I. A Former Duchy Of Northern Italy

A Former Duchy Of Northern Italy, bordering on Mantua, Ferrara, Bologna, Lucca, Genoa, Parma, and the Mediterranean; area, about 2,300 sq. m. It comprised Modena proper, Reggio, Guastalla, Frignana, Garfa-gnana, Massa-Carrara, and Lunigiana. The last three divisions lie S. of the Apennines, the main ridge of which crosses the southern portion of the territory, sending off extensive spurs. The highest summit is Monte Cirnone, 7,000 ft. The territory of Modena extended from the Po to the Mediterranean, the coast being small and destitute of harbors. About one third of it, watered by the Panaro, forms part of the great and fertile plain of Lombar-dy. The principal river is the Secchia, which after a winding course of 100 m. joins the Po opposite the mouth of the Mincio. The principal productions are wheat, maize, hemp, flax, rice, pulse, olives, wine, and silk. Agriculture is backward, but improving. Few of the farms exceed 60 acres; dairy pasture prevails to some extent in the valley of Garfa-gnana; a few families own the large flocks of Apennine sheep. The vine is most extensively cultivated near Reggio and the city of Modena. The mountains abound with oak, pine, and chestnut. Iron and other minerals are found, and the marble of Carrara is a lucrative article of export.

The territory now forms three provinces of the kingdom of Italy: Modena, Reggio, and Massa e Carrara. Its history is given in connection with that of the city.

II. A Province Of The Kingdom Of Italy

A Province Of The Kingdom Of Italy, embracing of the former duchy of Modena the provinces of Modena and Frignana; area, 966 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 273,231. HI. A city (anc. Mutiwa), capital of the province, beautifully situated in a plain between the Panaro and the Secchia, 23 m. N. W. of Bologna; pop. in 1872, 56,690. It has a citadel, is surrounded with ramparts, and is divided into the new and old city, a part of the yEmilian way intersecting it. The Gothic dvomo or cathedral contains interesting tombs, one of which, designed by Giulio Romano, is celebrated on account of its square marble tower, one of the highest in Italy. Famous among the numerous churches, on account of their colosmarbles, are those of San Vineenzo, Sant' Agostino, and San Francesco. The former ducal (now royal) palace in the great square is a fine edifice, and contains a large collection of paintings by Guido Reni, the Oarracci, Andrea del Sartoi Carlo Dolce, and Guercino, Po-maranzio's "Crucifixion," and other remarkable works. It has a recumbent Cleopatra by Canova, and the ceiling of the gallery is painted in fresco by Francesconi. The library, brought from Ferrara by Cesare d'Este, and hence known as the biblioteca Fstense, has about 100,000 volumes, and is rich in manu-scripts, coins, and medals.

The other public buildings of Modena are the university, one of the most famous in Italy, the museo Lapidario, the theatre, the post office, and the archiepis-copal palace. There are many educational institutions and an academy of sciences and fine arts. Modena is the seat of an archbishop. The university in 1873 had 42 professors and 315 students. - The ancient Mutina is supposed to have been of Etruscan origin. According to Livy, the territory in which it was situated had been taken from the Boians, and after the final defeat of the latter it was made a Roman colony (183 B. C). It was a strong place in the time of Sulla, and subsequently became celebrated by the siege which it sustained and the battles fought between Decimus Brutus and Mark Antony, a campaign known as the helium Mutinense (43). Afterward it suffered much from the general calamities of the empire, and toward the end of the 4th century, according to St. Ambrose, it was in a deplorable condition. In the middle of the 5th century it endured the still more terrible ravages of Attila. Under the Lombard kings Mutina became the frontier city of their dominions toward the exarchate.

At the close of the 6th century it was taken by the Greek emperor Mauri.'in-. Subsequently it was restored to the Lombard kingdom, but according to Mu-ratori nearly the whole city was reduced for several centuries to a morass, chiefly owing to inundations. It was governed by Prankish counts for some time after the 9th century, in the 11th by its bishops, and at its close by the countess Matilda of Tuscany. Subsequently it formed part of the Lombard league; and after suffering from the feuds which distracted for a long period the cities of northern Italy, it passed along with Ferrara into the posses-Hoi, of the Torrelli family, and at the end of the 13th century the house of Esto became the rulers of the city and its territory. The titles of duke of Modena and Reggio and count of Rovigo were conferred upon Borso of Este in 1452 by the emperor Frederick III. of Ger-manv, and that of duke of Ferrara by Pope Paul II. in 1471. (See Este.) The duchies of Modena and Reggio remained in the Este family till 1797, when Napoleon took them from Ercole III. (who died in 1803), and annexed them to the Cisalpine republic.

His daughter Maria Beatrice married the Austrian archduke Ferdinand, and their son Francis IV., who inherited Massa-Carrara, was reinstated as duke of Modena in 1814, and was succeeded in 1840 by his son Francis V., whose elder sister is the wife of the count do Chambord, and his younger sister of the younger son of Don Carlos, the first Spanish pretender of that name, and mother of the present pretender. (See Carlos.) Even more autocratic than his predecessors, he was obliged to invoke the assistance of Austria at the end of 1847 to maintain his authority, and he fled in March, 1848, while the Modenese established a provisional government. After the defeat of the Sardinian array by Radetzky he returned to his capital, Aug. 10, fled again March 14, 1849, returned in May, and feigned to be bent on liberal reforms. But he soon relapsed into absolutism and reinstated the Jesuits (June, 1850). In 1859, after the battle of Magenta, he finally left Modena, though the Franco-Austrian treaty of Villafranca confirmed him in his possessions.

His dynasty was deposed by the Modenese national assembly, Aug. 19; and by a decree of March 18, 1860, Modena became part of the department of Emilia, in the dominions of Victor Emanuel.