians came from the 8. E. of Asia, occupied at first only the islands adjacent to it, and gradually extended their territory to the east, either extirpating the previous inhabitants, or driving them into the interior of the inlands and taking possession of the coasts.

Their relation to the Papuan population of these islands therefore is similar to that of the Aryans to the Dravidas of India. Some contend that Polynesia was the earliest home of these races, and that they came originally from the American continent, but the hypothesis seems untenable. Though the Malayo-Polynesian type and culture are purest and quite primitive in the eastern groups of islands, yet the character of their fauna and flora is exclusively Asiatic, and the numerous historical traditions current among the people record migrations only from the west. These traditions, together with the fact that many of the names of the islands of Polynesia proper are variations of those belonging to the Tonga and Samoa groups, point to the latter as the common source of the population of the former. On Tonga and Samoa there are traditions that the paradise and cradle of the Polynesians is the island called Bulotu or Purotu, which is probably Booro, E. of Celebes. From the great similarities existing among the languages and customs of the various Polynesian races, it is inferred that the migrations from Tonga and Samoa do not date back to very remote periods.

The circumstance that the traditions leap from Booro at once to Tonga, leaving the whole of Melanesia entirely untouched, renders it probable that the Polynesians on their departure from Booro made no large settlements on any of the islands between Papua and the 6a-moan archipelago, and that the few who chose to establish themselves on them accordingly became largely intermixed with Papuan elements. Of a similar impure type are the Mi-cronesian Polynesians. The separation of the Polynesians from the Malayans and their emigration from Booro may be tixed at about 1000 B C, as the literature of the latter was developed before our era. and shows even then a strong mixture of Old Indie or Sanskrit elements which cannot be found in the speech of the former. The Polynesian languages, therefore, arc considered to represent the primitive forms of speech. - To the western or Malayan division of the Maiayo-Polynesian races be-long the Tagalas or Bisayas (inhabitants of the Philippines), the Malays'of Malacca, the Achee-nese of Sumatra, the Sundanese, the Javanese, the inhabitants of Bali and Madura, the Ba-taks of the interior of Sumatra, the population of Nias and Batoo islamls, the Hovas of Mada-gascar. the Dyaks of Borneo, the Mankasars (Macassars) and the Bughis of Celebes, and the Alfooras of the Moluccas and the adjacent islands To the eastern or Polynesian division belong the Polynesians proper, the Melanesians, and Micronesians. The Polynesian race embraces the inhabitants of the Samoa group or Navigator's islands, the population of the.

Tomra group or Friendly islands, the Maoris of New Zealand, the Tahitians, the inhabitants of the Parotonga group or Cook's islands, the people of the Tubuai group or Austral islands, of the Low archipelago or Touamotou islands, of the Marquesas islands, of the Hawaiian or Sandwich islands, and of numerous isolated islands in the Pacific ocean. The most eastern island inhabited by Polynesians is Yaihu or Easter island, and the most western Tikopia or Tukopia. To Micronesia belong the islands E. of the Philippines to Ion. 18CC, and from the Marianas or Ladrones in the north to the equator in the south. The population of the Marianas or Ladrones is in part extinct, and many groups of the Carolines are also unin-habited. The people of the Gilbert archipelago form the transition from the Micronesians to the Polynesians. The Melanesians embrace the inhabitants of the Feejee islands, of New Caledonia, of the New Hebrides, and of several of the islands extending thence to Papua, whose ethnological character has not yet been definitely established.

The physical constitution of the Malayo-Polynesians (excepting the Melanesians, who present a strong Papuan type) presents three fundamental forms, gen-erally designated as the Malayan, Batak, and Polynesian. The pure Malayan type is commonly found among the Malays proper, Rejangs, Aeheenese, Javanese, Madurese, and Tagalas They are generally 4 1/2 or 5 ft. high; the skull is equally long and broad; the back of the head is short and square; the cheek bones protrude; the jaw bono is broad and prominent; the nose flat; the nostrils broad and large; the eyelids not as large as those of the Mediterranean races nor as narrow as those of the Mongolians; the eyes are black, but not brilliant; the mouth is large, with thick lips, but not puffed up; the skin is copper-brown with a tint of yellow there is scarcely any beard, and the" hair is straight, coarse, and black with a touch of brown; the loins and calves are thin and weak.

The women are shorter than the men; their breasts are small, pointed, and firm, and their bosoms little developed and often quite flat.

The Batak type is represented by the Bataks the inhabitants of Nias, Batoo, and Bali, the Bughis, and the Mankasars and Alfooras. The body is taller, larger, and more muscular, the skull and face more oval, and the back of the head rounder; the cheek bones are less prominent and the jaw not quite so broad; the nose is rather pointed and straight, and depressed at the root; the mouth is smaller and better proportioned; the skin is light brown, and the cheeks show a tinge of red; the hair is straight hut thinner, and with a clearer shade of brown; the breasts of the women are larger and hemispherical, and the bosom is fuller and higher. The Polynesians are of a still higher stature, and their bodies are generally well proportioned and athletic; the women, however, are rather short and stout, with breasts like those of the Malays; the skin is several shades darker, especially in the furthest north and south, while the population of the equatorial islands is the lightest of all; the eyes are small, black, and not very vivid; the hair is straight, coarse, black with a tinge of blue, and a little inclined to curl, the use of coral chalk giving it sometimes a reddish or .flaxen color; the growth of beard is little developed.

The principal trait of the character of the Malayo-Polynesians is undoubtedly taciturnity and reserve, which is softened only in case of admixture with Papuan blood; they dislike to be approached very closely, and they lay great stress on keeping within the bounds of deportment which custom prescribes for the various classes of society; there is therefore an abundance of ceremonial laws among the peoples of the west, and of tabu laws among those of the east. They are possessed also of an almost incredible degree of savagery and bloodthirsti-ness. They are the cannibals par eminence, not through want of food but through the peculiar hardness of their character. Cannibalism is practised not only among the inhabitants of the South sea islands, but even among several of the half civilized races of the west, such as the Bataks of Sumatra, who have produced a written literature, and who have cannibal rites in certain cases even prescribed by law. They are generally good and fearless seamen, and readily undertake long journeys in boats apparently very unsafe. They possess good powers of observation, and are inclined to adopt the ideas of foreigners, and also to imitate their customs.

The sentiments of family ties and obligations are but little developed, (nfantieide is of frequent occurrence; old, feeble, and sick persons are badly treated and sometimes killed; prostitution is prevalent, and parents exercise but little authority. Love of gain, however, is the strongest passion among them, and lying, stealing, murder, and all manner of crimes are unscrupulously employed whenever they offer a chance of profit, the hope of plunder is their principal cause of war, and piracy is in the Indian archipelago considered to he an honorable and chivalric occupation. They are brave, but do not hesitate to poison their weapons and to play cowardly tricks on their enemies. They are easily excited to religious emotions, and their rich store of legends testifies to the vivacity of their imagination. The Javanese are the most cultured among them, and evince capacity for a high degree of intellectual development. (For the peculiar customs of the various races, see the articles descriptive of their habitats.) - Languages. The Malayo-Polynesian languages form an independent group, unconnected with any other. They are derivatives of an extinct primitive form of speech, which suffered three or four dialectical variations before it had attained its complete development.

They do not possess the same grammatical structure throughout, but only agree more or less in the system of sounds, the general form of the verbal roots, and the main principles of grammar. In degree of development the Polynesian languages stand lowest; the Micronesian and Me-lanesian are a step higher; and the Malayan, and especially the Tagala languages, occupy the highest rank. The known languages of the eastern or Polynesian division are the idiom of the Marianas or Ladrones, which forms the connecting link with the Malayan languages; the languages of the Feejee, Annatom, Erro-mango, Tanna, Malikolo, Mare, Lifoo, Baladea (New Caledonia), Bauro, and Guadalcanar islands, which are all more or less closely related; and the Maori, the language of New Zealand, with its kindred languages of the Tonga, Raro-tonga, Tahiti, Hawaiian, and Marquesas islands. Of the western or Malayan division, there are known in the Philippines the Tagala of the south of Luzon, the Pampanga of the southwest, the Ilocana and Bicol of the southeast, the Ybanag of the province of Cagayan, the Bisaya spoken on several islands south of Luzon, and the Zebuana on Cebu and the adjacent islands. Closely related to them are the languages of Formosa, of which the Favorlang and Side'ia dialects are best known.

Three dialects are known of the Malagasy, or language of Madagascar, viz.: the Ankova dialect, spoken by the Hovas in the interior of the island, the Betsimisaraka dialect of the east, and the Saka-lava dialect of the west. The Malay language proper, which is in extent and in regard to its literature the first among the whole group, is spoken on the Malay peninsula and the adjacent islands, and on the coasts of Sumatra. Two dialects may be distinguished in it, the Malacca and the Menankabow or Padang. Besides these dialects, a literary or choice language is employed by the Malays. Several authors, divide the various modes of speech according to castes: bahdsa ddlam, the language of the court; bahasa bansdvan, that of the educated classes; bahasa dagah, that of merchants and traders; and the bahdsa katulcan, that of the common people. The Malay language possesses a large and varied literature, the beginnings of which date back to the 13th century A. D., and which is especially rich in poetical works, legendary narratives, Mohammedan theology, jurisprudence, chronicles, travels, and various paraphrases of Indie epics.

Besides the Malay proper, there arc several minor languages spoken on Sumatra, as the Batak in the interior of the northern portion of the island and the languages of the Rejang and the Lam-pongin the south. Javanese is spoken on Java and several adjacent islands, and stands in importance next to Malay, but its literature reaches back to the 1st century of our era. (See Java, Language and Litebatire of.) Closely related to Javanese is the Sunda language, spoken on the western portion of .lava. Of the languages in Borneo, that of the I>yaks is well known; according to the missionary Ilardeland, it has four dialects. The Dyaks have not produced a written literature, but they possess a number of ancient songs composed in a peculiar and only partly intelligible language, which they call lata sanian or the language of the good beings, i. e., the spirits of their ancestors. The Bughia and Mankasar (Macassar) languages, spoken in Celebes, have also been investigated. - The statement above made that these languages form an isolated family of speech is in accordance with the latest researches of Friedrich Muller, on whose elaborate treatise on the Malayo-Polynesian languages in the Reist der osterreichischenFre-gatte Norara: Linguistucher Theil (Vienna, 1867), and excellent ethnological account of the races in his Allgemt ine Ethnogrcjihit ( Vienna, 1873), this article is based.

Bopp, in the Ab handlungen der Berliner Akadencie (1840), is not of the same opinion. He holds the Malayo-Polynesian languages to he a branch of tin-Aryan or Indo-European family, and direct descendants of the Indie group. lie drew his conclusion from the tact that the Malay and Javanese languages contain a large amount of Sanskrit elements, which however do not he-long to the original stock, and were gradually incorporated, as both history and the absence of Indie forms in the Polynesian languages amply testify. Max Muller has taken still another view of the relation which these languages hold to other families of speech. In Bunsen's" Christianity and Mankind"he attempts to establish that the Malayo Polynesian languages form a member of the great so-called Turanian family, and that they are especially closely related to the Tai langua. He says:"A language which shares so many grammatical principles in common with Khamti and Siamese, and differs from Sanskrit on every essential point of grammar, can no longer be counted as a degraded member of the Aryan family, however great the authority of him who first endeavored to link Sanskrit and Malay together " Friedrich Muller has a satisfactory argument in the above cited work to show that the seeming similarities of several grammatical forms in the Tai and Malayo-Polynesian languages do not warrant us in considering the latter a derivative group of the former.

N umbers constitute one of the highest linguistic testa of relationship, and the following table of the first ten cardinal numbers in the most important of the Malayo-Polynesian languages shows at once the close connection existing among them, and their isolation from other families:

The First Ten Cardinal Numbers In The Malato-Polynesian Languages

Malay.

Javanese.

Sundanese

Mankasari.

Dyak.

Tagala.

Bisaya.

Ilocana.

ONE..

situ or sa

sa

sa or sidi

si

ija, ja

isa

usa

meysa

TWO...

dura

ro

dua or duva

ruva

dua

dalua

duha

dua

THREE..

tiga

tigh

tilu

tallu

telo

ratio

tolo

tai

FOUR..

ampat

papat

opat

appa

apat

apat

up at

eppa

FIVE....

lima

lima

lima

lima

lima

lima

lima

lima

SIX..

anam

nenem

genap

annah

dahaven

anim

unum

ninem

SEVEN...

tudoh

pitu

tuduh

tudu

udu

udu

pito

pito

Eight..........

delapan

Volu

dalapan

sapantudu

hana

ualo

ualo

oalo

NINE...

sembilan

sana

Balapan

salapan

dalatien

siyam sigua

siam

siam

Ten.............

sapuloh

sapuluh

sapuluh

sampulo

sapulu

polo

uapulo

sanapulo

Marianese.

Malagasy.

Samoa.

Tonga.

Maori.

Rarotonga.

Tahitian.

Hawaiian.

Feejee.

ONE...

yakha

isa or iray

tasi

taba

tabi

tai

tabi

tabi

dua

Two.............

yupua

roa

lua

ua

rua

rua

rua

lua

rua

THREE..........

tulo

telo

tolu

tolu

toru

toru

toru

kolu

tolu

FOUR..........

fafat

efatra

fa

fa

va

a

ba

ba

va

Five............

lima

dimy

lima

nima

nma

nma

nma

lima

lima

SIX..............

punun

eiiuia

ono

ono

ono

ono

ono

ono

ono

SEVEN...

iiti

fito

fitu

fitu

vitu

itu

bitu

biku

vitu

EIGHT.........

gualo

valo

valu

valu

valu

varu

varu

varu

valu

NlNE........

siam

sivy

iva

hiva

iva

iva

iva

iva

civa

Ten...

manot

folo

sefulu

bonofulu

nahura

nauru

aburu

umi

tini

We shall state only the principal features of two groups. The Polynesian languages possess the consonantal sounds k, n, h,', t, n, s, l. r, p, m,f, w. r, and the vowels a, e, i, o, u, both short and long. In several of the languages some of these consonants are absent, and diphthongs are entirely unknown. Syllables may begin with a consonant, but must end with a vowel; accumulations of consonantal sounds are carefully avoided. The accent rests generally on the penult, and seldom on the antepenult or the ultimate. Roots, like those of the Aryan and Turanian families, are not found; there are only a sort of verbal stems, which in their external verbal movement resemble those of the Semitic languages, but consist throughout of two syllables. The various vatives are formed from these either by uieansof reduplication, or by prefixes or suffixes. Distinctions of number like those in the inflected languages are wanting. Nouns thoughts or objects in a peculiar manner implying rather plurality than BintrUness, and require the introduction of certain elements into the sentence to render more definite their use in the singular number.

Some of these elements represent the numeral one, and others have the force of demonstration! When it is desired to render the plural number more distinct and definite, the noun is coupled either with a numerical expression or with some naefiniu, pronominal stem. A number of par-are used to designate nominative, geni-dative accusative, instrumental, locative We, and ablative cases. As nouns do not possess grammatical gender and do not admit of inflection, adjectives also remain entirely unchanged, and are used attributively by placing them behind, and predicatively by placing them before their nouns. The dual and plural of pronouns are indicated by composition with the numbers two and three, and possess an exclusive and inclusive form, according as the person addressed is excluded or included. The Polynesian verb is extremely indefinite. Externally indistinguishable from the noun, it is recognized as a verb only by its position in the sentence and its connection with the pronoun. The essentials of time and voice remain vague; even whether an action or a state of being is designated must be inferred from the introduction of certain affirmative particles. - The Malayan languages employ the consonants k, g, n, h,',t,d,n,y,t,d,n,s,l,r,p,b,m,f,v, and the vowel sounds a, a, a,i,u, e, e, o, a, i u, e, o (see Writing); genuine dipththongs are unknown.

This system of sounds does not include the foreign elements found in Malay and Javanese. The Tagala languages have no palatals; Javanese makes use also of cerebrals, and Bughis of nasals. Malayan syllables always open with a single consonant, and the penult is always accented, causing a lengthening of the vowel. Instead of roots, the Malayan languages possess only stems or variations of roots, which were originally dissyllabic, though probably after having passed through trisvl-labic forms developed from monosyllables. Words of a single svllable now used are unmistakably contractions of dissyllables. Reduplication, prefixing, suffixing, and infixing are the processes of word-building. While the Polynesian languages employ certain forms of words as nouns and verbs without any special vocal changes and additions, the Malayan languages attempt to distinguish the parts of speech independently of their position in a sentence. A noun not specially qualified designates the sum of all the persons or objects of which it is the name, or has always the force of an indefinite plural. The numeral one, or a demonstrative or possessive pronoun, added to it, reduces a noun to the singular number.

The definite plural is formed either by reduplication, as in Malay rada, king, rada-rdda, kings, or by the addition of plural expressions, many, multitudes, etc. The cases are indicated by prefixing prepositions. Adjectives remain invariable; comparison also is made by external aids. Besides the usual pronominal forms, it is customary, especially in Malay and Javanese, to employ servile and ceremonious expressions for the first and second persons. The force of a verb is indicated by prefixes, its relation to the object by suffixes; and though the Malayan verb differs somewhat from a noun, yet it may take the place of the latter by being merely placed in conjunction with particles used to modify nouns. In Malay the present tense is determined by lagi, still; the preterite by sudah or telah, done, passed; and the future by hendak or mdu, to wil\,nanti, to expect, or ahan, to, in order to. - See, besides the works of Friedrich Mtiller above cited, Ellis, "Polynesian Researches" (London, 1829); Yvan, "Six Months under the Malays" (London, 1855); Turner, "Nineteen Years in Polynesia" (London, 1860); Waitz, Anthropologic der Naturvolker, continued by Gerland (Leip-sic, 1860-'69); Cameron, "Our Tropical Possessions in Malayan India" (London, 1865); West, "Ten Years in South Central Polynesia " (London, 1865); Wallace, "The Malay Archipelago" (London, 1869); Semper, Die Philip-pinen und ihre Bewohner (Wiirzburg, 1869); andPerty, Anthropologic (Leipsic, 1873-'4).